APS Northwest Section 11th Annual Meeting

Frontiers in Nuclear Theory: From Light Nuclei to Astrophysics 2009

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Sonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  2009 Owned and operated as a joint venture by a consortium of Canadian universities via a contribution through the National Research Council Canada. CANADA'S NATIONAL LABORATORY FOR PARTICLE AND NUCLEAR PHYSICS Frontiers in Nuclear Theory: From Light Nuclei to Astrophysics Sonia Bacca American Physical Society - North West Section Meeting May 14-16 2009 University of British Columbia, Vancouver Sonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  2009 What is Nuclear Physics? “Nuclear Physics is the field of physics that studies the building blocks and interactions in atomic nuclei” 2 Sonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  2009 What is Nuclear Physics? “Nuclear Physics is the field of physics that studies the building blocks and interactions in atomic nuclei” 2 Sonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  2009 What is Nuclear Physics? “Nuclear Physics is the field of physics that studies the building blocks and interactions in atomic nuclei” 2 Sonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  2009 What is Nuclear Physics? “Nuclear Physics is the field of physics that studies the building blocks and interactions in atomic nuclei” 2 • It is a science build on a strong connection   between theory and experiment • It has also many interesting applications that    influence and improve our daily life: ! nuclear medicine (radiopharmaceuticals) ! hadron therapy (cure of cancer) ! engineering materials (ion implantation) ! archaeology (carbon dating) ... Sonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  2009 nuclear theory What is Nuclear Theory? 3 Sonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  2009 nuclear theory  link to publication  archive  lanl.arXiv.org What is Nuclear Theory? 3 Sonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  2009 nuclear theory  wiki nuclear theory  link to publication  archive  lanl.arXiv.org What is Nuclear Theory? 3 Sonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  2009 nuclear theory  wiki nuclear theory  link to publication  archive  lanl.arXiv.org  no link What is Nuclear Theory? 3 Sonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  2009 What is Nuclear Theory? It is the theory that tries to understand and predict nuclear properties, by studying the way protons and neutrons interact to form nuclei 4 Sonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  2009 What is Nuclear Theory? It is the theory that tries to understand and predict nuclear properties, by studying the way protons and neutrons interact to form nuclei What are the interesting questions we try to answer? 4 Sonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  2009 What is Nuclear Theory? It is the theory that tries to understand and predict nuclear properties, by studying the way protons and neutrons interact to form nuclei ! What is the interaction that binds nucleons together?     What is its relation to Quantum Chromo Dynamics? What are the interesting questions we try to answer? 4 Sonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  2009 What is Nuclear Theory? It is the theory that tries to understand and predict nuclear properties, by studying the way protons and neutrons interact to form nuclei ! What is the interaction that binds nucleons together?     What is its relation to Quantum Chromo Dynamics? What are the interesting questions we try to answer? ? 4 Sonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  2009 What is Nuclear Theory? It is the theory that tries to understand and predict nuclear properties, by studying the way protons and neutrons interact to form nuclei ! What is the interaction that binds nucleons together?     What is its relation to Quantum Chromo Dynamics? What are the interesting questions we try to answer? ? 4 Sonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  2009 What is Nuclear Theory? It is the theory that tries to understand and predict nuclear properties, by studying the way protons and neutrons interact to form nuclei ! What is the interaction that binds nucleons together?     What is its relation to Quantum Chromo Dynamics? What are the interesting questions we try to answer? ? 4 Sonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  2009 What is Nuclear Theory? It is the theory that tries to understand and predict nuclear properties, by studying the way protons and neutrons interact to form nuclei What are the interesting questions we try to answer? ! How did the nucleosynthesis    of elements occur?    Big Bang Nucleosynthesis    r-process ... ! How happens that protons and    neutrons are bound into stable    and rare isotopes?    What are the limits of their    existence? 5 Sonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  2009 What is Nuclear Theory? It is the theory that tries to understand and predict nuclear properties, by studying the way protons and neutrons interact to form nuclei What are the interesting questions we try to answer? ! What is the nature of neutron stars? ! What are the nuclear reactions that drive supernovae explosions? SN1987a before after 6 Sonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  2009 Neutron Number P ro to n  N u m b e r  Crab pulsar SN1987a • Interaction challenges    How can we connect nuclear    forces to QCD? • Few and many-body challenges    How can we accurately solve the    Schroedinger equation? • Astrophysical challenges   Can nuclear physics provide an   answer to astrophysical questions? 7 Frontiers in Nuclear Theory Sonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  2009              NN 3N  4N3N 4N Interaction challenges The Chiral Effective Field Theory Approach Separation of scales 8 Sonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  2009              NN 3N  4N3N 4N Interaction challenges The Chiral Effective Field Theory Approach Separation of scales 8 Sonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  2009              NN 3N  4N3N 4N Interaction challenges The Chiral Effective Field Theory Approach Separation of scales 8 p p p n n nn Sonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  2009              NN 3N  4N3N 4N Interaction challenges The Chiral Effective Field Theory Approach Separation of scales 8 Limited resolution at low energy expand in powers Q Λb p p p n n nn Sonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  2009              NN 3N  4N3N 4N Interaction challenges The Chiral Effective Field Theory Approach Separation of scales 8 Limited resolution at low energy expand in powers Q Λb p p p n n nn Sonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  2009              NN 3N  4N3N 4N Interaction challenges The Chiral Effective Field Theory Approach Separation of scales 8 Limited resolution at low energy expand in powers Q Λb p p p n n nn Sonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  2009              NN 3N  4N3N 4N Interaction challenges The Chiral Effective Field Theory Approach Separation of scales 8 Limited resolution at low energy expand in powers Q Λb p p p n n nn Sonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  2009              NN 3N  4N3N 4N Interaction challenges The Chiral Effective Field Theory Approach Separation of scales 8 Limited resolution at low energy expand in powers Q Λb p p p n n nn Sonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  2009              NN 3N  4N3N 4N Interaction challenges The Chiral Effective Field Theory Approach Separation of scales 8 Limited resolution at low energy expand in powers Q Λb p p p n n nn Sonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  2009              NN 3N  4N3N 4N Interaction challenges The Chiral Effective Field Theory Approach Separation of scales Systematic and can provide error estimates 8 Limited resolution at low energy expand in powers Q Λb p p p n n nn Sonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  2009              NN 3N  4N3N 4N Interaction challenges The Chiral Effective Field Theory Approach Separation of scales Systematic and can provide error estimates 8 Limited resolution at low energy expand in powers Q Λb p p p n n nn Details of short distance physics not resolved, but captured in short range couplings       fit to experiment Sonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  2009 Interaction challenges 9 VNN > V3N > V4N              NN 3N  4N3N 4N - NN Sector -  coupling constants fitted to  NN scattering phase-shifts 0 50 100 150 200 250 Lab. Energy [MeV] The Chiral Effective Field Theory Approach Sonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  2009 Interaction challenges 9 VNN > V3N > V4N              NN 3N  4N3N 4N - NN Sector -  coupling constants fitted to  NN scattering phase-shifts 0 50 100 150 200 250 Lab. Energy [MeV] We have a resolution dependence! Coupling constants run with the resolution scale Λ The Chiral Effective Field Theory Approach Sonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  2009 Interaction challenges 9 VNN > V3N > V4N              NN 3N  4N3N 4N - NN Sector -  coupling constants fitted to  NN scattering phase-shifts 0 50 100 150 200 250 Lab. Energy [MeV] We have a resolution dependence! Coupling constants run with the resolution scale Λ The Chiral Effective Field Theory Approach  The dependence on the cutoff leads to different potentials,  but observables should be cutoff independent Sonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  2009 - 3N Sector - N2LO Interaction challenges 10 The Chiral Effective Field Theory Approach Sonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  2009 - 3N Sector - N2LO • What is its origin? Nucleons are effective degrees of freedom Interaction challenges 10 The Chiral Effective Field Theory Approach Sonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  2009 - 3N Sector - N2LO • What is its origin? Nucleons are effective degrees of freedom Interaction challenges 10 The Chiral Effective Field Theory Approach “The three-body force is a force that does not exist in a two-nucleon system, but appears in  a system with three objects or more” A ≥ 3 Sonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  2009 - 3N Sector - N2LO • What is its origin? Nucleons are effective degrees of freedom Interaction challenges 10 The Chiral Effective Field Theory Approach “The three-body force is a force that does not exist in a two-nucleon system, but appears in  a system with three objects or more” A ≥ 3 As an analogy,  if we identify objects with human beings and forces with emotions, then jealousy is a good example of a three-body force: it is not felt as long as two-person are acting, but it shows up as soon as a third person enters the scene. From N. Kalantar, FM50 Sonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  2009 - 3N Sector - N2LO • What is its origin? Nucleons are effective degrees of freedom • How to realize if they are important? By comparing theoretical calculations with two-nucleon forces only with experimental data A ≥ 3 Interaction challenges 11 The Chiral Effective Field Theory Approach Sonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  2009 - 3N Sector - N2LO • What is its origin? Nucleons are effective degrees of freedom • How to realize if they are important? By comparing theoretical calculations with two-nucleon forces only with experimental data A ≥ 3 7.6 7.8 8.0 8.2 8.4 8.6 8.8 E(  H) [MeV] 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 E (  H e)  [ M eV ] NN only Exp. 3 4 • How to constrain it? By fitting the coupling constants to data for an observable which is sensitive to 3NF Interaction challenges 11 The Chiral Effective Field Theory Approach Sonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  2009 - 3N Sector - N2LO • What is its origin? Nucleons are effective degrees of freedom • How to realize if they are important? By comparing theoretical calculations with two-nucleon forces only with experimental data A ≥ 3 7.6 7.8 8.0 8.2 8.4 8.6 8.8 E(  H) [MeV] 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 E (  H e)  [ M eV ] NN only Exp. 3 4 • How to constrain it? By fitting the coupling constants to data for an observable which is sensitive to 3NF Interaction challenges E (  H e)  [ M eV ] 4 including 3NF 11 The Chiral Effective Field Theory Approach Sonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  2009 - 3N Sector - N2LO • What is its origin? Nucleons are effective degrees of freedom • How to realize if they are important? By comparing theoretical calculations with two-nucleon forces only with experimental data A ≥ 3 7.6 7.8 8.0 8.2 8.4 8.6 8.8 E(  H) [MeV] 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 E (  H e)  [ M eV ] NN only Exp. 3 4 • How to constrain it? By fitting the coupling constants to data for an observable which is sensitive to 3NF Interaction challenges • Predict new observables! E (  H e)  [ M eV ] 4 including 3NF 11 The Chiral Effective Field Theory Approach Sonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  2009 Few- and many-body challenges In the sector of  few-body nuclei (A<5) we have reached an incredible level of accuracy. 12 Challenge: develop new many-body methods that can extend the frontiers to heavier nuclei   Coupled Cluster Theory Hagen et al., PRL 101 (2008) b Sonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  2009 Few- and many-body challenges In the sector of  few-body nuclei (A<5) we have reached an incredible level of accuracy. Future:   advance ab-initio methods to heavier and neutron rich nuclei 12 Challenge: develop new many-body methods that can extend the frontiers to heavier nuclei   Coupled Cluster Theory Hagen et al., PRL 101 (2008) b Sonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  2009 The physics of  Halo Systems 13 Moon Halo Sonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  2009 The physics of  Halo Systems 13 Moon HaloNuclear Halo Sonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  2009 Halo nuclei 12 fm one neutron halo two neutron halo four neutron halo two proton halo one proton halo 11Li 208Pb 14 Sonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  2009 15 The helium isotope chain 4He3He bound bound Shows many interesting features: Sonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  2009 15 The helium isotope chain 4He3He bound bound 5He unbound Shows many interesting features: Sonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  2009 15 The helium isotope chain 4He3He bound bound 5He unbound 6He bound halo Shows many interesting features: Sonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  2009 15 The helium isotope chain 4He3He bound bound 5He unbound 6He bound halo Borromean system Shows many interesting features: Sonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  2009 15 The helium isotope chain 4He3He bound bound 5He unbound 7He unbound 6He bound halo Borromean system Shows many interesting features: Sonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  2009 15 The helium isotope chain 4He3He bound bound 5He unbound 7He unbound 6He bound halo 8He bound halo .... Borromean system Shows many interesting features: Sonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  2009 15 The helium isotope chain 4He3He bound bound 5He unbound 7He unbound 6He bound halo 8He bound halo .... Borromean system Shows many interesting features: Most exotic nucleus “on earth” N Z = 3 Sonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  2009 15 The helium isotope chain 4He3He bound bound 5He unbound 7He unbound 6He bound halo 8He bound halo .... Borromean system Shows many interesting features: Most exotic nucleus “on earth” N Z = 3 lives 806 ms lives 108 ms Sonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  2009 15 The helium isotope chain 4He3He bound bound 5He unbound 7He unbound 6He bound halo 8He bound halo .... Borromean system Shows many interesting features: Most exotic nucleus “on earth” N Z = 3 Synthesized in the laboratory lives 806 ms lives 108 ms Sonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  2009 15 The helium isotope chain 4He3He bound bound 5He unbound 7He unbound 6He bound halo 8He bound halo .... Borromean system Shows many interesting features: Most exotic nucleus “on earth” N Z = 3 Synthesized in the laboratory lives 806 ms lives 108 ms Sonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  2009 ISAC I & II Production of rare isotopes at Cyclotron Beam Target Mass separator 16 Sonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  2009 -32 -31 -30 -29 -28 -27 -26 -25 -32 -31 -30 -29 -28 -27 -26 -25 E 0  [ M eV ] our NCSM GFMC previous HH 6 He NCSM GFMC our CCSD(T) 8 He previous 17 Ab initio calculations for halo nuclei Experimental data S.Bacca et al., Our calculations: low-momentum EFT NN force Previous calculations: NCSM  NN only GFMC  NN+3NF  arXiv:0902.1696 Sonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  2009 -32 -31 -30 -29 -28 -27 -26 -25 -32 -31 -30 -29 -28 -27 -26 -25 E 0  [ M eV ] our NCSM GFMC previous HH 6 He NCSM GFMC our CCSD(T) 8 He previous 17 Ab initio calculations for halo nuclei Experimental data S.Bacca et al., Our calculations: low-momentum EFT NN force Previous calculations: NCSM  NN only GFMC  NN+3NF  estimates error in neglected arXiv:0902.1696 Sonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  2009 -32 -31 -30 -29 -28 -27 -26 -25 -32 -31 -30 -29 -28 -27 -26 -25 E 0  [ M eV ] our NCSM GFMC previous HH 6 He NCSM GFMC our CCSD(T) 8 He previous 17 Ab initio calculations for halo nuclei Experimental data S.Bacca et al., Future • Include 3NF • Apply to other isotope   chains with halo features Our calculations: low-momentum EFT NN force Previous calculations: NCSM  NN only GFMC  NN+3NF  estimates error in neglected arXiv:0902.1696 Sonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  2009 0 20 40 60 80 100 ! [MeV] 0 1 2 3 4 " # [m b ] 6 He Nuclear Reactions: photo-absorption 18 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 0 20 40 60 ! 80  [ m b ] 100 6Li AV4’ "  [MeV] # 6Li potential S.B. et al., PRL 89 (‘02),  PLB 603 and PRC 69 (‘04) Semi-realistic NN force Sonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  2009 0 20 40 60 80 100 ! [MeV] 0 1 2 3 4 " # [m b ] 6 He neutronsprotons Giant Dipole Resonance 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 0 20 40 60 ! 80  [ m b ] 100 6Li AV4’ "  [MeV] # 6Li potential Semi-realistic NN force S.B. et al., PRL 89 (‘02),  PLB 603 and PRC 69 (‘04) 18 Nuclear Reactions: photo-absorption Sonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  2009 0 20 40 60 80 100 ! [MeV] 0 1 2 3 4 " # [m b ] 6 He neutronsprotons Giant Dipole Resonance 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 0 20 40 60 ! 80  [ m b ] 100 6Li AV4’ "  [MeV] # 6Li Soft-dipole Mode Giant Dipole Mode neutronsneutron halo protons!-core potential Signatures of the halo S.B. et al., PRL 89 (‘02),  PLB 603 and PRC 69 (‘04) Semi-realistic NN force 18 Nuclear Reactions: photo-absorption Sonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  2009 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 ! [MeV] 0 1 2 3 4 5 " # [m b ] GSI ('99) NSCL ('02) 6He Semi-realistic NN force 19 Nuclear Reactions: photo-absorption Sonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  2009 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 ! [MeV] 0 1 2 3 4 5 " # [m b ] GSI ('99) NSCL ('02) 6He Semi-realistic NN force 19 Nuclear Reactions: photo-absorption • Photo-absorption can be also related to neutron capture reactions for astrophysics Sonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  2009 Astrophysics: Neutrino Reactions in Supernovae 20 SN1987a • Core collapse supernovae are gigantic explosions   of massive stars • 99% of the released energy is carried by   neutrinos in all flavors, therefore   neutrino interactions with matter are crucial • In the iron core the burning process stops and it becomes gravitationally unstable       the core collapses • Nuclear forces halt the collapse, and drive an outgoing shock, which loses energy due to dissociation, neutrino radiation. • The shock stalls … possibly revived by neutrino heating Sonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  2009 21 Neutrino bremsstrahlung affects the time scale  of the delayed explosion but standard neutrino rates are based on one-pion-exchange for NN Neutrino bremsstrahlung reaction q ! 0 NN → NNνν̄ A.Mezzacappa (ORNL), JUSTIPEN Workshop (2008) Sonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  2009 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 k F  [fm -1 ] 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 C !  [ M e V " 1 ] LO (=one-pion exchange) NLO N 2 LO N 3 LO 22 Neutrino bremsstrahlung from EFT Pure neutron matter Chiral expansion S.B. et al.  arXiv:0812.0102 NN → NNνν̄ q ! 0 Sonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  2009 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 k F  [fm -1 ] 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 C !  [ M e V " 1 ] LO (=one-pion exchange) NLO N 2 LO N 3 LO  Modern Hamiltonians give a very different result! 23 Neutrino bremsstrahlung from EFT Pure neutron matter Used in SN simulations (Yukawa 1935) Modern prediction S.B. et al.  arXiv:0812.0102 NN → NNνν̄ q ! 0 Sonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  2009 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 k F  [fm -1 ] 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 C !  [ M e V " 1 ] LO (=one-pion exchange) N 3 LO+ 3NF N 3 LO  Visible effect of 3NF at higher density 24 Neutrino bremsstrahlung from EFT Pure neutron matter Preliminary NN → NNνν̄ q ! 0 Sonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  2009 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 k F  [fm -1 ] 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 C !  [ M e V " 1 ] LO (=one-pion exchange) N 3 LO+ 3NF N 3 LO  Visible effect of 3NF at higher density 24 Neutrino bremsstrahlung from EFT Pure neutron matter Aim: the new standard rates in SN simulation! Preliminary NN → NNνν̄ q ! 0 Sonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  2009 • Advances in the  accurate calculation of nuclear reactions Summary ! Different dipole strength distribution in stable-unstable light nuclei Exciting era in nuclear physics with advances  on many fronts! 25 • Enormous progress done in ab-initio approaches to nuclear structure ! Description of helium halo isotopes from evolved Effective Field Theory forces • Nuclear physics provides fundamental microscopic input for astrophysics ! First neutrino rates based on Effective Field Theory  Nuclear physics is build upon a strong connection theory-experiment:  fundamental for testing our knowledge of nuclear forces  Future: the study of the role of 3NF is key in all areas  from light nuclei to astrophysics Sonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  2009 I acknowledge useful discussions with the               group members Thanks to my collaborators: 26 Nir Barnea Gaute Hagen, Thomas Papenbrock Winfried Leidemann, Giuseppina Orlandini Katy Hally Chris Pethick Kai Hebeler, Achim Schwenk Thank you! Merci!

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