APS Northwest Section 11th Annual Meeting

Identifying, measuring, and teaching physics expertise Wieman, Carl 2009

Item Metadata

Download

Media
[if-you-see-this-DO-NOT-CLICK]
[if-you-see-this-DO-NOT-CLICK]
Wieman_Carl_APS_NW_Section_11thAnnual Meeting_2009.ppt [ 646.52kB ]
Session1Part1_APS_NW_Section_11th_Annual Meeting_2009.mp3 [ 105.51MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 1.0041687.json
JSON-LD: 1.0041687+ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 1.0041687.xml
RDF/JSON: 1.0041687+rdf.json
Turtle: 1.0041687+rdf-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 1.0041687+rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 1.0041687 +original-record.json
Full Text
1.0041687.txt
Citation
1.0041687.ris

Full Text

Identifying, measuring, and teaching physics expertiseColorado physics & chem education research group: W. Adams, K. Perkins, K. Gray, L. Koch, J. Barbera, S. McKagan, N. Finkelstein, S. Pollock, R. Lemaster, S. Reid, C. Malley, M. Dubson... $$ NSF,  Hewlett)Carl Wiemanthink hard, figure out subjecttell students how to understand it give problem to solve noScience education Model 1   (I used for many years)students lazy or poorly preparedtell againLouderModel 1 (figure out and tell) Strengths & WeaknessesWorks well for basic knowledge, prepared brain:bad,avoidgood,seekMore complex learning-- changing brain, not just adding bits of knowledge. Fails for more complex knowledge,like becoming physicistGoals. What students will be able to do.(solve, design, analyze, capacity to learn,...)Create activities and feedback targeting desired expertise. Use, and measure results.     Science Education Model 2- like do science.modify Model 2-- scientific approach 	What has been learned?1. Identifying components of expertise,and how expertise developed.2. How to measure components of science expertise.(and what traditional exams have been missing)3. Components of effective teaching and learning.  Expert competence =factual knowledgeOrganizational framework  effective retrieval and application  Expert competence research* Ability to monitor own thinking and learning("Do I understand this? How can I check?")New ways of thinking--  require MANY hours of intense practice with guidance/reflection.  Change brain “wiring”*Cambridge Handbook on Expertise and Expert Performancepatterns, associations, scientific conceptshistorians, scientists, chess players, doctors,...Measuring how well expert thinking is developed.On average learn <30% of concepts did not already know.Lecturer quality, class size, institution,...doesn't matter!Similar data for conceptual learning in other courses.R. Hake, ”…A six-thousand-student survey…” AJP 66, 64-74 (‘98). Force Concept Inventory- basic concepts of force and motion 1st semester physicsMeasuring conceptual masteryAsk at start and end of semester--What % learned? (100’s of courses)improvedmethodsNovicePhysicistContent: isolated pieces of information to be memorized.Handed down by an authority. Unrelated to world.Problem solving: pattern matching to memorized  recipes. Physicists also have unique “belief” systems Content: coherent structure of  concepts.Describes nature, established by experiment.Prob. Solving:  Systematic concept-based strategies.  Widely applicable.*adapted from D. HammerNoviceExpertintro physics   more novice  ref.s  Redish et al,   CU work--Adams, Perkins, MD, NF, SP, CW Measuring student beliefs about science *adapted from D. Hammerpre & post% shift?5-10%Intro Chemistry and biology just as bad! Survey instruments-- MPEX--1st yr physics, CLASS--physics, chem, bio tests~40 statements, strongly agree to strongly disagree-- Understanding physics basically means being able to recall something you've read or been shown. I do not expect physics equations to help my understanding of the ideas; they are just for doing calculations.Test development process (~ 6 months post-doc)1. Interview faculty-- establish learning goals.2. Interview students-- understand thinking on topic patterns emerge where nonexpert thinking & traditional exams missing. Way knowledge in subject is organized and applied = “Conceptual mastery”Way experts approach learning and problem solvingCreate tests, validate and refine with interviews and statistical analysis Validated Concept Inventories following this processFCI and FMCE (intro mechanics)BEMA (intro electricity and magnetism)QMCI Quantum mechanics concept inventory(intro quantum)3rd year quantum test in developmentCUSE (3rd year electricity)Concept inventory tests under development or inearly use in geology, chem, biology, physiology, ...“Attitudinal” surveys for Physics, Chemistry, Biology,Earth Sciences Model 2-- scientific approach 	What has been learned?1. Identifying components of expertise,and how expertise developed.2. How to measure components of science expertise.(and what traditional exams have been missing)3. Components of effective teaching and learning.  Components of effective teaching/learning apply to all levels, all settings (including conference talks!)1. Reduce unnecessary demands on working memory2. Explicit authentic modeling and practice of expert thinking. Extended & strenuous  (brain like muscle)	3. Motivation4. Connect with and build on prior thinking  Mr Anderson, May I be excused?My brain is full.MUCH less than in typical science lectureLimits on working memory--best established, most ignored result from cognitive scienceWorking memory capacityVERY LIMITED!(remember & process<7 distinct new items) fraction retained tiny Reducing unnecessary demands on working memory improves learning.Features of effective activities for learning.  1. Reduce unnecessary demands on working memory2. Explicit authentic modeling and practice of expert thinking. Extended & strenuous  (brain like muscle)	3. Motivation4. Connect with and build on prior thinking  3. Motivation-- essential(complex- depends on previous experiences, ...)a. Relevant/useful/interesting to learner (meaningful context-- connect to what they know and value)Problems where value of solution obvious.  b. Sense that can master subject and how to masterc. Sense of personal control/choiceEffective activities for learning.  1. Reduce unnecessary demands on working memory2. Explicit authentic practice of expert thinking. Extended & strenuous  (brain like muscle)	3. Motivation4. Connect with and build on prior thinking   listening to lectures not the required “strenuous mental effort”Practicing expert-like thinking--Challenging but doable tasks/questionsExplicit focus on expert-like thinkingconcepts and mental modelsrecognizing relevant & irrelevant informationself-checking, sense making, & reflectionProvide effective feedback (timely and specific)        “cognitive coach”   Example from a class--practicing expert thinking with effective guidance/feedback1. Assignment--Read chapter on electric current. Learn basic facts and terminology. Short quiz to check/reward.2. Class built around series of questions.When switch is closed, bulb 2 will a. stay same brightness,  b. get brighterc. get dimmer, d. go out.  3. Individual answer with clicker(accountability, primed to learn)4. Discuss with “consensus group”, revote.  (prof listen in!)5.  Show responses. Elicit student reasoning. Do “experiment.”-- simulation.Practicing expert-like thinking--Challenging but doable tasks/questionsExplicit focus on expert-like thinkingconcepts and mental modelsrecognizing relevant & irrelevant informationself-checking, sense making, & reflectionProvide effective feedback (timely and specific)        “cognitive coach”   Only a start!  Follow up with homework problems to do much more of the same!10% after 15 minutes      Fraction of concepts mastered in course               15-25%                       Beliefs about science-- what it is, how to learn, significantly less(5-10%) like scientist       Some Data:  >90 % after 2 days 50-70% with retention            more like scientistModel 1 (telling)				 Model 2traditional lecture method      scientific teaching   Retention of information from lectureSummary: Scientific approach to physics education.Understand and teach physics expertise.Good Refs.:NAS Press “How people learn” Redish, “Teaching Physics”  (Phys. Ed. Res.)Wieman,  Change Magazine-Oct. 07  at www.carnegiefoundation.org/change/CLASS belief survey:  CLASS.colorado.eduphet simulations:   phet.colorado.educwsei.ubc.ca--  resources,    Guide to effective use of clickersextra unused slides below Used/perceived as expensive attendance and testing device little benefit, student resentment.clickers*-- Not automatically helpful--     give accountability, anonymity, fast responseUsed/perceived to enhance engagement, communication, and learning  transformativechallenging questions-- conceptsstudent-student discussion (“peer instruction”) & responses  (learning and feedback)follow up instructor discussion- timely specific feedbackminimal but nonzero grade impact*An instructor's guide to the effective use of personal response systems ("clickers") in teaching-- www.cwsei.ubc.caPutting research into practice in classroom (and homework, and exams, etc.)Knowing what students are thinking in classroom and connecting to that.  Enhanced communication and feedback.Not about more quizes/test… not just because more alert. Clickers provide powerful psychological combination: personal accountability/commitment peer anonymity 1. Feedback to instructor. 2. Feedback to students.3. Students intellectually active-- a dialogue.Using clickers for max benefitscommunication systemClass built around series of questions to students: challenging concepts or applications, predictions or explanations of demonstration experiments, ...Small group discussion ("peer instruct."), consensus answersExplicit focus on novice/expert views, reasoning, problem solving.Collaborative problem solving/scientific discourse, self-monitoring. Student beliefs about science and science problem solving important!Beliefs  content learning Beliefs -- powerful filter  choice of major & retentionTeaching practices  students’ beliefs    typical significant decline (phys and chem)          (and less interest)Implications for instructionAvoid decline if explicitly address beliefs.Why is this worth learning?How does it connect to real world?How connects to things student knows/makes sense?     Not course-specific, Short – 10 minutes, Give online, score readily in excelReliability and validity tested, Statistically robust belief categoriesScore agree or disagree with expert view   (% favorable or % unfavorable)UBC CW Science Education Initiative and U. Col. SEIfrom “bloodletting to antibiotics” in science educationChanging educational culture in major research university science departmentsnecessary first step for science education overall Departmental level  scientific approach to teaching, all undergrad courses = learning goals, measures, tested best practicesDissemination and duplication.All materials, assessment tools, etc to be available on web   Data 2. Conceptual understanding in traditional course   electricity  Eric Mazur (Harvard Univ.)End of course.70% can calculate currents and voltages in this circuit.only 40% correctly predict change in brightness of bulbs when switch closed!time  from beginning of course (yrs)0.51.01.52.0test of mastery (score)204060Electricity & Magnetism concepts Consumer behavior class~1/2  ¼ yr later, below 0.2 after 2 yrs1.5 yrs laterHighly Interactive educational simulations--phet.colorado.edu   ~80 simulations physics & chem FREE, Run through regular browserBuild-in & test that develop expert-like thinking andlearning (& fun)laserballoons and sweater       Characteristics of expert tutors*     (Which can be duplicated in classroom?)Motivation major focus (context, pique curiosity,...)Never praise person-- limited praise, all for processUnderstands what students do and do not know. timely, specific, interactive feedbackAlmost never tell students anything-- pose questions.Mostly students answering questions and explaining.Asking right questions so students challenged but can figure out.  Systematic progression.Let students make mistakes, then discover and fix.Require reflection: how solved, explain, generalize, etc.*Lepper and Woolverton pg 135 in Improving Academic Perfomance de nt i f y i ng, me a s ur t e a c hi i ng, a ng phy nd si cs e x pe r t i se  Car l Wi eman  Cl i c k t o edi t Mas t er s ubt i t l e s t y l e  Colorado physics & chem education research group: W. Adams, K. Perkins, K. Gray, L. Koch, J. Barbera, S. McKagan, N. Finkelstein, S. Pollock, R. Lemaster, S. Reid, C. Malley, M. Dubson... $$ NSF, Hewlett)  Sci enc e educ at i on Model 1  ( I us ed f or many year s)  t hi nk har d, f i gur e out s ubj ec t  t el l s t udent s how t o under s t and it  gi v e pr obl em t o s ol v e Cl i c k t o edi t Mas t er s ubt i t l e s t y l e yes no  done  s t udent s l az y or poor l y pr epar ed  t el l agai n  Loude r  Model 1 ( f i gur e out and t el l ) St r engt hs & Weaknesses Wor ks wel l f or bas i c k nowl edge, pr epar ed br ai n:  bad, av oi d  good, seek  Fai l s f or mor e c ompl ex knowl edge, l i k e bec omi ng phy s i c i s t Mor e c ompl ex l ear ni ng- - c hangi ng br ai n, not j us t addi ng bi t s of k nowl edge.  Sc i enc e Educ at i on Model 2- l i k e do s c i ence.  prior research prior research  Goal s . What s t udent s wi l l be abl e t o do. ( s ol v e, des i gn, anal y z e, c apac i t y t o l ear n, . . . )  Cr eat e ac t i v i t i es and f eedbac k t ar get i ng des i r ed ex per t i s e.  Us e, and meas ur e r es ul t s . Cl i c k t o edi t Mas t er s ubt i t l e s t y l e  yes  modi f y  no why ?  done goal s unr eal i s t ic  wr ong t r eat ment  Model 2- - s c i ent i f i c appr oac h  What has been l ear ned? 1. I dent i f y i ng c omponent s of ex per t i s e, and how ex per t i s e dev el oped. 2. How t o meas ur e c omponent s of s c i enc e ex per t i se. ( and what t r adi t i onal ex ams hav e been mi s s i ng) 3. Component s of ef f ec t i v e t eac hi ng and l ear ni ng. Cl i c k t o edi t Mas t er s ubt i t l e s t y l e  Ex per t compet enc e hirstes or ear i ans ,c sh* c i ent i s t s , c hes s  pl ay er s , doct or s, . . .  Expert competence = •factual knowledge •Organizational framework O effective retrieval and application  or ?  pat t er ns , associ at i ons, s c i ent i f i c concept s  Ability to monitor own thinking and learning ("Do I understand this? How can I check?") •  New ways of t hi nk i ng- - r equi r e MANY hour s of i nt ense pr act i ce wi t h gui danc e/ r ef l ec t i on. Change br ai n “ wi r i ng”  Measur i ng how wel l ex per t t hi nk i ng i s dev el oped. * Cambr i dge Handbook on Ex per t i se and Exper t  Meas ur i ng c onc ept ual mas t er y For ce Conc ept I nv ent or y - bas i c c onc ept s of f or ce and mot i on 1st semest er phy s i c s •  Ask at st ar t and end of s emes t er - What % l ear ned? ( 100’ s of c our s es )  Average learned/course 16 traditional Lecture courses  i mpr oved met hods  Fraction of unknown basic concepts learned On aver age l ear n <30% of c onc ept s di d not al r eady know. Lect ur er qual i t y , c l as s s i z e, i ns t i t ut i on, . . . doesn' t mat t er ! Si mi l ar dat a f or c onc ept ual l ear ni ng i n ot her cour ses. R. Hake, ”…A six-thousand-student survey…” AJP 66, 64-74 (‘98).  Physicists also have unique “belief” systems  Novice  Physicist  Content: isolated pieces of information to be memorized.  Content: coherent structure of concepts.  Handed down by an authority. Unrelated to world.  Describes nature, established by experiment.  Problem solving: pattern matching to memorized recipes.  Prob. Solving: Systematic conceptbased strategies. Widely applicable.  * adapt ed f r om D.  Measuring student beliefs about science  Expert  Novice  Sur vey i ns t r ument s - MPEX- - 1st y r phy s i c s , CLASS- - phy s i c s , c hem, bi o t est s ~40 statements, strongly agree to strongly disagree--  Understanding physics basically means being able to recall something you've read or been shown. I do not expect physics equations to help my understanding of the ideas; they are just for doing calculations. pr e & post % shi f t ?  5- 10%  i nt r o physi cs  mor e novi ce  ref.s Redish et al, CU work--Adams, Perkins, MD, NF, SP, CW I nt r o Chemi s t r y and bi ol ogy j us t as bad! * adapt ed f r om D.  Test dev el opment pr oc es s 1. 2. 2 mi  ( ~ 6 mont hs pos t - doc )  I nt er v i ew f ac ul t y - - es t abl i s h l ear ni ng goal s. I nt er v i ew s t udent s - - under s t and t hi nk i ng on t opi c pat t er ns emer ge wher e nonex per t t hi nk i ng & t r adi t i onal exams ssi ng.  Way knowl edge i n s ubj ec t i s or gani z ed and appl i ed = “ Concept ual mas t er y ” •W ay exper t s appr oac h l ear ni ng and pr obl em s ol vi ng •  Cr eat e t es t s , v al i dat e and r ef i ne wi t h i nt er vi ews and st at i st i c al anal y s i s  Val i dat ed Conc ept I nv ent or i es f ol l owi ng t hi s pr ocess FCI and FMCE ( i nt r o mec hani c s ) BEMA ( i nt r o el ec t r i c i t y and magnet i s m) QMCI Quant um mec hani c s c onc ept i nv ent or y ( i nt r o quant um) 3r d year quant um t es t i n dev el opment CUSE ( 3r d y ear el ec t r i c i t y ) Concept i nv ent or y t es t s under dev el opment or i n ear l y us e i n geol ogy , c hem, bi ol ogy , phy s i ol ogy, . . .  “ At t i t udi nal ” s ur v ey s f or Phy s i c s , Chemi s t r y , Bi ol ogy, Ear t h Sci enc es  Model 2- - s c i ent i f i c appr oac h  What has been l ear ned? 1. I dent i f y i ng c omponent s of ex per t i s e, and how ex per t i s e dev el oped. 2. How t o meas ur e c omponent s of s c i enc e ex per t i se. ( and what t r adi t i onal ex ams hav e been mi s s i ng) ( 3. Component s of ef f ect i ve t eachi ng and l ear ni ng. Cl i c k t o edi t Mas t er s ubt i t l e s t y l e  Component s of ef f ec t i v e t eachi ng/ l ear ni ng appl y t o al l l ev el s , al l s et t i ngs ( i nc l udi ng conf er ence t al ks! ) 1. Reduce unnec es s ar y demands on wor k i ng memor y  2. Expl i c i t aut hent i c model i ng and pr ac t i c e of exper t t hi nki ng. Ex t ended & s t r enuous ( br ai n l i k e muscl e) 3. Mot i vat i on 4. Connec t wi t h and bui l d on pr i or t hi nk i ng  Li mi t s on wor ki ng memor y- - bes t es t abl i s hed, most i gnor ed r esul t f r om c ogni t i v e s c i enc e  Wor k i ng memor y capaci t y VERY LI MI TED! ( r emember & pr ocess <7 di s t i nc t new i t ems)  MUCH l ess t han i n t ypi cal sci ence l ect ur e < f r ac t i on r et ai ned t i ny  Mr Ander son, May I be ex c us ed? My br ai n i s f ul l .  Reduci ng unnec es s ar y demands on wor k i ng memor y i mpr oves l ear ni ng.  jargon, use figures, analogies, avoid digressions  Feat ur es of ef f ec t i v e ac t i v i t i es f or l ear ni ng. 1. Reduce unnec es s ar y demands on wor k i ng memor y  2. Expl i c i t aut hent i c model i ng and pr ac t i c e of exper t t hi nki ng. Ex t ended & s t r enuous ( br ai n l i k e muscl e)  3. Mot i vat i on 4. Connec t wi t h and bui l d on pr i or t hi nki ng  3. Mot i v at i on- - es s ent i al ( compl ex- depends on pr ev i ous exper i ences , . . . )  a. Rel evant / us ef ul / i nt er es t i ng t o l ear ner ( meani ngf ul cont ext - - connect t o what t hey know and val ue) Pr obl ems wher e v al ue of s ol ut i on obv i ous .  b. Sense t hat c an mas t er s ubj ec t and how t o mast er  c. Sense of per s onal c ont r ol / c hoi c e  Ef f ect i v e ac t i v i t i es f or l ear ni ng. 1. Reduce unnec es s ar y demands on wor k i ng memor y  2. Expl i c i t aut hent i c pr ac t i c e of ex per t t hi nki ng. Ext ended & st r enuous ( br ai n l i k e mus c l e) 3. Mot i vat i on 4. Connec t wi t h and bui l d on pr i or t hi nk i ng  F=ma  l i st eni ng t o l ec t ur es not t he r equi r ed “ s t r enuous ment al ef f or t ”  Pr ac t i c i ng ex per t - l i k e t hi nk i ng- Chal l engi ng but doabl e t asks/ quest i ons  Expl i ci t f oc us on ex per t - l i k e t hi nk i ng • conc ept s and ment al model s • r ec ogni z i ng r el ev ant & i r r el ev ant i nf or mat i on • sel f - c hec k i ng, s ens e mak i ng, & r ef l ec t i on Pr ovi de ef f ec t i v e f eedbac k ( t i mel y and s pec i f i c) “ c ogni t i v e c oac h”  Exampl e f r om a cl ass- - pr act i ci ng exper t t hi nki ng wi t h ef f ect i ve gui dance/ f eedback 1. Assi gnment - - Read c hapt er on el ec t r i c c ur r ent . Lear n basi c f act s and t er mi nol ogy . Shor t qui z t o c hec k / r ewar d. 2. Cl ass bui l t ar ound s er i es of ques t i ons .  2  3  (%)  1  When s wi t c h i s c l os ed, bul b 2 wi l l a. s t ay s ame br i ght nes s , b. get br i ght er c . get di mmer , d. go out .  A  B  C  D  3. I ndi vi dual ans wer wi t h c l i c k er ( account abi l i t y , pr i med t o l ear n)  4. Di scuss wi t h “ c ons ens us gr oup” , r ev ot e. ( pr of l i st en i n! ) 5. Show r es pons es . El i c i t s t udent r eas oni ng. Do “ exper i ment . ” - - s i mul at i on.  E  Pr ac t i c i ng ex per t - l i k e t hi nk i ng- Chal l engi ng but doabl e t asks/ quest i ons  Expl i ci t f oc us on ex per t - l i k e t hi nk i ng • conc ept s and ment al model s • r ec ogni z i ng r el ev ant & i r r el ev ant i nf or mat i on • sel f - c hec k i ng, s ens e mak i ng, & r ef l ec t i on Pr ovi de ef f ec t i v e f eedbac k ( t i mel y and s pec i f i c) “ c ogni t i v e c oac h”  Onl y a s t ar t ! Fol l ow up wi t h homewor k pr obl ems t o do muc h mor e of t he s ame!  Some Data: Model 1 ( t el l i ng) t r adi t i onal l ec t ur e met hod  •  Ret ent i on of i nf or mat i on f r om l ec t ur e 10% af t er 15 mi nut es  •  >90 % af t er 2 days  Fr act i on of c onc ept s mas t er ed i n c our s e 15- 25%  •  Model 2 sci ent i f i c t eachi ng  > 50- 70% wi t h r et ent i on  Bel i ef s about s c i enc e- - what i t i s , how t o l ear n,  si gni f i cant l y l ess ( 5- 10%) l i ke sci ent i st  mor e l i ke sci ent i st  Summar y: Sci ent i f i c appr oac h t o phy s i c s educ at i on. Under st and and t eac h phy s i c s ex per t i s e.  Good Ref s . : NAS Pr ess “ How peopl e l ear n” Redi sh, “ Teac hi ng Phy s i c s ” ( Phy s . Ed. Res . ) Wi eman, Change Magaz i ne- Oc t . 07 at www. c ar negi ef oundat i on. or g/ c hange/  CLASS bel i ef sur vey:  CLASS. col or ado. edu  phet si mul at i ons : phet . c ol or ado. edu cwsei . ubc . c a- - r es our c es , Gui de t o ef f ec t i ve use of cl i cker s  n  Not  c l i c k er s * aut omat i c al- l y hel pf ul - gi v e ac c ount abi l i t y , anony mi t y , f as t r esponse  Used/ per c ei v ed as ex pens i v e at t endanc e and t est i ng devi ce l i t t l e benef i t , s t udent r es ent ment .  Used/ per cei v ed t o enhanc e engagement , c ommuni cat i on, and l ear ni ng e t r ans f or mat i v e  chal l engi ng ques t i ons - - c onc ept s •st udent - st udent di s c us s i on ( “ peer i ns t r uc t i on” ) & r esponses ( l ear ni ng and f eedbac k ) •f ol l ow up i ns t r uc t or di s c us s i on- t i mel y s pec i f i c f eedback •m i ni mal but nonz er o gr ade i mpac t •  * An i ns t r uc t or ' s gui de t o t he ef f ec t i v e use of per sonal r es pons e s y s t ems ( " c l i c k er s " ) i n t eac hi ng- -  I mpl i cat i ons f or i ns t r uc t i on  Student beliefs about science and science problem solving important! • •  Bel i ef s im cont ent l ear ni ng Bel i ef s - - power f ul f i l t er r et ent i on  choi c e of maj or &  • Teachi ng pr act i ces  st udent s’ bel i ef s t y pi c al s i gni f i cant decl i ne ( phys and  Avoi d dec l i ne i f ex pl i c i t l y addr es s bel i ef s.  Why i s t hi s wor t h l ear ni ng? How does i t c onnec t t o r eal wor l d? How connec t s t o t hi ngs s t udent k nows / mak es sense?  UBC CW Sc i enc e Educ at i on I ni t i at i v e and U.  Col . SEI  f r om “ bl oodl et t i ng t o ant i bi ot i c s ” i n s c i enc e educat i on Changi ng educ at i onal c ul t ur e i n maj or r es ear ch uni ver si t y sci ence depar t ment s necessar y f i r s t s t ep f or s c i enc e educ at i on over al l  •  Depar t ment al l ev el  sci ent i f i c appr oach t o t eachi ng, al l under gr ad cour ses = l ear ni ng goal s, measur es, t est ed best pr act i ces Di ssemi nat i on and dupl i cat i on. Al l mat er i al s , as s es s ment t ool s , et c t o be avai l abl e on web  Data 2. Conceptual understanding in traditional course  el ec t r i c i t y  1  Er i c Maz ur ( Har v ar d Uni v . ) End of cour s e. 70% can c al c ul at e c ur r ent s and vol t ages i n t hi s c i r c ui t .  onl y 40% c or r ec t l y pr edi c t c hange i n br i ght nes s of bul bs when s wi t c h cl osed!  8V A 12 V  2  1  B  El ect r i ci t y & Magnet i sm concept s 6 0  Cons umer behav i or c l as s  t est of mas t er y ( s c or e)  1. 5 yr s l at er 4 0  2 0  r l iatt lere , s tbel Cl i c k t o edi t ~1/ Mas2t er¼ syubt y l eow 0. 2 af t er 2 yr s  1. 0. 1. 0 5 5 t i me f r om begi nni ng of c our s e ( yr s)  2. 0  Hi ghl y I nt er ac t i v e educ at i onal s i mul at i ons - phet . col or ado. edu ~80 s i mul at i ons phy s i cs & chem FREE, Run t hr ough r egul ar br ows er Bui l d- i n & t es t t hat dev el op ex per t - l i k e t hi nki ng and l ear ni ng ( & f un)  bal l oons and s weat er  l aser  Char ac t er i s t i c s of exper t t ut or s * ( Whi c h c an be dupl i c at ed i n c l as s r oom?) Mot i vat i on maj or f ocus ( c ont ex t , pi que c ur i osi t y, . . . ) Never pr ai s e per s on- - l i mi t ed pr ai s e, al l f or pr ocess Under st ands what s t udent s do and do not k now. U t i mel y, s pec i f i c , i nt er ac t i v e f eedbac k Al most nev er t el l s t udent s any t hi ng- - pos e quest i ons. Most l y st udent s ans wer i ng ques t i ons and ex pl ai ni ng. Aski ng r i ght ques t i ons s o s t udent s c hal l enged but can f i gur e out . Syst emat i c pr ogr es s i on. Let st udent s mak e mi s t ak es , t hen di s c ov er and f i x. Requi r e r ef l ec t i on: how s ol v ed, ex pl ai n, gener al i ze, et c.  * Lepper and Wool v er t on pg 135 i n I mpr ovi ng Academi c  

Cite

Citation Scheme:

    

Usage Statistics

Country Views Downloads
United States 13 0
China 6 4
Canada 6 1
France 3 0
Germany 1 18
Belgium 1 1
City Views Downloads
Unknown 6 18
Shenzhen 5 2
Ashburn 4 0
Ottawa 3 0
Vancouver 3 1
Wilmington 2 0
Mountain View 2 0
Redmond 1 0
Sunnyvale 1 0
Beijing 1 2
Vernon 1 0
Brussels 1 1

{[{ mDataHeader[type] }]} {[{ month[type] }]} {[{ tData[type] }]}
Download Stats

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.8074.1-0041687/manifest

Comment

Related Items