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The Development of Pāśastobha (The Stunning of Bonds) in Śaiva Initiation, Together with an Analysis… Bang, Junglan 2019

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 The Development of Pāśastobha (The Stunning of Bonds) in Śaiva Initia-tion, Together with an Analysis of the Piṇḍamantras Taught in the Tantrasadbhāva and the Tantrāloka Junglan Bang Proceedings of the 17th World Sanskrit Conference, Vancouver, Canada, July 9-13, 2018, Section 6: Tantra Studies.  Section Convenors: Diwakar Acharya, Michael Slouber, and Judit Törzsök
General Editor: Adheesh Sathaye Published by the Department of Asian Studies, University of British Columbia, on behalf of the International Association for Sanskrit Studies. DOI: 10.14288/1.0391829.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/2429/74648. Suggested Citation Format: MLA:
Bang,Junglan. “The Development of Pāśastobha (The Stunning of Bonds) in Śaiva Initiation, Together with an Analysis of the Piṇḍamantras Taught in the Tantrasadbhāva and the Tantrāloka.” Proceedings of the 17th World Sanskrit Conference, Vancouver, Canada, July 9-13, 2018, Section 6: Tantra Studies. Edited by Diwakar Acharya, Michael Slouber, and Judit Törzsök, 2019. 
DOI: 10.14288/1.0391829. APA:
Bang, J. (2019). The development of pāśastobha (the stunning of bonds) in Śaiva initiation, together with an analysis of the piṇḍamantras taught in the Tantrasadbhāva and the Tantrāloka. In D. Acharya, M. Slouber, & J. Törzsök (eds.) Proceedings of the 17th World Sanskrit Conference, Vancouver, Canada, July 9-13, 2018, Section 6: Tantra Studies. DOI: 10.14288/1.0391829. Chicago:
Bang, Junglan. 2019. “The Development of Pāśastobha (The Stunning of Bonds) in Śaiva Initiation, Together with an Analysis of the Piṇḍamantras Taught in the Tantrasadbhāva and the 
Tantrāloka.” In Proceedings of the 17th World Sanskrit Conference, Vancouver, Canada, 
July 9-13, 2018, Section 6: Tantra Studies, edited by Diwakar Acharya, Michael 
Slouber, and Judit Törzsök. DOI: 10.14288/1.0391829. Proceedings of the 17th World Sanskrit Conference, July 9-13, 2018 University of British Columbia, Vancouver, CanadaCopyright © 2019 by the author. Content is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 4.0 International license (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0). http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/वैधुसव ्मकबुंटुकअ ारा यसं तृा यनसमवायःINTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF SANSKRIT STUDIESTHE   17TH    WORLD   SANSKRIT  CONFERENCEVANCOUVER, CANADA • JULY 9-13, 2018 THE 17TH WORLD SANSKRIT CONFERENCE, VANCOUVER, CANADA, JULY 9-13, 2018 The Development of Pāśastobha (The Stunning of Bonds) in Śaiva Initiation, Together with an Analysis of the Piṇḍamantras Taught in the Tantrasadbhāva and the Tantrāloka Junglan Bang The Institute for Comprehensive Studies of Buddhism, Taisho University Tokyo, Japan. Abstract The yogic practice of pāśastobha (the stunning of bonds) is described at length in the ninth chapter of the Śaiva Trika, Tantrasadbhāva. In Saiddhāntika texts, this practice is not closely associated with initiation, rather it is treated as one of eight pratyayas which are achieved by mantra practice and udghāta. The Trika’s Mālinīvijayottara which is presumably earlier than the Tantrasadbhāva, enumer-ates five different pratyayas and mentions pāśastobha as an optional ritual ac-tion. We can see that the Tantrasadbhāva’s emphasis on pāśastobha differs from previous Śaiva Trika literature. Moreover, the application of pāśastobha in initia-tion seems to be original to the Tantrasadbhāva, especially since Abhinavagupta attests that the secret mantras for the pāśastobha explained in the Tantrāloka are taught in the Tantrasadbhāva. Therefore, this paper aims to examine the process of the adoption of pāśatobha practice into initiation in order to better under-stand the development of Śaiva initiation. This paper will also look at the nature of the textual layers of the Tantrasadbhāva and its incorporation of materials from the Saiddhāntika and from earlier Trika scriptures. Keywords: pāśastobha; pāśaccheda; sapratyayadīkṣā; piṇḍamantra; nādiphāntakrama; Tantrasadbhāva; Tantrāloka. Introduction Initiation is a key to understanding the development of the Śaiva tradition. Un-like Vedic initiation, Śaiva initiation is said to free the initiand from the cycle of transmigration; that is to say, a Śaiva initiand can be liberated through initiation from the bonds that bind him in saṃsāra. In studying the development of Śaiva doctrine, one of most significant questions is how Śaivas attempted to prove the Proceedings of the 17th World Sanskrit Conference, Vancouver, Canada, July 9-13 2018, Section 6: Tantra Studies, edited by Diwakar Acharya, Michael Slouber, and Judit Törzsök, 2019. DOI: 10.14288/1.0391829. BANG 2validity of Śaiva initiation. Pratyaya, in the context of yogic practice or ritual ac-tion, means a sign which proves the accomplishment of the practice or ritual and inspires conviction. Abhinavagupta deals with tulādīkṣā (initiation with scales) in the twentieth chapter of his Tantrāloka. There he refers to the term sapratyayadīkṣā (initiation with a sign) and describes the purification through tulādīkṣā as a ritual which brings forth an immediate sign (sadyaḥpratyayakārin).  1Jayaratha, who wrote a commentary on the Tantrāloka, attests that such a teach-ing is found in the Tantrasadbhāva. Likewise, the three piṇḍamantras for pāśasto-bha (the stunning of bonds) discussed in the twenty-ninth chapter of the Tantrāloka are also said to originate in the Tantrasadbhāva. Indeed, the Tantrasadbhāva which is handed down to us through three Nepalese manuscripts teaches the pāśastobha practice in its section on initiation. However, the associ-ation of pāśastobha with initiation is not a pervasive in all Śaiva works. Pratyayas found in Śaiva literature Eight pratyayas in Saiddhāntika works  An early appearance of the term pāśastobha occurs in the list of eight pratyayas found in Saiddhāntika works. These pratyayas are described as evidence of the supernatural power which can be achieved with mantras and udghātas (a kind of breath retention). For example, in Sārdhatriśatikālottara 21, the eight pratyayas are (1) burning without fire (anagnijvala), (2) destroying trees (vṛkṣālabhana), (3) stunning of bonds (pāśastobhana), (4) destroying the great sins (mahāpā-takanāśana), (5) removing poisons (viṣasaṃharaṇa), (6) causing seeds not to sprout (nirbījakaraṇa), (7) ending possession (grahavināśa), and (8) removing fever (jvaravināśa).   2However, the mantras associated with these pratyayas are eleven in num-ber because the second, third, and fourth pratyayas also include mantras that counteract their effect. Thus mantras for destroying and reviving trees (vṛkṣāpyāyana), for stunning and reviving bonds (pāśotthāpana), and for intensify-ing (mahāpātakagurutva) and lessening sins (mahāpātakalaghutva) are given. In Table 1, the eleven mantras and the required number of breath retentions (udghā- Cf. TAK III, 113 s.v. tūlādīkṣā. For details of the description of this initiation with scales 1in the Tantrasadbhāva’s ninth chapter, see Bang 2018: 224-225,402-405. Sārdhatriśatikālottara 21.1c-3b (verse numbers are from Bhatt’s edition): anagnijvalanaṃ 2caiva vṛkṣasyālabhanaṃ tathā || pāśānāṃ stobhanaṃ caiva mahāpātakanāśanam | viṣasaṃharaṇaṃ caiva nirbījakaraṇaṃ tathā || grahajvaravināśaś ca pratyayo 'ṣṭavidhaḥ smṛtaḥ | The Development of Pāśastobha (The Stunning of Bonds) 3tas) taught in the Sārdhatriśatika are given (the table has been prepared on the basis of the explanation of Rāmakaṇṭha's vivṛti).  3Table 1. The mantras and udghātas for the eight pratyayas in Sārdhatriśativivṛti 21. This same chapter on pratyayas is found in several recensions of the Kālo-ttara, viz., one South Indian recension, Dviśatikālottara 16 (based on IFP tran-script 176), and three Nepalese recensions based on Nepalese manuscript NGMPP B 118-7, i.e., Dviśatikālottara 17 (a 200-verse Kālottara recension), Adhy-uṣṭaśata 20 (a 350-verse Kālottara recension), and Saptaśatika 27 (a 700-verse Kā-lottara recension). The eight signs are identical in these Kālottara recensions, however, the mantras for each pratyaya show slight variants. While the Sārdha-triśatika and its commentary by Rāmakaṇṭha teach the mantras but does not give exact forms,  other Kālottara recensions e.g., the Dviśatika, give the mantras ex4 -Pratyayas Sārdhatriśativivṛti 21 Udghātas1 anagnijvala oṃ rhroṃ hrīṃ namaḥ 1,0002 vṛkṣālabhana vṛkṣāpyāyanaoṃ rhar hrīṃ namaḥ  (oṃ hvaṃ hvaṃ hvaṃ hvaṃ hvaṃ namaḥ)7003 pāśastobhana pāśotthāpanaoṃ hrīṃ rhrau namaḥ (oṃ hrīṃ hyauṃ hrīṃ namaḥ) 5004 mahāpātakagurutva  mahāpātakalaghutvaoṃ hlaṃ hyauṃ hlāṃ namaḥ oṃ hyaṃ hyauṃ hyaṃ namaḥ10,0005 viṣasaṃharaṇa oṃ hvya hyau hlīṃ namaḥ 8006 nirbījakaraṇa oṃ rhroṃ hrīṃ namaḥ 5007 grahanāśana oṃ hrūṃ hrauṃ hrūṃ phaṇ namaḥ 8008 jvaranāśana oṃ huṃ phaṭ huṃ phaṭ huṃ phaṭ phaṭ 5 800 Bhatt 1979: 138-142.3 However, a 300-verse Kālottara based on the above-mentioned Nepalese manuscript (B 4118-7) quotes the mantras directly, albeit in a considerably corrupt form: (1) oṃ hrauṃ hrīṃ namaḥ, (2-1) oṃ hrauṃ uṃ namaḥ, (2-2) oṃ hauṃ oṃ namaḥ, (3-1) oṃ hrīṃ hrauṃ hrīṃ namaḥ, (3-2) oṃ hrīṃ hrauṃ hrīṃ namaḥ, (4-1) oṃ hrīṃ svāṃ hrīṃ namaḥ, (4-2) oṃ hyuṃ hyuṃ hyuṃ namaḥ, and the others are missing. BANG 4plicitly.  In spite of the fact that the mantras in the different recensions are not 5identical, they are similar in that the mantras for the first six pratyayas are en-closed by “oṃ” in the beginning and “namaḥ” at the end; the seventh mantra is enclosed by “oṃ” and “phaṇ namaḥ”; and the last mantra begins with “oṃ” and ends with “huṃ phaṭ” or its derivative form. And in each recension all middle syl-lables are transformed on the basis of the syllable “ha.” Five pratyayas in non-Saiddhāntika works Pratyayas in non-Saiddhāntika Śaiva sources are found in the context of initia-tion. The Trika's Mālinīvijayottara, at 11.35, mentions five pratyayas: (1) bliss (ānanda), (2) a sudden leap (udbhava), (3) trembling (kampa), (4) sleeping (nidrā), and (5) whirling (ghūrṇi).  Abhinavagupta cites this verse in the fifth chapter of 6his Tantrāloka and elucidates that an initiand will simultaneously experience these sensations in five spots of his body: bliss in the genitalia, a sudden leap in the testicles, trembling in the heart, yogic sleep in the palate, and whirling in the dvādaśānta (twelve aṅgulas above the head).  This happens just after the bonds 7 The eleven mantras taught in Dviśatikālottara 16 (IFP 176) are (1) oṃ hrāṃ hrauṃ hraṃ oṃ 5namaḥ, (2-1) oṃ hrūṃ hrauṃ hrūṃ oṃ namaḥ, (2-2) oṃ hvaṃ hvauṃ hvūṃ namaḥ, (3-1) oṃ hrīṃ hrauṃ hrūṃ hrīṃ oṃ namaḥ, (3-2) oṃ raṃ hauṃ raṃ oṃ namaḥ, (4-1) oṃ hlāṃ hlauṃ hlāṃ oṃ namaḥ, (4-2) oṃ hyaṃ hyauṃ hyaṃ oṃ namaḥ, (5) oṃ hyīṃ hyauṃ hyīṃ oṃ namaḥ, (6) oṃ hrāṃ hrauṃ hraṃ oṃ namaḥ, (7) oṃ hrūṃ vauṃ hrūṃ phaṇ namaḥ, and (8) oṃ hraṃ phaṭ auṃ hrauṃ phaṭ. However, the mantras in the Nepalese recension based on Dviśatika 17 (NGMPP B 118-7) are (1) oṃ hraṃ hrauṃ hrūṃ namaḥ, (2) oṃ hrūṃ hrauṃ hrūṃ namaḥ, (3) oṃ hrīṃ hrauṃ hrīṃ namaḥ, (4-1) oṃ hyaṃ hrauṃ svaṃ namaḥ, (4-2) oṃ haṃ heṃ stheṃ namaḥ, (5) oṃ hyāṃ hyaṃ hyīṃ namaḥ, (6) oṃ hyāṃ hauṃ hyīṃ namaḥ, (7) oṃ hraṃ hrauṃ hraṃ namaḥ, (8) oṃ huṃ phaṭ oṃ hroṃ phaṭ huṃ phaṭ. Mālinīvijayottara 11.35: lakṣayec cihnasaṃghātam ānandādikam ādarāt | ānanda udbhavaḥ 6kampo nidrā ghūrṇiś ca pañcamī || – “[The guru] should ascertain carefully that [an ini-tiand] has been struck by the signs beginning with bliss, i.e. bliss, a sudden burst, trembling, sleeping, and whirling as the fifth.” Tantrāloka 5.11: ānandacakraṃ vahnyaśri kanda udbhava ucyate | kampo hṛt tālu nidrā ca 7ghūrṇiḥ syād ūrdhvakuṇḍalī; Jayaratha's Viveka: vahnyaśrīti trikoṇaṃ yoginīvaktram ity arthaḥ | ūrdhvakuṇḍalīti dvādaśāntaḥ | The Development of Pāśastobha (The Stunning of Bonds) 5(pāśas) are removed in the practice of āveśa (possession)  by means of śaktipāta 8(the descent of Śakti).  The practice of pāśastobha is not included in this series of 9pratyayas but is followed by them. It is noteworthy that the Mālinīvijayottara mentions pāśastobha as an ancillary or optional ritual action together with paśu-graha (the seizing of a bound soul).  However, the Tantrasadbhāva adopted the 10eight pratyayas which presumably originated in the Siddhānta, even though the former tradition belongs to the cult of the goddesses Parā, Parāparā, and Aparā. We can find the reason for the Tantrasadbhāva’s inclusion of the eight pratyayas in a verse which says “Liberation is invisible; but it can be proven by visible signs. In order to prove invisible [liberation], the eight pratyayas are taught.”  That is, 11the Tantrasadbhāva introduced the eight pratyayas as the visible signs of libera-tion that occur after initiation. Saiddhāntika terms for the removal of bonds Cutting bonds (pāśaccheda, -viccheda) and slackening of bonds (pāśaviśleṣa) The culmination of initiation is the removal of the bonds of the bound soul. Saiddhāntika scriptures seem not to use the word stobha (stunning or paralysis) in the context of initiation. It becomes clear, when Bhaṭṭa Rāmakaṇṭha glosses pāśāṇāṃ with śarīrāṇāṃ and sthūlaśarīrātmanāṃ in his commentary on the Said-dhāntika Sārdhatriśatikālottara, that for him the stunning occurs to gross bodies  Ūrmikaulārṇava (19v5-6) 2.231c-232 (numbering is based on Dyczkowski's edition): pra8 -calanti mahāpāśā (corr. mahāpāśān cod.) āveśaṃ tasya jāyate || ānanda udbhavaḥ (em. hṛdbhavaḥ cod.) kampo nidrā ghūrmis tu pañcamī | tattvavidvasya deveśi pañcāvasthā bha-vanti hi || – “[When] the great sins are removed, possession arises in him. Five states, i.e. bliss, a leap, trembling, yogic sleep, and whirling as the fifth, occur in [the yogin] who knows reality, O lord of the gods.” Tantrāloka 29.207-8: anayā śodhyamānasya śiśos tīvrādibhedataḥ | śaktipātāc citivyoma-9prāṇanāntarbahistanūḥ || āviśantī rudraśaktiḥ kramāt sūte phalaṃ tv idam | ānandam udbhavaṃ kampaṃ nidrāṃ ghūrṇiṃ ca dehagām || Mālinīvijayottara 11.36: evamāviṣṭayā śaktyā mandatīvrādibhedataḥ | pāśastobhapaśugrahau 10prakurvīta yathecchayā || – “By means of Śakti which has entered [into the initiand] thus, according to the level of [intensity], mild, [middle], and intense, [his guru] should per-form the stunning of bonds and the grasping of the bound soul as he wishes.” Tantrasadbhāva 9.242: sa ca mokṣas tv adṛṣṭas tu sādhyate dṛṣṭahetunā | aṣṭau ye pratyayāś 11coktā [em., cauktā Σ] adṛṣṭasya tu sādhane || BANG 6not to subtle bonds.  Then, what term do Siddhāntas use in the sense of “mak12 -ing an initiand's soul liberated from bonds?” It is pāśaccheda, pāśaviccheda, or pāśaviśleṣa.  The eighth chapter of the Sārdhatriśatikālottara, which deals with 13dīkṣā, mentions pāśaccheda as a rite which an officiant should perform before offering pūrṇāhuti (a complete oblation).  In addition, we can see that the term 14pāśastobha is not used in the ritual context of initiation. However, for Saiddhān-tika authors, the term pāśaccheda, the cutting of bonds, seems to have not been entirely sufficient to describe the state of an initiate whose soul has been freed from bonds by the descent of a higher power through initiation. For instance, Bhaṭṭa Nārāyaṇakaṇṭha claims that the cutting of the bonds does not indicate that they are cut off at the root, citing a verse which he attributes to Sadyojyotiḥ in his commentary on the Mṛgendrāgama’s Kriyāpāda.  Bhaṭṭa Rāmakaṇṭha also 15comments that the expression “cutting of bonds” is a figurative saying that de-notes their (the bonds’) inactive state.  16Another term, pāśaviśleṣa (the slackening of bonds), is found in the Ki-raṇa’s sixth chapter. It is interesting that there Garuḍa raises the question of how the removal of bonds can be proven although the removal is invisible.  Śiva's 17answer to this question (Kiraṇa 6.16) contains an allusion to the Siddhānta's un- Rāmakaṇṭha’s commentary Sārdhatriśati ad 21.10c: pāśānāṃ śarīrāṇāṃ stobhasya 12tadaivodbhūtasyevānumitasya kārakaḥ ||; ad 8.18cd: tataś ca jananānāṃ (conj., janināṃ Bhatt ed., jananīnāṃ Cod.) pāśānāṃ sthūlaśarīrātmanāṃ sarvathā vicchedaḥ | TAK III: 439-441. s.v. pāśaccheda; 442-443, s.v. pāśaviśleṣa.13 Sārdhatriśatikālottara 8.18cd: pāśacchedaṃ tathāstreṇa dadyāt pūrṇāhutiṃ tataḥ ||14 The verse attributed by Nārāyaṇakaṇṭha to Sadyojyotiḥ (Mṛgendrāgama’s Kriyāpāda ad 158.100c-102b): na mūlāt kṛntanaṃ chedaḥ pāśānām iha kīrtyate | aṇor asamplavo yasya tasya chinno vidhīyate | Rāmakaṇṭha’s commentary, Kiraṇatantra ad 5.4 (pāśacchedo yathā prokto mantrarāḍ bha16 -gavāñ chivaḥ | evaṃ śaktinipāto ’pi procyate sopacārataḥ ||): yathā ca pāśānāṃ dīkṣitaṃ pu-ruṣaṃ pratyapravartanam eva ccheda iva ccheda ucyate | na tu vāstavo dvaidhībhāvaḥ |. The text and the translation of this part is based on Goodall 1998: 328-9. Kiraṇatantra 6.15 (Goodall 1998: 149): garuḍa uvāca || pāśaviśleṣaṇārthaṃ tu dīkṣāpi kriyate 17kila | viśleṣo 'pi na dṛśyeta aḍṛṣṭvāt kathaṃ vada ||; the following is the English translation by Goodall (1998: 379): “[Garuḍa spoke:] Now initiation is for the sake of removing bonds and [revealing innate Śivahood, and yet] it is said (kila) that it is ‘performed.’ And yet no removal is seen. Since it is not seen, tell me how [it happens].” The Development of Pāśastobha (The Stunning of Bonds) 7derstanding of the relation between pāśaviśleṣa and pāśastobha. The following is the English translation by Goodall (1998: 379-380): [The Lord spoke:] It is proven that the destruction of the bonds can be brought about by stunning them (pāśastobhāt*). And that is achieved by well-established mantras (śambaraiḥ), for [the powers of] mantras are unthinkable, as [we commonly experience when they effect such super-natural things as] the destruction of physical poison.  (* My insertion.) 18As discussed above, the use of the term pāśastobha in Kālottara literature is only associated with mantra practice. Here, too, pāśastobha seems to indicate a general example of the power of mantras. For instance, mantras paralyse people or make dead people move. The next verse, Kiraṇa 6.17, goes on to describe the efficacy of mantras in bringing a person under the practitioner's control from a distance. The idea that visible signs are required for successful āveśa may be al-luded to, but it does not yet arise clearly here. According to Bhaṭṭa Rāmakaṇṭha’s Kiraṇavṛtti,  the word bonds here means the effects of misdeeds (duṣkṛtakarma). 19Therefore, the act [of pāśastobha], i.e. the stunning of bonds, is carried out by performing prayaścitta (reparation). In other words, Rāmakaṇṭha, at least, does not interpret pāśastobha as proof of a successful initiation, rather, he associates it with karmakṣaya (the destruction of karma) which is to be achieved by prayaścitta. Consequently, he deliberately eliminates the possibility of interpret-ing pāśa-stobha as a mystical sign that arises due to the āveśa.  Kiraṇatantra 6.15-16 (Goodall 1998: 150): bhagavān uvāca || pāśastobhāt kṣayaḥ siddhaḥ 18saṃsiddhaiḥ so ’pi śambaraiḥ | śambarāṇām acintyatvād yathā mūrtaviṣakṣayaḥ || Rāmakaṇṭha’s Kiraṇavṛtti ad 6.16ab: pāśānāṃ duṣkṛtakarmarūpāṇāṃ stobhāt kṣayaḥ | yas19 -māt pāśastobhakarma prayaścittātmakam ucyate tasmāt kṣayo duṣkṛtalakṣaṇānāṃ karmaṇāṃ yena bhavatāṃ siddhaḥ tenātra prathamo hetur anaikāntika ity arthaḥ | asiddhāś cākarmatvād dīkṣāyā mantraśaktir hy ācāryavyāpārābhivyaktā dīkṣety uktam | BANG 8The stunning of bonds (pāśastobha) found in the Tantrasadbhāva Devī's question on pāśastobha The section on pāśastobha in the Tantrasadbhāva  starts with a question by 20Devī.  Her claim is that pāśas (bonds) arise from Māyā in a very subtle and in21 -sentient nature but, at the same time, are separate from Māyā; therefore, they are impossible to be stunned. Although it must be said that the stunning hap-pens to the paśu (the bound soul), Bhairava, nevertheless, taught it as stunning of bonds (pāśastobha). This might be caused by the fact that the pāśa and the paśu are mutually pervaded. However, it is unclear what is actually stunned.  This 22argument seems to be grounded on the Saiddhāntika view.  On this point, it is noteworthy that the redactor(s) of the Tantrasadbhāva insert the above-mentioned verse (Kiraṇatantra 6.16) in Bhairava’s reply to Devi’s question.  However, the word pāśastobhāt in the Tantrasadbhāva implies “from 23the sign, i.e., from the initiate's falling down on the ground after āveśa.” That is, it conveys the opposite intention to Rāmakaṇṭha's interpretation. In other words, the Tantrasadbhāva, in its utilisation of the passage in the Kiraṇa, equates the function of stunning (stobhana) with falling (patana), trembling (kampana), and cutting (kṛntana): Wise men should separate from their bonds through initiation. Once there is separation of the bonds, the stunning (stobhaḥ) arises undoubt- This section runs from 9.201 to 289, and this numbering of verses is based on my 20edition (Bang 2018, 208-218 and 377-392). Tantrasadbhāva 9.201: devy uvāca || śrutā dīkṣā mayā nātha ṣaḍvidhādhve yathā sthitā | 21sāṃprataṃ pāśaśaithilyaṃ śrotum icchāmi tattvataḥ | Tantrasadbhāva 9.202-204b: pāśāḥ (A C, pāśā B) sūkṣmās tu ye proktā māyotthā 22māyavartjitāḥ (understood as māyāvarjitāḥ, metri causa) | acetanā arūpās tu teṣāṃ stobho na vidyate || pāśor (A C, paśo B) yaḥ (em., yat Σ) kriyate stobhaḥ (em., stobhā Σ) pāśastobha (em., paśustobha Σ) iti smṛtaḥ | caitanyaḥ pāśitaḥ pāśair anyonyaṃ (em., anyonyā Σ) vyāpya (B, vyāpi A C) saṃsthitāḥ (em., saṃsthitaḥ Σ) || dvābhyāṃ kasya bhavet stobhaḥ paśupāśāt-makā (understood as paśupāśātmakāyoḥ, metri causa) prabho |; The passage 9.202-203b is cited in TAK III: 445. Tantrasadbhāva 9.238c-239b (= Kiraṇatantra 6.16): pāśastobhāt (pāśa- Apc B C, pāśā- Apc) 23kṣayaḥ siddhaḥ saṃsiddhaiḥ (B C, saṃsiddhes A) so 'pi samvaraiḥ (cf. śaṃvaraiḥ Kiraṇa) | saṃvarāṇām (cf. śaṃvārāṇāṃ Kiraṇa) acintyatvād (em., acintyatvān Σ) yathā mūrtiviṣakṣayaḥ |  The Development of Pāśastobha (The Stunning of Bonds) 9edly. The stunning (stobha) is indeed taught as trembling (kampanam) and falling (patanam). And then [the next step is] the linking (yoga) to the highest state which is without illness (nirāmaya) of the initiate who has fallen down on ground.  24Also, The stunning [of the bonds] has been taught as the cutting (kṛntanam) [of the bonds]. It is nothing else but imagination (kalpanā). For those who have been initiated through [the stunning] of the bonds, the seeds [of their bonds] have been burned.  25In other words, Bhairava’s answer is that stunning means not only the immobilising (of bonds) but also trembling and falling (i.e., the initiate’s trem-bling and falling down); as long as such a visible sign is witnessed, the initiation can be deemed successful. Thus, he says as follows: Liberation can be proven through initiation once the stunning has arisen; it cannot be proven by dry reasoning (śuṣkatarkaiḥ) nor even with ten million authorised scriptures, O Goddess, leader of the gods. It is indeed undoubtedly true that liberation can never arise without the stunning [of bonds].  26Mantras for the sake of pāśastobha The scheme of mantra encoding for pāśastobha in the Tantrasadbhāva As the first step in finding which syllable is denoted by which body part of the Goddess, each syllable should be arranged in a certain diagram. The method for creating this diagram is stated in the third chapter of the Tantrasadbhāva. The result, the gahvara diagram, is displayed in Table 2.  Tantrasadbhāva 9.234-235: viyogaś caiva pāśānāṃ kartavyo dīkṣayā vidbhiḥ (em., vidhaiḥ Σ) | 24viyogas tu yadā jātas tadā stobho na saṃśayaḥ || stobho nāma samuddiṣṭaḥ kampanaṃ patanaṃ (A C, pataṃ B) tathā | kāśyapītalasaṃsthasya yogaś caiva nirāmaye || Tantrasadbhāva 9.240-241: kṛntanaṃ stobhanaṃ proktaṃ na cānyā kalpanā smṛtā (A C, 25smṛtāḥ B) | dagdhabījās tu te devi yeṣāṃ dīkṣā tu (A C, omit. B) pāśavī ||  Tantrasadbhāva 9.243-244b: śuṣkatarkais tu deveśi na caivāgamakoṭibhiḥ | sādhyate dīkṣayā 26muktir yadā stobhaḥ prajāyate || stobhahīnā na muktiḥ (corr. mukti Σ) syāt satyaṃ satyaṃ na saṃśayaḥ | BANG 10Table 2. Mālinīgahvara in Tantrasadbhāva 3.99-102. The three mantras for pāśastobha are expressed in an encoded manner that is based on the nādiphāntakrama.  As Vasudeva has already shown (2007), 27the nādiphāntakrama (lit., “the order [of Sanskrit syllables] beginning with ‘na’ and ending with ‘pha’”) of the Tantrasadbhāva follows the system of the Mālinīvi-jayottara and other works relevant to the Trika with minor variants. Based on the above gahvara, the Mālinī sequence can be extracted. For example, the text de-notes that the head of the Goddess is placed between “ai” and “da” – viz., the let-ter “tha”; her topknot is made of the letter in the middle of “pa” and “dha” – viz., the letter “na”; her skull garland consists of four letters in the front/east side of “e” – viz., the letters “ṛ,” “ṛ,̄” “ḷ,” “l ̣.̄”  In this manner, the entire Mālinī sequence is 28taught in Tantrasadbhāva 3.103-126b as follows:  na [topknot], ṛ ṛ ̄ ḷ ḷ ̄ [anadem], tha [head], ca [third eye], dha [eyes], ī [nose], ṇa [ears], u [right earring], ū [left earring], ba [mouth], ka kha ga gha ṇa [teeth], i [tongue], a [speech], va [throat], bha [right shoulder], ya [left shoulder], ḍha [left arm], ḍa [right arm], ṭha [palm of the hand], jha [fingers of the right hand], ña [fingers of the left hand], ṭa [the skull in the left hand], ra [the staff of the trident], ja [the trident in the right a ā i ī u ū ṛja jha ña ṭa ṭha ḍa ṛ ̄cha bha ma ya ra ḍha ḷca ba sa ha la na ḷ ̄ṅa pha ṣa śa va ta egha pa na dha da tha aiga kha ka aḥ aṃ au o For the nādiphāntakrama in Trika literature, see Vasudeva 2007.27 Tantrasadbhāva 3.103-104: nādiphāntasvarūpeṇa yathā bhavati tacchṛṇu | ai-da-madhyaṃ 28śiro devyāḥ kārayec chubhalakṣaṇam || pa-dha-madhyaṃ śikhā caiva adhaḥ śiro vyavasthitam | ai-pūvārṇacatuṣkaṃ tu śiromālā nigadyate ||. These verses are parallel to Kubjikāmata 4.81ab, 4.83ab, and 4.82 (see Goudriaan & Schoterman 1988: 188 and Bang 2018: 184). The Development of Pāśastobha (The Stunning of Bonds) 11hand], pa [heart], ṣā [stomach], cha [right breast], la [left breast], ā [milk], ha [breath], saḥ [soul], kṣa [navel], ma [buttocks], śaṃ [genitalia], ta [thighs], e [right knee], ai [left knee], o [right shank], au [left shank], da [right foot], and pha [left foot].  29On the basis of this scheme for concealing syllables, four mantras (the three mentioned in the twenty-ninth chapter of the Tantrāloka plus a fourth) for pāśastobha are encoded in Tantrasadbhāva 9.284-289 as follows: (9.284-285b, encoding the first mantra): ātmābījaṃ nitambasthaṃ daṇḍā-krāntaṃ (A C, -krānta B) tadāsanam | vāmaśikharam ārūḍhaṃ bhūṣitaṃ bhūṣaṇena || vāmakarṇasya suśroṇi stobhayet sacarācaram | The seat of that [i.e.Śakti], that is the seed of the soul (ātmabīja) [= s], placed on the buttock [= m, viz., sm], loaded on the staff [= r, viz., smr], mounted on the left top (the left shoulder) [= y, viz., smry], and adorned by an earring of the left ear [= ū, viz. smryūṃ], can stun [the universe] composed of that which is moving and unmoving, O Suśroṇī.  (9.285c-286, encoding the second mantra): ātmaprāṇaṃ tathā nābhi-daṇḍākrāntaṃ tu kārayet || dīpayed vahninā devi śikhareṇa (A C, śikhare B) tathā punaḥ | bhūṣaṇena tu vāmena trailokyaṃ stobhayet priye || And the breath of the soul (ātmaprāṇam) [= s and h] – which is mounted on the navel [= kṣ] and the staff [= r, viz., shkṣr] – should burn with fire [= initial r, viz. rshkṣr], O Goddess, and so also with the [left] top (the left shoulder) [= y, viz., rshkṣry]. And then along with the left ornament [= ū, viz., rshkṣryūṃ], it can paralyse the threefold world. (9.287-288b, encoding the third mantra): vāmabāhuṃ (B, -bāhu A C) nita-mbasthaṃ (A C, -stha B) daṇḍākrāntaṃ (A C, -krantan B) tadāsanam | śikhareṇa tu vāmena bhūṣaṇena tu bhūṣitam || stobhanaṃ sarvasattvānāṃ satyaṃ satyaṃ na saṃśayaḥ | And the [third] seat of that [i.e. Śakti] is the left arm [= ḍh], which is placed on the buttock [= m, viz., ḍhm], mounted on the staff [= r, viz., ḍhmr], and adorned with the left top (the left shoulder) [=y, viz., ḍhmry] and the [left] ornament [= ū, viz. ḍhmryū]. [By this third mantra, viz., ḍhmryūṃ] the stunning [happens] to all living beings, without doubt.  The whole Sanskrit text and the translation of the extraction of letters is based on Bang 292018: 184-186 and 351-354. BANG 12(9.288c-289, encoding another chief mantra): athānyaṃ paramaṃ devi va-kṣyamāṇaṃ sṛṇuṣva me || jīvaṃ (A C, jīva B) vahnisamārūḍhaṃ tadākrāntaṃ tu kārayet | vāyunā preritaṃ caiva ṣaṭkayuktaṃ tathaiva ca || Now listen to me in regard to another chief [mantra] which is going to be explained. One should make [another] seat of that [i.e. Śakti] which is the soul [= s], loaded on fire [= r, viz., sr], stimulated by wind [= y], and the sixth [vowel] [= ū, viz., sryūṃ]. As a result, the decrypted forms are SMRYŪṀ, RSHKṢRYŪṀ, ḌHMRYŪṀ, and SRYŪṀ. Abhinavagupta's witness to the Tantrasadbhāva As mentioned above, when Abhinavagupta refers to a set of three piṇḍamantras which cause paralysis (stobhakārin) in the twenty-ninth chapter of his Tantrāloka, he clarifies that the source of the teaching of this sapratyayadīkṣa, (initiation bearing a sign) is the Tantrasadbhāva.  The three piṇḍamantras are encrypted in 30the following manner (Tantrāloka 29.212c-213):  sudhāgnimaruto mandaparakālāgnivāyavaḥ || vahnisaudhāsukūṭāgnivāyu (em., -vāyuḥ KSTS edition) sarve saṣaṣṭhakāḥ | etat piṇḍatrayaṃ stobhakāri pratyekam ucyate || Everything, i.e., (1) nectar, fire, and wind, and (2) manda, para, kāla, fire, and wind, and (3) fire, that which is nectar-related, breath, the peak, fire, and wind, is furnished with the sixth [vowel]. These are the three clus-ter-[mantras] (piṇḍatrayam). Each of them is said to cause the stunning.  According to Jayaratha's commentary, they are SRYŪṀ, ḌḌHMRYŪṀ, and RSHKṢRYŪṀ.    31 Tantrāloka 29.211c-212b: atha sapratyayāṃ dīkṣāṃ vakṣye tuṣṭena dhīmatā || śambhu-30nāthenopadiṣṭāṃ dṛṣṭāṃ sadbhāvaśāsane | – “Now I shall teach the initiation which brings forth a sign, which was taught by Śambhunātha who is satisfied and wise and which was seen in the teaching of the [Tantra-]sadbhāva.” Jayaratha's commentary on Tantrāloka 29.212c-213: sudhā so 'gnī ro marud ya evaṃ sryūṃ | 31mando ḍakāras tatparaḥ phaṇabhṛcchabdavācyo ḍhakāraḥ prāṇaśamano 'ntako mo 'gnī ro vāyur ya evaṃ ḍḍhmryūṃ | vahnī raḥ somaḥ so 'suḥ prāṇo haḥ kūṭaṃ kṣo 'gnī ro vāyur ya evaṃ rshkṣryūṃ | atra samāhāre dvandvaḥ | sarva iti trayo 'pi piṇḍāḥ | saṣṭhakā ity ūkārāsanasthā arthād bindvādilāñchitāś ca | pratyekam iti vyastam ity arthaḥ | The Development of Pāśastobha (The Stunning of Bonds) 13Table 3. Encrypted Mantras of the Tantrasadbhāva and Tantrāloka. The first and the fourth mantras of the Tantrasadbhāva are close to or identical to the first one of the Tantrāloka; the second mantra is identical in both texts; and the minor variant of the third mantra is the absence of the initial “ḍ.” However, each of them is obviously homologous. Further-more, these discrepancies in consonants, in fact, do not cause a signifi-cant difference in actual articulation.  Conclusion That stobha (stunning) had become a central characteristic of Śaiva ini-tiation at some points is well-attested by a passage Jayaratha quotes in his commentary on the thirteenth chapter of the Tantrāloka in which Abhi-navagupta defines five kinds of initiation (Sanderson 2014: 61). Sanderson provides the following English translation of the verse quoted by Ja-yaratha as follows. Initiation is taught to be of five kinds. In the Siddhānta it is [principally] through offerings into the fire. In the Tantras [of Bhairava] it is the fu-sion [of the soul of the candidate with the deity at the end of the fire-rit-ual that is crucial]. In the Trika [= Mālinīvijayottara] initiation requires [one of the modes of penetration by Rudraśakti known as] Samāveśa. In the Kula [= Bhairavakula] it is a state of automatism (stobhaḥ) [in which it is the possessing deity that moves one’s limbs]. In the Kaula [= Vīrā-Tantrasadbhāva TantrālokaSMRYŪṀ 1 SRYŪṀRSHKṢRYŪṀ 2 RSHKṢRYŪṀḌHMRYŪṀ 3 ḌḌHMRYŪṀSRYŪṀ 4 BANG 14valī/Siddhavīrāvalī] it is a state of spontaneous fusion [with the con-sciousness of the initiator].  32Here the Trika system is that of the Mālinīvijayottara, and the Kula is that of the Bhairavakula. The five types of initiation are again mentioned in the twen-ty-second chapter of the Tantrāloka. There Abhinavagupta states that the essence of the Bhairavakula is taught in the Siddhavīrāvalī.  The Bhairavakula and Vīrāvalī, 33which are lost except for the fragments that survive in Abhinavagupta’s citations and Jayaratha’s commentary, are classified together there in the view of initia-tion. However, in a broad sense, the last four types of initiation (thus excluding the Siddhānta) can be grouped with the initiation of the Trika. Therefore, if we reflect on the Tantrasadbhāva’s establishment of the pāśastobha practice in initia-tion, it can be said that the text features a characteristic of the later Kula system of the Trika. Furthermore, given that the Tantrasadbhāva’s textual layers resulted from the borrowing of verses from the Svacchanda and that the Kubjikāmata adopted its verses,  we can characterize the Tantrasadbhāva as a transitional 34scripture situated between the Bhairavatantras and Śāktatantras and between the earlier Trika and the Kula. Moreover, this text shows how compliers or redac-tors reinforced their new doctrine by employing an earlier view found in Śaiva sources to establish scriptural authority. Acknowledgments This research was assisted by a postdoctoral fellowship from The Robert H. N. Ho Family Foundation Program in Buddhist Studies administered by the American  Jarayatha quotes the following verse in his commentary on Tantrāloka 13.302: hautrī 32(em. by Sanderson, hotrī KSTS edition) dīkṣā tu siddhānte tantre yojanikā smṛtā | trike samāveśavatī kule stobhātmikā matā || sāmarasyamayī kaule dīkṣā pañcavidhoditā | (Cf. Sanderson 2014: 61 fn.231). Tantrāloka 22.40c-42b: siddhānte dīkṣitās tantre daśāṣṭādaśabhedini || bhairavīye catuḥṣaṣṭau 33tān pāśūn dīkṣayet trike | siddhavīrāvalīsāre bhairavīye kule 'pi ca | pañcadīkṣākramopāttā dīkṣānuttarasaṃjñitā | The citation of this text and an English translation are given in Sanderson 2014: 61, fn. 231. This intertextuality has been discussed by Sanderson in several articles (2009, 2014, 34etc.); the details on parallels in the Tantrasadbhāva, the Svacchanda, the Kubjikāmata, and other Śaiva sources and other non-Śaiva sources (especially Buddhist sources) are also studied in Bang 2018: 62-67. The Development of Pāśastobha (The Stunning of Bonds) 15Council of Learned Societies. I thank Dr. Bergljot Chiarucci for editing the draft of this article, but all remaining errors are my own. Abbreviations ac   ante correctionem. Cod.   the reading of the manuscript. conj.   conjecture. em.   emendation. IFP   Institut français de Pondichéry. KSTS   Kashmir Series of Texts and Studies. ms, mss manuscript, manuscripts. NGMPP Nepal-German Manuscript Preservation Project, Reel No. pc   post correctionem. TAK   Tantrikābhidhānakośa (Goodall and Rastelli 2013). Bibliography Primary Sources Ūrmikaulārṇava. Unpublished ms. National Archives, Kathmandu ms 5-5207; Nepal-German Manuscript Preservation Project, Reel B 115-9, incomplete, paper, Newarī script; electronic edition provided by Mark Dyczkowski. Kālottara. Unpublished ms. National Archives, Kathmandu ms 1-1114; Nepal-German Manuscript Preservation Project, Reel B 25-7: palm-leaf, Pāla script; contains Jñānapañcāśikā, Ekaśatika (See Goodall 2007), Dviśatika, Sārdhatriśatika, and Trayodaśaśatika recensions. Kiraṇatantra. Kiraṇa with the commentary (Kiraṇavṛtti) of Bhaṭṭa Rāmakaṇṭha II on Vidyāpāda, Paṭalas 1-6. See Goodall 1998. Kubjikāmata. See Goudriaan and Schoterman 1988. Tantrasadbhāva. Unpublished mss. (A) National Archives, Kathmandu ms 5-445; Nepal-German Manuscript Preservation Project, Reel A 44-2, complete, palm-leaf, old Newarī, dated to saṃvat 217 (1097/8 CE in the reign of Harṣadeva); (B) National Archives, Kathmandu, ms 1-362; Nepal-German Manuscript Preservation Project, Reel A 44-1, incomplete, palm-leaf, old  BANG 16Newarī; (C) Nepal-German Manuscript Preservation Project, Reel A 188-22 to 189-1, complete, Devanagarī. See Bang 2018. Tantrāloka of Abhinavagupta with the commentary (-viveka) of Rājānaka Jayara-tha, edited by Mukund Rām Śāstrī. Kashmir Series of Texts and Studies, 23, 28, 30, 35, 29, 41, 47, 59, 52, 57, 58. Srinagar: The Research Department Jammu & Kashmir State, 1918-38. Dviśatikālottaravṛtti of Aghoraśiva. Unpublished ms. Pondicherry, Institut français de Pondichéry ms t. 176. Mālinīvijayottara edited by Madhusūdana Kaula Śāstrī. Kashmir Series of Texts and Studies, 37. Srinagar:  The Research Department Jammu & Kashmir State, 1922. See Vasudeva 2004. Sārdhatriśatikālottara with the commentary (-vṛtti) of Bhaṭṭa Rāmakaṇṭha II, edi-ted by N. R. Bhatt. Publications de l’Institut français d’Indologie, 61. Pon-dicherry: Institut français de Pondichéry (IFP), 1979. Secondary Sources Bang, Junglan. 2018. “Selected Chapters from the Tantrasadbhāva, Based on the Tradition of 11th-century Śaiva Sanskrit Manuscripts in Nepal.” Doctoral thesis, Universität Hamburg. Bhatt, N. R. 1979. Sārdhatriśatikālottarāgama avec le commentaire de Bhaṭṭa Rāma-kaṇṭha. Publications de d’Indologie, 61. Pondicherry: Institut français de Pondichéry (IFP). Goodall, Dominic. 1998. Bhaṭṭa Rāmakaṇṭha II’s Commentary on the Kiraṇatantra. Volume I: Chapters 1-6. Critical Edition and Annotated translation. Publications du département d’Indologie, 86.1. Pondicherry: Institut français de Pondi-chéry (IFP) / École française d’Extrême-Orient (EFEO). Goodall, Dominic and Marion Rastelli. 2013. Tāntrikābhidhānakośa III: Ṭ-PH. [A Dictionary of Technical Terms from Hindu Tantric Literature.] Beiträge zur Kultur- und Geistesgeschichte Asiens, 76. Vienna: Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Goudriaan, T. and J. A. Schoterman. 1988. Kubjikāmatatantra: Kulālikāmnāya ver-sion. Orientalia Rheno-traiectina, 30. Leiden: Brill. Sanderson, Alexis 2009. “The Śaiva Age: An Explanation of the Rise and Domi-nance of Śaivism During the Early Medieval Period.” In Genesis and Deve- The Development of Pāśastobha (The Stunning of Bonds) 17lopment of Tantrism, edited by Shingo Einoo. Tokyo: Institute of Oriental Culture, University of Tokyo, 41-349. Sanderson, Alexis. 2012-13. “The Śaiva Literature.” Journal of Indological Studies (Kyoto) 24/25: 1-113. Vasudeva, Somadeva. 2004. The Yoga of the Mālinīvijayottaratantra, Chapters 1-4, 7, 11-17. Collection Indologie 97. Pondicherry: Institut français de Pondichéry (IFP) / École française d’Extrême-Orient (EFEO). Vasudeva, Somadeva. 2007. “Synæsthetic Iconography: 1. The Nādiphāntakrama.” In Mélanges tantriques à la mémoire d'Hélène Brunner (Tantric Studies in Me-mory of Hélène Brunner), edited by Dominic Goodall and André Padoux. Collection Indologie, 106. Pondicherry: Institut français de Pondichéry (IFP) / École française d’Extrême-Orient (EFEO).

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