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World Sanskrit Conference (WSC) (17th : 2018)

Modern Sanskrit Poetry in Global Perspective Sharma, Hari Dutt 2019

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 Modern Sanskrit Poetry in Global Perspective Hari Dutt Sharma Proceedings of the 17th World Sanskrit Conference, Vancouver, Canada, July 9-13, 2018, Section 18: Modern Sanskrit Writings.  Section Convenors: Deven Patel, Hari Dutt Sharma
General Editor: Adheesh Sathaye Published by the Department of Asian Studies, University of British Columbia, on behalf of the International Association for Sanskrit Studies. DOI: 10.14288/1.0391831.
URI:  Suggested Citation Format: MLA:
Sharma, Hari Dutt. “Modern Sanskrit Poetry in Global Perspective.” Proceedings of the 17th World Sanskrit Conference, Vancouver, Canada, July 9-13, 2018, Section 18: Modern Sanskrit Writings. Edited by Deven Patel and Hari Dutt Sharma, 2019. DOI: 10.14288/1.0391831. APA:
Sharma, H. D. (2019). Modern Sanskrit poetry in global perspective. In D. Patel & H. D. Sharma (Eds.) Proceedings of the 17th World Sanskrit Conference, Vancouver, Canada, July 9-13, 2018, Section 18: Modern Sanskrit Writings. DOI: 10.14288/1.0391831. Chicago:
Sharma, Hari Dutt. 2019. “Modern Sanskrit Poetry in Global Perspective.” In Proceedings of the 17th World Sanskrit Conference, Vancouver, Canada, July 9-13, 2018, Section 18: Modern Sanskrit Writings, edited by Deven Patel and Hari Dutt Sharma. DOI: 10.14288/1.0391831. Proceedings of the 17th World Sanskrit Conference, July 9-13, 2018 University of British Columbia, Vancouver, CanadaTHE   17TH    WORLD   SANSKRIT  CONFERENCEVANCOUVER, CANADA • JULY 9-13, 2018वैधुसव ्मकबुंटुकअ ारा यसं तृा यनसमवायःINTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF SANSKRIT STUDIESCopyright © 2019 by the author. Content is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 4.0 International license (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0). THE 17TH WORLD SANSKRIT CONFERENCE, VANCOUVER, CANADA, JULY 9-13, 2018 Modern Sanskrit Poetry in Global Perspective Hari Dutt Sharma Allahabad, India. Abstract In the modern age, the stream of Sanskrit poetry is flowing with a galaxy of new trends and tendencies. The multi-colored face of the Maid with fresh emotions is now remarkably visible. The sphere of this poetry is not limited to the soil of In-dia, but it has crossed the border and spread widely in the world. A great variety of pictures of different countries are visible in it. This type of foreign-oriented poetry emerged in Sanskrit in the later half of the twentieth century, when San-skrit scholars gifted with poetic genius happened to visit several foreign coun-tries under various academic and cultural programs. They expressed their heart-felt experiences and elaborated on the position of Sanskrit, institutions and scholars in the countries they visited, along with the cultural environment, air-plane travel, landscapes, urban spaces, and other sights. The poetry is replete with the cultural and literary journey of the poet. Among the main masterpieces of this type are: Germany-yātrā-varṇanam, Swiss-deśe prakṛti-varṇanam, Śarmaṇya-deśaḥ sutarām vibhāti, Thāi-deśa-vilāsam, Bhūloka-vilokanam, Ruṣiyā-śatakam, Bhāti Maurīśasam, Bālī-pratyabhijñāna-śatakam, Bālī-vilāsam, Rasapriyā Paris-rājadhānī, Amerikā, Amerikā-vaibhavam, Vaideśikāṭanam, Śarmaṇyāḥ prācyavidaḥ, Deśadig-varṇana-mahākāvyam, etc. The countries mainly covered by the poets are Ger-many, France, Switzerland, Russia, America, England, Holland, Italy, Thailand, Indonesia, Mauritius, etc. On the lines of such poems there arose series of po-ems containing international consciousness and modern ideologies. The kāvyas like Lenināmṛtam, Lenin-kusumāñjaliḥ, Karl-Marx-śatakam, Patra-dūtam, Maxim-Gorkī-Pañcaśatī, Kristu-bhāgavatam, etc., and a number of pieces of poems fall in this category. A large part of the world and global ideas are covered by these po-ets in their compositions, which show peculiar trend of modernism in Sanskrit poetry. Keywords: Global, foreign-oriented, natural phenomena, travelogue, ideologies. Proceedings of the 17th World Sanskrit Conference, Vancouver, Canada, July 9-13 2018, Section 18: Modern Sanskrit Writings, edited by Deven Patel and Hari Dutt Sharma, 2019. DOI: 10.14288/1.0391831. SHARMA 2In the modern age, the stream of Sanskrit poetry is flowing with a galaxy of new trends and tendencies. The multi-colored face of the maiden with fresh emo-tions and sensations is now remarkably visible. The sphere of this poetry is not limited to the soil of India, but it has crossed the border and spread widely in the world. A great variety of pictures of different countries are visible in it. This type of foreign-oriented poetry emerged in Sanskrit in the later half of the twentieth century, when Sanskrit scholars gifted with poetic genius happened to visit sev-eral foreign countries for studies, research, lectures and conferences under vari-ous academic and cultural programs. They expressed their heartfelt experiences and described a lot about the position of Sanskrit, institutions and scholars in the countries visited, cultural environment, journey by airplane, beauties of na-ture, rivers, seas, mountains, forests, cities, villages, paths, buildings, libraries, museums, monuments, historic places, etc. The poetry is replete with the cultur-al and literary journey of the poet.  The first and oldest masterpiece in this category has come to the notice of Sanskrit scholars a little late. A historical kāvya named Jarmanī-kāvyam by Raja Shyam Kumar Tagore, printed in Leipzig, Germany, first came into light in 1913. In 10 cantos the poet depicts the political history of Germany in detail. He also describes geographical boundaries and features of ancient German society. The book was less known in India. Credit goes to Dr. Chandra Bhushan Jha of Delhi, who has first brought it into light now. In modern times, Prof. T. V. Parameswara Iyer, who was born in 1915 in Calicut, Kerala, was an earlier visitor of France, East Germany, Sweden, West Indies etc. He also stayed in Switzerland for many years as a Professor of San-skrit literature. Concerning his foreign tours, two of his poetic works came into light: Germany-yātrā-varṇanam and Swiss-deśe Prakṛti-varṇanam. Describing the beautiful snowfall of Switzerland, he says: adṛśyāmbhastale 'muṣmin kāsāre dhūmikāvṛte | 
kṣīrāmbhonidhirevāyam iti jātā matir mama || 
(Parameswara Iyer, Swiss-deśe prakṛti-varṇanam,  18). In the pool covered with snow, in which the level of water is invisible, it appeared to me that it is really the milky sea.  The poet Parameswara Iyer also translated the national songs of Switzer-land, Germany, and Sweden into Sanskrit. The great introducer of this stream of foreign-oriented poetry is Padmab-hushan Prof. Satyavrat Shastri, a Gyanpeetha awardee scholar. Prof. Shastri left for Germany in 1975 on an academic tour. Consequently he composed a poetic  Modern Sanskrit Poetry in Global Perspective 3work named Śarmaṇya-deśaḥ Sutarām Vibhāti (Shastri 1976). When he departed to Thailand in 1977 as Visiting Professor of Sanskrit, he wrote a kāvya entitled Thai-deśa-vilāsam (Shastri 1979). Prof. Shastri has become immortal by writing a mahākāvya, Śrī-Rāmakīrti-mahākāvyam of 25 cantos on the story of the Thai Rāmāyaṇa, the Rāmakien (Shastri 1990). As per the pen of the poet, Germany is situated in the middle of the European continent. Converting the word “German” into “Śarmaṇya,” he puts his experiences before the galaxy of connoisseurs in the following way: Europe-bhūmaṇḍala-madhyavartī
 pāram samṛddheḥ paramabhyupetaḥ |
nānā-nadī-prasravaṇaiḥ suramyaḥ
 śarmaṇya-deśaḥ sutarām vibhāti || 
(Shastri, Śarmaṇya-deśaḥ sutarām vibhāti, 6). On the one side the poet describes the natural beauty and prosperity of Germany, on the other side position of education and Sanskrit studies in that country. Germany is the main centre of Sanskrit learning. The poet has deep in-terest in describing his experiences in relation with Sanskrit institutions and scholars. The poet becomes very happy after meeting the Sanskrit scholars work-ing in the Institute of Indology at Phillips University in Marburg. Another im-portant centre is the Sanskrit centre in Göttingen University, where the hymns from the Atharvaveda are marked on the door of the house. Again the poet be-comes joyous to visit Indologiches Seminar in Bonn University, and to have a close contact  with  the great Sanskritist, Prof. Michael Hahn. In the same way the poet gets fresh experiences by visiting the Institute of Indology in Heidel-berg and the Sanskrit Centre in Tübingen. In the intervals the poet gives a vivid description of rivers, mountains, villages, and natural phenomena in Germany. When Prof. Shastri became appointed as Visiting Professor of Sanskrit first in Chulalonkorn University and again in Silpakorn University in Bangkok, Thailand, he actually entered the soul of the country and then composed a beau-tiful kāvya, Thāideśa-vilāsam. In the beginning the poet describes the geographi-cal situation of the country in this way : asty eśiyā-nāmani suprasiddhe
 dvīpe viśāle 'tiviśālakīrtiḥ |
 deśo 'tiramyo bhuvi thāilaṇḍaḥ || 
(Shastri, Thāideśa-vilāsam, 1).  SHARMA 4The ancient name of this country is Siam. It is a Buddhist nation. There are plenty of magnificent Buddha temples in Thailand. On the one side it is a country having strong faith in Buddha’s sermons, on the other side people have deep interest in the Rāmāyaṇa and the cult of Rāma. Dramatic performances based on the Rāma story are staged here with great eclat. The marvellous mural paintings based on the Rāmakien are carved with colours on the walls of the Grand Palace in Bangkok. Prof. Shastri depicts the country of Thailand by four elements: religion, nation, king, and culture. Thus he has abundantly exposed the history, culture and position of Sanskrit in Thailand.  The celebrated Sanskrit poet Prof. Prabhakar Narayana Kawathekar jour-neyed to many countries, among which the most prominent ones are: Paris (France) in 1973, Philadelphia (America) in 1978, Canada in 1980, Vienna (Austria) in 1982, Melbourne (Australia) in 1990, Indonesia, Britain, Switzerland, etc. He produced a kāvya Bhūloka-vilokanam (Kawathekar 2001) on some of these foreign visit, which starts with a journey by airplane. There are twenty four titles in the book, in which the poem “Vimānabālā” earned much popularity. Besides it we find descriptions of Germany in “Europe-rūpam ramaṇīyam eva śarmaṇyadeśe,” of Frankfurt city in “Frankfurt-nagaram,” of Paris, the capital of France, in “Parisam nagaram varam,” “Paris-nagare kālidāsam smarāmi,” “Rātrau tu Parisam,” “Parise navavāma-pravartanam,” “Lūvra-vastu-saṅgrahālayaḥ,” “Vijñānam api Parise,” “Parise rātrau parīkathā,” etc. London in “Londonam nandanam bhuvaḥ,” Holland and Switzerland are described in a beatuiful way in the poems “Holland-varṇanam” and  “Switzerland-pravāsaḥ.” The poet visits the world-famous Louvre Museum situated on the bank of the River Seine near Sorbonne University. He describes imaginatively as similar to the viśvarūpadarśana of the Śrīmadbhagavadgītā: Sorbonne-samīpe sarito 'nyatīre 
mahālayo vastu-susaṅgrahasya |
lūvreti nāmnā prathito vibhāti
mukham murārer ive viśvarūpam || 
(Kawathekar, Bhūloka-vilokanam, 203) Dr. Ramakant Shukla, the famous poet and Secretary of the Devavani Parishad, Delhi, departed on a tour of Mauritius for the first time in 1984. Con-sequently he wrote a kāvya Bhāti Maurīśasam (Shukla 1984), in which the affection for Sanskrit, the passion for the Rāmāyaṇa, and the virtue-attraction in Mauri-tius are depicted. Side by side, he has displayed a handsome picture of the nat-ural beauty, temples of gods and cultural conjunction of the country. Consider-ing Mauritius as another form of India, the poet says:  Modern Sanskrit Poetry in Global Perspective 5bhāratāmbhodhi-muktāphalam bhāsvaram
pūrvarūpam pṛthivyām divaḥ sundaram |
bhāratam rūpamevāparam dhārayat
bhāti maurīśasam bhāti maurīśasam || 
(Shukla, Bhāti Maurīśasam, 1). In 1984, when the 6th World Sanskrit Conference was held at the University of Pennsylvania, in Philadelphia, Dr. Shukla went to participate in it. Being im-pressed with all happenings there he wrote a poem, “Philadelphia,” which con-tains the whole organization of the World Sanskrit Conference. The high-placed Sanskrit poet Abhiraj Rajendra Mishra visited Bali in In-donesia for two years as Visiting Professor of Sanskrit. By dint of his poetic ge-nius he composed three kāvyas, Bālī-pratyabhijñāna-śatakam (Mishra 1995a), Bālī-vilāsam (Mishra 1995b), and Mṛgāṅkadūtam (Mishra 2003). The poet has exposed the internal as well as external beauty of Bālī island in a lucid style. Describing the same he says: Prācyām vibhāti dharaṇī-ramaṇī-vihāra- 
prāsādakalpa udadhau mahati praśānte |
dvīpottamo rajatadīdhiti-bālināmā  || 
(Mishra, Bālī-vilāsam, 1). Prof. Mishra feels pleasure by describing the beauty of the seashore in Bālī, the freshness of the forests of coconuts, the beautiful local flowers and fruits. The Aryan culture having its roots for thousands of years is still continu-ing here. So he calls it a little India and a divine abode of Śiva and Pārvatī. Thus he describes the history, geography, and culture of Bālī from  various angles. The honoured Odishan Sanskrit poet Digambar Mahapatra went on a lit-erary tour of Holland and Russia in 1991. He was again invited to Russia in 1995-96. On this journey he wrote a prose book Pāścātya-saṃskṛtam: Videśa-bhra-maṇa-vṛttāntaḥ (Mahapatra 2003a). In the first part, there is a description of starting a flight by airplane, to the whole episode related with Sanskrit and cul-ture of the two countries. In the second part we find a depiction of all events happening in Russia and a picture-presentation of all places worth seeing. In the next phase the poet wrote a kāvya Ruśiyā-śatakam (Mahapatra 2003b) on Russian life as a whole, and his own tour. He has thrown light on the life of Russians, freedom in their lifestyle, their painting, architecture, and the social and cultural environment. Appreciating the richness of Russian art the poet says:  SHARMA 6kim varṇayāni ruṣiyām bahuraṅgayuktām
sthāpatya-citra-bahulā khalu yatra śālāḥ |
saprāṇavat pratikṛti-pracayā vibhānti
haṭṭe catuṣpathataṭe sphuṭameva vāṭe || 
(Mahapatra, Ruśiyā-śatakam, 61). In Mahapatra’s poems, there is a focus on the progress of Russia through communist and socialist  ideology in one way, and in another way it sheds light on the position of Sanskrit in that country. The well-known Vedic scholar Prof. Om Prakash Pandey, after being de-puted by the Indian Council for Cultural Relations, left for France for three years and became appointed as a Visiting Professor of Sanskrit at Sorbonne Universi-ty, Paris. Having been impressed with the glitter of the city of Paris, he com-posed a long poem, Rasapriyā Paris-rājadhānī (Pandey 2005). In this mahākāvya of 11 cantos, the poet has woven a series of sweet and sour experiences of Paris, starting from his departure abroad. He is utterly bewildered to look around this modern city of fun and fashion, glittering with luster. He says that the country of France is sparkling on the earth with its own qualities and glories. The Creator, as if himself as a proficient architect, has built the city Paris with full use of his skill:  iyam eva dharā virājate
 guṇaśobhāprathitā mahītale |
racanā raciteva śilpinā
 ramaṇīyā bhuvi Paris-ābhidhā || 
(Pandey, Rasapriyā Paris-rājadhānī, 2.4). Along with the position of Sanskrit teaching and research in the city, the poet reflects on the over-sensual and sexual approach and luxurious life style of the French people, the natural beauty of France, and the historicity and prosperi-ty of its capital, Paris. The great Sanātana Sanskrit poet Prof. Rewa Prasad Dwivedi of Varanasi has written a kāvya, Amerikā (Dwivedi 2008), on his tour to America in 2001. He has described some famous places and institutes, e.g. Los Angeles, Florida, Dis-neyworld, Las Vegas, San Francisco, etc. The poet visits the famous Golden Gate bridge in San Francisco, and calls it “hemamārga” in Sanskrit. He describes this twin iron gate in this way: adya śāntam udadhim samāgatāḥ
 Sena-Francisas-sañjñake pure |
 Modern Sanskrit Poetry in Global Perspective 7hemamārga iti sāgarodare
 rājate 'tra khalu setur utthitaḥ || 
(Dwivedi, Amerikā, 27).  In his kāvya Prof. Dwivedi mentions Harvard University, where there was a big Sanskrit centre. He finds one manuscript of Bhoja’s Śṛṅgāraprakāśa there. A striking poem, “Vidher homo niṣedhānale,” written by Acharya Dwivedi about the fierce terrorist attack on America on 11th September, 2001, is also included in this composition. The venerable scholar and lyricist Prof. Subhash Vedalankar of Jaipur con-ducted a tour to United States of America in 2006 and 2011. He converted all his experiences in poetic form and composed a mahākāvya of 22 cantos named Amerikā-vaibhavam (Vedalankar 2013). In this book we find a description of the majesty and glory of America, a comparison of Indian and American cultures, the spread of Vedic dharma there, etc. He has described the main American cities and places worth visiting through his experiences. The poet has divided his descriptions under the following titles: “Atlanta-vṛttam,” “Mahānagare Upana-garam,” “Houston-mahānagaram,” “New York-vilāsaḥ,” “New York-vaibhavam,” “North Carolina-yātrā,” “Ocracoke-yātrā,” “Hatteras-dvīpam prati yātrā,” “Tampa (Florida)-darśanam,” “Orlando-vṛttam,” “Chattanooga-Ruby-Falls-darśanam,” “Dhūmagiri (Smoky Mountain)-darśanam,” “Laurel Falls-darśanam,” “Atlanta-downtown-darśanam,” “Continental Olympic park/CNN-darśanam,” etc. Describ-ing the city of Atlanta, the poet says:      aho  dṛṣṭam ramyam nagaram aṭalaṇṭeti viditam
 samāgatyākāśād anila-capalādyānata iha | 
vimānānām bhavyam sthalam idam aho dṛṣṭipatitam
 viśālam sac caitan nanu suramaṇīyam sukhakaram || 
(Vedalankar, Amerikā-vaibhavam, 2.1). Prof. Radha Vallabh Tripathi, a well-known scholar and poet, wrote a poem Dharitrī-darśanam (Tripathi 1991) of five unmeṣas, while leaving for East Germany on an academic visit. Prof. Tripathi describes his thrilling experiences of his journey by airplane starting from boarding into the plane to the landing of the same. How the earth looks like, when one looks at it while flying in the sky. Introducing his journey he writes: kaścid yātrāparigatarucir bhārate pāntha āsīd
 viśvasmin yo bhramaṇa-rasiko draṣṭum utko dharitrīm |
prācyādhītau kalitarucito diṣṭayogam niyogam
 SHARMA 8 lebhe gantum prathitasubhagam prācya-śarmaṇyadeśam || 
(Tripathi, Laharī-daśakam, Dharitrīdarśana-laharī, 1.1). Prof. Hari Dutt Sharma, a celebrated Sanskrit poet, has expressed wide experiences of his foreign visits in exchange programmes, visiting professor-ships, and cultural and literary journeys. First he wrote a number of lyrics like “Yoropīyam,” “Paris-nagarīyam,” “Thāi-bhūmir iyam,” “Navam yugam,” “Nava-saṃsāram kāram kāram,” etc. Later he composed a mahākāvya, Vaideśikāṭanam (Sharma 2017), of 21 cantos covering his experiences of visiting sixteen countries: East Germany, West Germany, France, Netherlands, Austria, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, Italy, Singapore, Mauritius, Scotland, England, America, Japan, and Cambodia. The poet writes poetically all about Sanskrit studies, Sanskrit institu-tions and scholars, and the cultural environment and natural beauty of these countries. Summing up his wide range of experiences he states: saṃsthāneṣu subhāṣitam hi bahubhir vidvadbhir āmelitam
 viṣvag rīti-sunīti-saṃskṛti-diśo vaibhinyam ālokitam |
śailaśreṇi-samudra-kānana-nadī-saundaryam āsevitam
 sarvam saṃskṛta-sevayā sughaṭitam vaideśikam me 'ṭanam || 
(Sharma, Vaideśikāṭanam, 21.160).  Tripurari Sharan Pandey of UP has written Deśadigvarṇana-mahākāvyam (Pandey 1997), in which he has described many countries. He has divided the poem into aṃśas. The description of foreign countries starts from the eighth aṃśa, e.g. “Laṅkāpurī-varṇanam,” “Pakistan-varṇanam,” “Baluchistan-varṇanam,” “Pūrva-baṅgadeśa (Bangladesh)-varṇanam, “Iraq-deśa-varṇam,” “Iran-varṇanam,” “Turuṣkadeśa (Turkey)-varṇanam,” “Java-deśa-varṇanam,” “Malayadvīpa-varṇanam,” “Rūsadeśa (Russia)-varṇanam,” “Brahmadeśa (Burma)-varṇanam,” “Tripiṣṭapa (Tibet)-varṇanam,” etc. Covering a number of some more countries the poet Pandey has depicted here their history, geography, and culture in a broader way.  Dr. Kapil Dev Dwivedi from Gyanpur, U.P., has composed a book of verses named Śarmaṇyāḥ Prācyavidaḥ (Dwivedi 1987). The book is not a travelogue at all; rather, it is based on global perspective, as it contains details of life and works of fifty German Indologists. These include Humboldt, Bopp, Boehtlingk, Roth, Max Müller, Bühler, Jacobi, Winternitz, etc. This is a valuable collection throwing light on the works of these Sanskritists and Indologists. Besides these series of foreign trip-oriented poems there arose a series of poems containing international consciousness and modern ideologies. In the later half of the 20th century, Sanskrit poets began to write poetry on new ide-ologies like communism and Marxism. After returning from his tour of Russia,  Modern Sanskrit Poetry in Global Perspective 9Dr. Padma Shastri of Jaipur wrote a mahākāvya, Lenināmṛtam (Shastri 1973), of 15 cantos throwing light on the socialistic ideology of Lenin. It is a revolutionary poem on the life of the initiator of the Bolshevik revolution. The poet remarks that he has brought out the nectar in the form of this poem after churning the unlimited and fierce ocean of Lenin: niḥsīma-bhīma-kallola-durgamāl-Leninārṇavāt |
yatkiñcin mathanāllabdham mayā tal-Lenināmṛtam || 
(Shastri Lenināmṛtam, 1.2).  Being impressed with the thinking of Lenin, Kewalanand Sharma wrote a poem titled, “Lenin-kusumāñjaliḥ.” Shivadatta Sharma authored a kāvya, Karl Marx-śatakam, on the socialistic theory of this great social reformer and philosopher. Mohan Lal Pandey wrote a poem “Patradūtam” (Pandey 1999) on the topic of the Gulf War. Raghunath Prasad Chaturvedi of Mathura composed a kāvya, Maxim-Gorki-pañcaśatī (Chaturvedi 1989), in five hundred verses, giving a blueprint of the struggle and works of this revolutionary literatteur of Russia. In the start of the book the poet states: Maxim Gorki rūsarāṣṭre tathā sāhityiko 'bhavat |
 sāhityikeṣu viśvasya yena prakhyātir arjitā ||
tad vyaktitve kṛtitve ca mayā pañcaśatī tv iyam |
 likhitā yena tadjñānam viśvalokāya sambhavet || 
(Chaturvedi, Maxim-Gorki-pañcaśatī, 1.2). As a part of international consciousness, two big poems came to light on the life and philosophy of Jesus Christ, namely, Khristu-bhāgavatam, a mahākāvya by P. C. Devasia (1977), and Yīśu-caritam by Vaneshvar Pathak (1989). Poems were also written on the lives of Lord Buddha and Guru Gobind Singh, the great godly incarnations of the Buddhist and Sikh religions. In this context it may be concluded that the stream of modern Sanskrit poetry is flowing in different directions. One such stream is foreign-oriented poetry, which is prevailing now in full swing. Definitely the scope of modern Sanskrit poetry has widened with the introduction of on global perspectives and international ideologies. After having crossed its national boundary this poetry has found extension on the broadened international range. A large part of the world and global ideas are covered by these poets in their compositions, which show a peculiar trend of modernism in Sanskrit poetry. The maiden Sanskrit poetry has become now more charming after finding fresh place in the world.  SHARMA 10Modern Sanskrit poetry having been equipped with this fresh form is glittering more and more in global perspective.  Bibliography Chaturvedi, Raghunath Prasad. 1989. Maxim-Gorkī-Pañcaśatī. Mathura: Shri Raj Rajeshwari Sanskrit Sansthan. Devasia, P. C. 1977. Khristu-bhāgavatam. Trivandrum: Jayabharatam. Dwivedi, Kapil Dev. 1987. Śarmaṇyāḥ Prācyavidaḥ [German Indologists]: 50 Śarma-ṇya-viduṣāṃ Padyātmakaṃ Jīvanavṛttaṃ Kṛtitvaṃ ca. Varanasi: Vishvabharati Book Agency. Dwivedi, Rewa Prasad. 2008. Amerikā. Varanasi: Kalidasa Samsthana. Kawathekar, Prabhakar Narayana. 2001. Bhūloka-vilokanam: Yuropa-yātrāvarṇa-nātmakaṃ Saṃskṛtakāvyam. Delhi: Nag Publishers. Mahapatra, Digambar. 2003a. Pāścātya-saṃskṛtam: Videśa-bhramaṇa-vṛttāntaḥ. Rourkela: Umeshcandra Mahapatra. Mahapatra, Digambar. 2003b. Ruśiyā-śatakam. Rourkela: Umeshcandra Mahapa-tra. Mishra, Abhiraj Rajendra. 1995a. “Bālī-pratyabhijñāna-śatakam.” In Pañcakulyā. Allahabad: Vaijayant Prakashan. Mishra, Abhiraj Rajendra. 1995b. “Bālī-vilāsam.” In Pañcakulyā. Allahabad: Vai-jayant Prakashan. Mishra, Abhiraj Rajendra. 2003. Mṛgāṅkadūtam. Varanasi: Sampurnanand Sans-krit Vishvavidyalaya Prakashan. Pandey, Mohanlal Sharma, Tarashankar Sharma Pandey, and Umesh Shastri. 1999. Patradūtam: Aitihāsikaṃ Khaṇḍakāvyam. Jaipur: Pandey Prakashan. Pandey, Om Prakash. 2005. “Rasapriyā Paris-rājadhānī.” In Rasapriyā-vibhāvanam Delhi: Nag Publishers. Pandey, Tripurari Sharan. 1997. Deśadigdarśanam (Mahākāvyam). Jhakhrasi, Rae-bareli: T. S. Pandey.  Modern Sanskrit Poetry in Global Perspective 11Pathak, Vaneshvar. 1989. Yīśu-caritam: Bāibila-nyūṭesṭāmeṇṭa-saṃskṛtapadyānuvā-daḥ. Ranchi: Satya Bharati. Sharma, Hari Dutt. 2017. Vaideśikāṭanam. Delhi: Rashtriya Sanskrit Sansthan. Shastri, Padma. 1973. Lenināmṛtam. Hoshiarpur: Vishveshvaranand Vedic Shodh Sansthan. Shastri, Satyavrat. 1976. Śarmaṇyadeśaḥ Sutarām Vibhāti. Lucknow: Akhil Bhara-tiya Sanskrit Parishad. Shastri, Satyavrat. 1979. Thāi-deśa-vilāsam. Delhi: Eastern Book Linkers. Shastri, Satyavrat. 1990. Śrī-rāmakīrti-mahākāvyam: Thāi-rāmakathām Āśritya Praṇītam Abhinavaṃ Saṃskṛtamahākāvyam. Bangkok: Mūlāmala Sacadeva Pratiṣṭhānam. Shukla, Ramakant. 1984. Bhāti Maurīśasam. Delhi: Devavani Parishad. Tagore, Raja Shyam Kumar. 1913. Jarmanī-kāvyam. Leipzig. Tripathi, Radha Vallabh. 1991. Laharī-daśakam. Sagar: Sanskrit Parishad, Sagar University. Vedalankar, Subhash. 2013. Amerikā-vaibhavam. Jaipur: Alankar Prakashan. 


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