APS Northwest Section 11th Annual Meeting

The Dark Side of the Universe 2009

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 The Dar k Si de of  t he Uni ver se L.  Van Waer beke APSNW may 15t h 2009  PLANCK & HERSCHEL launched may 14th 2009  The Bi g- Bang model Power spectrum: AnknS ATknT σ8/An, dns/dlnk End of dark age: flash Re-ionisation: τ , z τ • Ωm • Ω λ,w • Ω ν • Ω γ • Ωb • Ωk • η=nb/n γ Age and expansion rate: t + h Last scattering surface:  zdec, tdec, ∆zdec Primordial fluctuations: origin? Nature? Dark matter halos and baryon coupling:  mass and light biasing  properties b,r   SDSS Gal axy di st r i but i on Lar ge Scal e St r uct ur es  Under st andi ng t he cont ent  of  t he Uni ver se i s a bi t  l i ke t r y i ng t o under st and what  exi st s at  t he sur f ace of t he Ear t h onl y f r om what  you can “ see”  out er  space  EVI DENCE f or  DARK MATTER Cornelia Parker Cold Dark Matter: An Exploded View, 1991  NGC3198 Spi r al  gal axi es r ot at i on cur ves  Dynamics of cluster of galaxies Abel 1689  Dark matter in clusters was “discovered” in 1933 (Zwicky) based On dynamical arguments and always systematically confirmed with newer observations.  Gr avi t at i onal  l ensi ng as a pr obe of  dar k mat t er  St r ong gr avi t at i onal  l ensi ng  Weak gr avi t at i onal  l ensi ng  Gavazzi et a. 2007 Mass versus stellar profile of early-type galaxies (from strong and weak lensing)  Mass to light ratio as function of scale  Dar k Mat t er  has been det ect ed by sever al  i ndependent  pr obes: - dynami cal - gr avi t at i onal  l ensi ng - Xr ay ( dynami cal - c l ust er s of  gal axi es) - Cosmi c mi cr owave backgr ound Wi l ki nson Mi cr owave Ani sot r opy Pr obe Map of  t he phot on t emper at ur e f l uct uat i ons “ r el eased”  when t he Uni ver se was onl y 300000 year s ol d.  EVI DENCE f or  DARK ENERGY …none yet, but cosmological constant, yes! “ f l ui ds”  pr esent  i n t he Uni ver se: • Mat t er  ( bar yons and dar k mat t er ) • Radi at i on ( phot ons,  e. g.  cosmi c mi cr owave backgr ound) • Unknown f l ui d? ( wi t h speci f i c  equat i on of  st at e) I deal  gas equat i on of  st at e:  PV=nkBT Unknown f l ui d equat i on of  st at e:  P=wε The cosmol ogi cal  const ant  “ Λ”  has w=- 1 A cosmol ogi cal  const ant  i s al l owed by G. R. Dar k ener gy i s a cosmol ogi cal  const ant  wi t h w not  - 1  Ef f ect  of  a cosmol ogi cal  const ant  on t he Uni ver se Mat t er  domi nat ed Wi t h cosmol ogi cal  const ant  Mat t er Co s m o lo gi c a l c o n s ta n t Combi nat i on of  t he cosmi c mi cr owave backgr ound  and l ar ge scal e st r uct ur e di st r i but i on  Super novae of  t ype I a ar e “ st andar d candl es”  Super novae di mmi ng wi t h Redshi f t  consi st ent  wi t h a cosmol ogi cal  const ant . Fr i edman 2009  Combi ned const r ai nt s f r om al l  cosmol ogi cal  dat a   Fr om WMAP The cosmol ogi cal  pi e  w~- 1  Physi cal  or i gi n of  Dar k Mat t er … The bul l et  c l ust er :  Br adac et  al .  2006, Cl owe et  al .  2006. …not known, but… Dark Matter is Dissipationless/ pressureless Blue: dark matter Pink: hot gas (Xray)  • Dar k mat t er  cannot  be made of  dar k compact  obj ect s ( e. g.  br own dwar f s)  const r ai nt s f r om MACHO • Dar k mat t er  cannot  be bar yoni c anyway ( const r ai nt s f r om nucl eosynt hesi s) • Dar k mat t er  cannot  be neut r i nos onl y ( st r ong mass const r ai nt f r om CMB and LSS) • Dar k mat t er  coul d be weakl y i nt er act i ng par t i c l es ( WI MPS) . Di r ect  and i ndi r ect  det ect i on exper i ment s under  way. • Dar k mat t er  coul d be no mat t er  at  al l ,  j ust  modi f i ed gr avi t y, but  sever e obser vat i onal  const r ai nt s ar e comi ng… What  coul d dar k mat t er  be and not  be… How can we pr obe dar k mat t er ?  Physi cal  or i gi n of  Dar k Ener gy… so f ar  no evi dence of  devi at i on f r om cosmol ogi cal  const ant and t he ampl i t ude of  DE/ cosmol ogi cal  const ant  r emai ns one of  t he maj or  i ssues i n physi cs ( f i ne t uni ng) . ΩΛQFT ~ 1 0 1 2 0  ΩΛcosmo  Uzan 2007 Standard matter gµν φ Standard matter gµν φ Standard Matter Aµ gµν Standardmatter Gµν (i) Ex: Quintessence, Chaplyin gas, K-essence,…. Ex: photon-Axion mixing Ex: scalar-tensor theories, f(R), Chameleon,… Ex: Brane-induced gravity, multiD Obs: CMB T(z) Obs: test of Poisson eq., variation Of constants Obs: strong field effects (BH, GW), Local tests of gravity  - DE equat i on of  s t at e:  hi gh pr eci s i on obser vat i on of i nt er medi at e r edshi f t uni ver se ( gal axy phot omet r i c  and spect r oscopi c sur veys)  - > access t o space and upcomi ng gr ound based f ac i l i t i es Coper ni c i an r evol ut i on made possi bl e f r om accur at e obser vat i ons ( Tycho+Kepl er ) - Mor e t heor et i cal  i nvest i gat i ons ar e absol ut el y  necessar y: None of  t he pr oposed expl anat i ons r esol ve t he cosmol ogi cal  const ant f i ne t uni ng pr obl em A wor r y i s :  i s  t her e enough obser vat i onal  const r ai nt s avai l abl e t o f ul l y char act er i ze one or  mor e of  t he dar k ener gy model s? For t unat el y we don’ t  have t o expl ai n somet hi ng whi ch has not  been obser ved yet   How t o pr obe dar k ener gy  i f  w i s  di f f er ent  f r om - 1?  What  shoul d you t ake away f r om t hi s t al k? Over  t he past  100 year s,  cosmol ogy has become a sol i d sci ence,  based on obser vat i ons and f al s i f i abl e assumpt i ons. Thi s l ead t o t he ast oundi ng concl usi on t hat  95% of  t he  Uni ver se i s unknown dar k st uf f .  Ther e i s undi sput ed evi dence t hat  somet hi ng i s f undament al l y i ncompl et e i n t  he Bi g Bang model . Cosmol ogy has al so t ur ned i n a bi g sci ence wi t h t he need f or  expensi ve,  i nt er nat i onal  pr oj ect s,  whi ch i s exci t i ng but  coul d al so be f r ust r at i ng.

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