APS Northwest Section 11th Annual Meeting

Frontiers in Nuclear Theory: From Light Nuclei to Astrophysics Bacca, Sonia 2009

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Sonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  2009Owned and operated as a joint venture by a consortium of Canadian universities via a contribution through the National Research Council Canada.CANADA'S NATIONAL LABORATORY FOR PARTICLE AND NUCLEAR PHYSICSFrontiers in Nuclear Theory:From Light Nuclei to AstrophysicsSonia BaccaAmerican Physical Society - North West Section MeetingMay 14-16 2009University of British Columbia, VancouverSonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  2009What is Nuclear Physics?“Nuclear Physics is the field of physics that studies the building blocks and interactions in atomic nuclei”   2Sonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  2009What is Nuclear Physics?“Nuclear Physics is the field of physics that studies the building blocks and interactions in atomic nuclei”   2Sonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  2009What is Nuclear Physics?“Nuclear Physics is the field of physics that studies the building blocks and interactions in atomic nuclei”   2Sonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  2009What is Nuclear Physics?“Nuclear Physics is the field of physics that studies the building blocks and interactions in atomic nuclei”   2• It is a science build on a strong connection   between theory and experiment• It has also many interesting applications that   influence and improve our daily life:! nuclear medicine (radiopharmaceuticals)! hadron therapy (cure of cancer)! engineering materials (ion implantation)! archaeology (carbon dating)...Sonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  2009nuclear theoryWhat is Nuclear Theory?3Sonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  2009nuclear theory link to publication  archive  lanl.arXiv.orgWhat is Nuclear Theory?3Sonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  2009nuclear theory  wikinuclear theory link to publication  archive  lanl.arXiv.orgWhat is Nuclear Theory?3Sonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  2009nuclear theory  wikinuclear theory link to publication  archive  lanl.arXiv.org no linkWhat is Nuclear Theory?3Sonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  2009What is Nuclear Theory?It is the theory that tries to understand and predict nuclear properties, by studying the way protons and neutrons interact to form nuclei      4Sonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  2009What is Nuclear Theory?It is the theory that tries to understand and predict nuclear properties, by studying the way protons and neutrons interact to form nuclei      What are the interesting questions we try to answer?4Sonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  2009What is Nuclear Theory?It is the theory that tries to understand and predict nuclear properties, by studying the way protons and neutrons interact to form nuclei      ! What is the interaction that binds nucleons together?     What is its relation to Quantum Chromo Dynamics?What are the interesting questions we try to answer?4Sonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  2009What is Nuclear Theory?It is the theory that tries to understand and predict nuclear properties, by studying the way protons and neutrons interact to form nuclei      ! What is the interaction that binds nucleons together?     What is its relation to Quantum Chromo Dynamics?What are the interesting questions we try to answer??4Sonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  2009What is Nuclear Theory?It is the theory that tries to understand and predict nuclear properties, by studying the way protons and neutrons interact to form nuclei      ! What is the interaction that binds nucleons together?     What is its relation to Quantum Chromo Dynamics?What are the interesting questions we try to answer??4Sonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  2009What is Nuclear Theory?It is the theory that tries to understand and predict nuclear properties, by studying the way protons and neutrons interact to form nuclei      ! What is the interaction that binds nucleons together?     What is its relation to Quantum Chromo Dynamics?What are the interesting questions we try to answer??4Sonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  2009What is Nuclear Theory?It is the theory that tries to understand and predict nuclear properties, by studying the way protons and neutrons interact to form nuclei      What are the interesting questions we try to answer?! How did the nucleosynthesis    of elements occur?   Big Bang Nucleosynthesis   r-process ...! How happens that protons and   neutrons are bound into stable   and rare isotopes?    What are the limits of their    existence?5Sonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  2009What is Nuclear Theory?It is the theory that tries to understand and predict nuclear properties, by studying the way protons and neutrons interact to form nuclei      What are the interesting questions we try to answer?! What is the nature of neutron stars?! What are the nuclear reactions that drive supernovae explosions?SN1987abefore after6Sonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  2009Neutron Number Proton Number Crab pulsarSN1987a• Interaction challenges   How can we connect nuclear   forces to QCD?   • Few and many-body challenges    How can we accurately solve the   Schroedinger equation?• Astrophysical challenges  Can nuclear physics provide an  answer to astrophysical questions?  7Frontiers in Nuclear Theory Sonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  2009             NN 3N  4N3N 4NInteraction challengesThe Chiral Effective Field Theory ApproachSeparation of scales 8Sonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  2009             NN 3N  4N3N 4NInteraction challengesThe Chiral Effective Field Theory ApproachSeparation of scales 8Sonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  2009             NN 3N  4N3N 4NInteraction challengesThe Chiral Effective Field Theory ApproachSeparation of scales 8pppnnnnSonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  2009             NN 3N  4N3N 4NInteraction challengesThe Chiral Effective Field Theory ApproachSeparation of scales 8Limited resolution at low energyexpand in powers QΛbpppnnnnSonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  2009             NN 3N  4N3N 4NInteraction challengesThe Chiral Effective Field Theory ApproachSeparation of scales 8Limited resolution at low energyexpand in powers QΛbpppnnnnSonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  2009             NN 3N  4N3N 4NInteraction challengesThe Chiral Effective Field Theory ApproachSeparation of scales 8Limited resolution at low energyexpand in powers QΛbpppnnnnSonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  2009             NN 3N  4N3N 4NInteraction challengesThe Chiral Effective Field Theory ApproachSeparation of scales 8Limited resolution at low energyexpand in powers QΛbpppnnnnSonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  2009             NN 3N  4N3N 4NInteraction challengesThe Chiral Effective Field Theory ApproachSeparation of scales 8Limited resolution at low energyexpand in powers QΛbpppnnnnSonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  2009             NN 3N  4N3N 4NInteraction challengesThe Chiral Effective Field Theory ApproachSeparation of scales 8Limited resolution at low energyexpand in powers QΛbpppnnnnSonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  2009             NN 3N  4N3N 4NInteraction challengesThe Chiral Effective Field Theory ApproachSeparation of scales Systematic and can provide error estimates8Limited resolution at low energyexpand in powers QΛbpppnnnnSonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  2009             NN 3N  4N3N 4NInteraction challengesThe Chiral Effective Field Theory ApproachSeparation of scales Systematic and can provide error estimates8Limited resolution at low energyexpand in powers QΛbpppnnnnDetails of short distance physics not resolved, but captured in short range couplings      fit to experimentSonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  2009Interaction challenges9VNN>V3 N>V4 N             NN 3N  4N3N 4N- NN Sector - coupling constants fitted to NN scattering phase-shifts0 50 100 150 200 250Lab. Energy [MeV]The Chiral Effective Field Theory ApproachSonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  2009Interaction challenges9VNN>V3 N>V4 N             NN 3N  4N3N 4N- NN Sector - coupling constants fitted to NN scattering phase-shifts0 50 100 150 200 250Lab. Energy [MeV]We have a resolution dependence!Coupling constants run with the resolution scaleΛThe Chiral Effective Field Theory ApproachSonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  2009Interaction challenges9VNN>V3 N>V4 N             NN 3N  4N3N 4N- NN Sector - coupling constants fitted to NN scattering phase-shifts0 50 100 150 200 250Lab. Energy [MeV]We have a resolution dependence!Coupling constants run with the resolution scaleΛThe Chiral Effective Field Theory Approach The dependence on the cutoff leads to different potentials,  but observables should be cutoff independentSonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  2009- 3N Sector -N2LOInteraction challenges10The Chiral Effective Field Theory ApproachSonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  2009- 3N Sector -N2LO• What is its origin? Nucleons are effective degrees of freedom Interaction challenges10The Chiral Effective Field Theory ApproachSonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  2009- 3N Sector -N2LO• What is its origin? Nucleons are effective degrees of freedom Interaction challenges10The Chiral Effective Field Theory Approach“The three-body force is a force that does not exist in a two-nucleon system, but appears in a system with three objects or more”A ≥ 3Sonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  2009- 3N Sector -N2LO• What is its origin? Nucleons are effective degrees of freedom Interaction challenges10The Chiral Effective Field Theory Approach“The three-body force is a force that does not exist in a two-nucleon system, but appears in a system with three objects or more”A ≥ 3As an analogy,  if we identify objects with human beings and forces with emotions, then jealousy is a good example of a three-body force: it is not felt as long as two-person are acting, but it shows up as soon as a third person enters the scene.From N. Kalantar, FM50Sonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  2009- 3N Sector -N2LO• What is its origin? Nucleons are effective degrees of freedom • How to realize if they are important? By comparing theoretical calculations with two-nucleon forces only with experimental dataA ≥ 3Interaction challenges11The Chiral Effective Field Theory ApproachSonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  2009- 3N Sector -N2LO• What is its origin? Nucleons are effective degrees of freedom • How to realize if they are important? By comparing theoretical calculations with two-nucleon forces only with experimental dataA ≥ 37.6 7.8 8.0 8.2 8.4 8.6 8.8E(  H) [MeV]2425262728293031E(  He) [MeV]NN onlyExp.34• How to constrain it? By fitting the coupling constants to data for an observable which is sensitive to 3NFInteraction challenges11The Chiral Effective Field Theory ApproachSonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  2009- 3N Sector -N2LO• What is its origin? Nucleons are effective degrees of freedom • How to realize if they are important? By comparing theoretical calculations with two-nucleon forces only with experimental dataA ≥ 37.6 7.8 8.0 8.2 8.4 8.6 8.8E(  H) [MeV]2425262728293031E(  He) [MeV]NN onlyExp.34• How to constrain it? By fitting the coupling constants to data for an observable which is sensitive to 3NFInteraction challenges7.6 7.8 8.0 8.2 8.4 8.6 8.8E(  H) [MeV]242526E(  He) [MeV]NN onlyExp.3including 3NF11The Chiral Effective Field Theory ApproachSonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  2009- 3N Sector -N2LO• What is its origin? Nucleons are effective degrees of freedom • How to realize if they are important? By comparing theoretical calculations with two-nucleon forces only with experimental dataA ≥ 37.6 7.8 8.0 8.2 8.4 8.6 8.8E(  H) [MeV]2425262728293031E(  He) [MeV]NN onlyExp.34• How to constrain it? By fitting the coupling constants to data for an observable which is sensitive to 3NFInteraction challenges• Predict new observables! 7.6 7.8 8.0 8.2 8.4 8.6 8.8E(  H) [MeV]242526E(  He) [MeV]NN onlyExp.3including 3NF11The Chiral Effective Field Theory ApproachSonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  2009Few- and many-body challengesIn the sector of  few-body nuclei (A<5) we have reached an incrediblelevel of accuracy.12Challenge: develop new many-body methods that can extend the frontiers to heavier nuclei  Coupled Cluster TheoryHagen et al., PRL 101 (2008)bSonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  2009Few- and many-body challengesIn the sector of  few-body nuclei (A<5) we have reached an incrediblelevel of accuracy.Future:   advance ab-initio methods to heavier and neutron rich nuclei 12Challenge: develop new many-body methods that can extend the frontiers to heavier nuclei  Coupled Cluster TheoryHagen et al., PRL 101 (2008)bSonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  2009The physics of  Halo Systems13Moon HaloSonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  2009The physics of  Halo Systems13Moon HaloNuclear HaloSonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  2009Halo nuclei12 fmone neutron halotwo neutron halofour neutron halotwo proton haloone proton halo11Li20 8Pb14Sonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  200915The helium isotope chain4He3Hebound boundShows many interesting features:Sonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  200915The helium isotope chain4He3Hebound bound5HeunboundShows many interesting features:Sonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  200915The helium isotope chain4He3Hebound bound5Heunbound6HeboundhaloShows many interesting features:Sonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  200915The helium isotope chain4He3Hebound bound5Heunbound6HeboundhaloBorromean systemShows many interesting features:Sonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  200915The helium isotope chain4He3Hebound bound5Heunbound7Heunbound6HeboundhaloBorromean systemShows many interesting features:Sonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  200915The helium isotope chain4He3Hebound bound5Heunbound7Heunbound6Heboundhalo8Heboundhalo....Borromean systemShows many interesting features:Sonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  200915The helium isotope chain4He3Hebound bound5Heunbound7Heunbound6Heboundhalo8Heboundhalo....Borromean systemShows many interesting features:Most exotic nucleus “on earth”NZ=3Sonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  200915The helium isotope chain4He3Hebound bound5Heunbound7Heunbound6Heboundhalo8Heboundhalo....Borromean systemShows many interesting features:Most exotic nucleus “on earth”NZ=3lives 806 ms lives 108 msSonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  200915The helium isotope chain4He3Hebound bound5Heunbound7Heunbound6Heboundhalo8Heboundhalo....Borromean systemShows many interesting features:Most exotic nucleus “on earth”NZ=3Synthesized in the laboratory lives 806 ms lives 108 msSonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  200915The helium isotope chain4He3Hebound bound5Heunbound7Heunbound6Heboundhalo8Heboundhalo....Borromean systemShows many interesting features:Most exotic nucleus “on earth”NZ=3Synthesized in the laboratory lives 806 ms lives 108 msSonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  2009ISAC I & II Production of rare isotopes atCyclotronBeamTargetMass separator16Sonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  2009-32-31-30-29-28-27-26-25-32-31-30-29-28-27-26-25E0 [MeV]ourNCSMGFMCpreviousHH6HeNCSMGFMCourCCSD(T)8Heprevious17Ab initio calculations for halo nucleiExperimental dataS.Bacca et al., Our calculations: low-momentum EFT NN forcePrevious calculations:NCSM  NN onlyGFMC  NN+3NF arXiv:0902.1696Sonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  2009-32-31-30-29-28-27-26-25-32-31-30-29-28-27-26-25E0 [MeV]ourNCSMGFMCpreviousHH6HeNCSMGFMCourCCSD(T)8Heprevious17Ab initio calculations for halo nucleiExperimental dataS.Bacca et al., Our calculations: low-momentum EFT NN forcePrevious calculations:NCSM  NN onlyGFMC  NN+3NF estimates error in neglectedarXiv:0902.1696Sonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  2009-32-31-30-29-28-27-26-25-32-31-30-29-28-27-26-25E0 [MeV]ourNCSMGFMCpreviousHH6HeNCSMGFMCourCCSD(T)8Heprevious17Ab initio calculations for halo nucleiExperimental dataS.Bacca et al., Future• Include 3NF • Apply to other isotope  chains with halo features  Our calculations: low-momentum EFT NN forcePrevious calculations:NCSM  NN onlyGFMC  NN+3NF estimates error in neglectedarXiv:0902.1696Sonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  20090 20 40 60 80 100!  [MeV]01234"# [mb]6HeNuclear Reactions: photo-absorption  1800.511.522.533.50 20 40 60!80 [mb]1006LiAV4’"  [MeV]#6LipotentialS.B. et al., PRL 89 (‘02),  PLB 603 and PRC 69 (‘04) Semi-realistic NN forceSonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  20090 20 40 60 80 100!  [MeV]01234"# [mb]6HeneutronsprotonsGiant Dipole Resonance00.511.522.533.50 20 40 60!80 [mb]1006LiAV4’"  [MeV]#6LipotentialSemi-realistic NN forceS.B. et al., PRL 89 (‘02),  PLB 603 and PRC 69 (‘04) 18Nuclear Reactions: photo-absorption  Sonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  20090 20 40 60 80 100!  [MeV]01234"# [mb]6HeneutronsprotonsGiant Dipole Resonance00.511.522.533.50 20 40 60!80 [mb]1006LiAV4’"  [MeV]#6LiSoft-dipole Mode Giant Dipole Modeneutronsneutron halo protons!-corepotentialSignaturesof the haloS.B. et al., PRL 89 (‘02),  PLB 603 and PRC 69 (‘04) Semi-realistic NN force18Nuclear Reactions: photo-absorption  Sonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  20091 2 3 4 5 6 7 8!  [MeV]012345"# [mb]GSI ('99)NSCL ('02)6HeSemi-realistic NN force19Nuclear Reactions: photo-absorption  Sonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  20091 2 3 4 5 6 7 8!  [MeV]012345"# [mb]GSI ('99)NSCL ('02)6HeSemi-realistic NN force19Nuclear Reactions: photo-absorption  •Photo-absorption can be also related to neutron capture reactions for astrophysics Sonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  2009Astrophysics: Neutrino Reactions in Supernovae20SN1987a• Core collapse supernovae are gigantic explosions  of massive stars• 99% of the released energy is carried by     neutrinos in all flavors, therefore   neutrino interactions with matter are crucial  • In the iron core the burning process stops and it becomes gravitationally unstable       the core collapses• Nuclear forces halt the collapse, and drive an outgoing shock, which loses energy due to dissociation, neutrino radiation.• The shock stalls … possibly revived by neutrino heating Sonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  200921Neutrino bremsstrahlung affects the time scale of the delayed explosionbut standard neutrino rates are based on one-pion-exchange for NNNeutrino bremsstrahlung reactionq similarequal 0NN → NN ν ¯νA.Mezzacappa (ORNL), JUSTIPEN Workshop (2008) Sonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  20090 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4kF [fm-1]00.050.10.150.2C! [MeV"1]LO (=one-pion exchange)NLON2LON3LO22Neutrino bremsstrahlung from EFTPure neutron matterChiral expansionS.B. et al.  arXiv:0812.0102NN → NN ν ¯νq similarequal 0Sonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  20090 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4kF [fm-1]00.050.10.150.2C! [MeV"1]LO (=one-pion exchange)NLON2LON3LO Modern Hamiltonians give a very different result!23Neutrino bremsstrahlung from EFTPure neutron matterUsed in SN simulations (Yukawa 1935)Modern predictionS.B. et al.  arXiv:0812.0102NN → NN ν ¯νq similarequal 0Sonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  20090 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4kF [fm-1]00.050.10.150.2C! [MeV"1]LO (=one-pion exchange)N3LO+ 3NFN3LO Visible effect of 3NF at higher density24Neutrino bremsstrahlung from EFTPure neutron matterPreliminaryNN → NN ν ¯νq similarequal 0Sonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  20090 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4kF [fm-1]00.050.10.150.2C! [MeV"1]LO (=one-pion exchange)N3LO+ 3NFN3LO Visible effect of 3NF at higher density24Neutrino bremsstrahlung from EFTPure neutron matterAim: the new standard rates in SN simulation! PreliminaryNN → NN ν ¯νq similarequal 0Sonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  2009• Advances in the  accurate calculation of nuclear reactions   Summary! Different dipole strength distribution in stable-unstable light nucleiExciting era in nuclear physics with advances on many fronts!   25• Enormous progress done in ab-initio approaches to nuclear structure! Description of helium halo isotopes from evolved Effective Field Theory forces • Nuclear physics provides fundamental microscopic input for astrophysics ! First neutrino rates based on Effective Field Theory  Nuclear physics is build upon a strong connection theory-experiment: fundamental for testing our knowledge of nuclear forces  Future: the study of the role of 3NF is key in all areas from light nuclei to astrophysics Sonia Bacca APSNW Meeting,  May 15  2009I acknowledge useful discussions with the               group members Thanks to my collaborators:26Nir BarneaGaute Hagen, Thomas PapenbrockWinfried Leidemann, Giuseppina OrlandiniKaty HallyChris PethickKai Hebeler, Achim SchwenkThank you! Merci!

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