West Coast Conference on Formal Linguistics (WCCFL) (38th : 2020)

Raising, phase unlocked Lee, Tommy Tsz-Ming; Yip, Ka-Fai 2020-03-06

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2. Hyper-raisingEmbedded clauses as CP• Complementizers (waa for Cantonese, là/rằng for Vietnamese)• Topic constructions(3)Movement, not base generation • Idioms preservation(4)• Non-idioms with synonyms:(5)A-movement, instead of A’-movement• Landing site: subject (A-position), not topic (A’-position)(6)• Subject-object asymmetry (vs. object-topicalization is possible)(7)                                                                                                     (subject)(*object)• A-movement creates binding possibilities(8) Raising, phase unlockedTommy Tsz-Ming Lee1, Ka-Fai Yip21University of Southern California, 2The Chinese University of Hong Kong 1tszmingl@usc.edu, 2kafaiyip@cuhk.edu.hkThe 38th meeting of the West Coast Conference on Formal Linguistics (WCCFL38)March 6-8, 2020 at The University of British Columbia1. IntroductionCross-linguistic variation of raising-to-subject constructions • English: bans subjects raising from finite clauses/ CPs(1)• Cantonese & Vietnamese:(2)Research Questions:• Is the apparent raising pattern a genuine one (i.e. hyper-raising, HR)? (§2)• What differentiates the two classes of attitude verbs? (§3)• Why is hyper-raising possible and how is it derived syntactically? (§4)(i) Raising Attitude Verbs (RAVs)gamgok [C], cảm giác [V] ‘feel like’ tengman [C], nghe nói [V] ‘hear’soengseon [C], tin là [V] ‘believe’waaiji [C], nghi là [V] ‘suspect’gugai [C], đoán là [V] ‘guess’gong-gan [C] ‘talk-PROG’ waa-zo [C] ‘say-PERF’(ii) Non-raising Attitude Verbs (NRAVs)zidou [C], biết [V] ‘know’,geidak [C], nhớ [V] ‘remember’,jingwai/gokdak [C], nghĩ/cho [V] ‘think’gamgok-dou [C], cảm-thấy [V] ‘feel-RESULT’,teng-dou [C], nghe-được [V] ‘hear-RESULT’gu-dou [C], đoán-được [V] ‘guess-RESULT’ 8. Selected references: ● von Fintel, K., & Gillies, A. S. 2010. Must... stay... strong! NLS, 18(4), 351-383. ● Halpert, C. 2019. Raising, unphased. NLLT, 37(1), 123-165. ● Rackowski, A., & Richards, N. 2005. ‘Phase edge and extraction: A Tagalog case study’. LI, 36(4), 565-599. 3. An evidential componentEvidentiality in attitude reports• Compatibility with direct evidence: *RAVs vs. OKNRAVs(9)• (i) RAVs: specified for indirect evidencee.g. inferential gamgok; hearsay tengman (cf. hearsay evidential marker wo5, Tang 2015)• (ii) NRAVs: not a unified classe.g. gamgok-dou with direct evidence; unspecified gokdak; factive zidouRAVs are similar to epistemic modals• Epistemic must involves indirect inference/ deduction instead of direct observation (von Fintel & Gillies 2010) → also similar to evidence markers of indirect evidence4. Phase unlockingTheoretical challenges imposed by hyper-raising• (I) Phase theory/ PIC: Embedded subjects on Spec,TP are inaccessibleto the higher phase• (II) Improper Movement: Embedded subjects cannot move to matrixSpec,TP (A-poisiton) through Spec,CP (A’-position)Phase unlocking (Rackowski & Richards 2005, Halpert 2019)• Relax (I) by agreeing with the phase• Featural setup:a. Two (null) C heads: C[iEV] vs. CCP[iEV] denotes evidence-based proposition b. RAVs have [uEV], but not NRAVs• Step 1:An RAV c-selects and agrees with a CP phasewith [iEV], unlocking the phase• Step 2:The embedded subject is accessible to matrix TP now, and raises to its Spec to satisfy T’s [EPP]6. ConclusionThe role of lexical semantics in raising • HR as syntactic reflex of indirect evidence in C&V• Raising possibilities among verbs are not entirely idiosyncratic (contra. Polinsky 2013)Phase unlocking by an Agree relation• Explains the selectivity of PIC7. Acknowledgments: We thank Sheila Chan for Cantonese data and Nguyen Thi Hong Quy for Vietnamese data. 5. Alternative analysesRelax (I) by Exfoliation (Pesetsky 2019)• PIC is voided by removing phase head C • Problem: Hyper-raising with overt C heads in (2)Relax (II) by assuming C[A] (Fong 2019)• C carries A-features, rendering Proper Movement• Problem: Subjects do not stop at embedded Spec,CP* [ … RAV [Subj [C … ]]] in Cantonese & Vietnamese✗(II) (I) ✗

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