World Sanskrit Conference (WSC) (17th : 2018)

Smell or Incense in Vedic Ritual Ōshima, Chisei 2019

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 Smell or Incense in Vedic Ritual Chisei Ōshima Proceedings of the 17th World Sanskrit Conference, Vancouver, Canada, July 9-13, 2018, Section 1: Veda.  Section Convenors: Shrikant Bahulkar and Joanna Jurewicz
General Editor: Adheesh Sathaye Published by the Department of Asian Studies, University of British Columbia, on behalf of the International Association for Sanskrit Studies. DOI: 10.14288/1.0379849.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/2429/71006. Suggested Citation Format: MLA:
Ōshima, Chisei. “Smell or Incense in Vedic Ritual.” Proceedings of the 17th World Sanskrit Conference, Vancouver, Canada, July 9-13, 2018, Section 1: Veda. Edited by Shrikant Bahulkar and Joanna Jurewicz, 2019. DOI: 10.14288/1.0379849. APA:
Ōshima, C. (2019). Smell or incense in Vedic ritual. In S. Bahulkar and J. Jurewicz, (eds.) Proceedings of the 17th World Sanskrit Conference, Vancouver, Canada, July 9-13, 2018, Section 1: Veda. 
DOI: 10.14288/1.0379849. Chicago:
Ōshima, Chisei. 2019. “Smell or Incense in Vedic Ritual.” In Proceedings of the 17th World Sanskrit Conference, Vancouver, Canada, July 9-13, 2018, Section 1: Veda, edited by Shrikant Bahulkar and Joanna Jurewicz. DOI: 10.14288/1.0379849. Proceedings of the 17th World Sanskrit Conference, July 9-13, 2018 University of British Columbia, Vancouver, CanadaTHE   17TH    WORLD   SANSKRIT  CONFERENCEVANCOUVER, CANADA • JULY 9-13, 2018Copyright © 2019 by the author. Content is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 4.0 International license (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0). http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/वैधुसव ्मकबंटुकुअ ारा यसं ृ ता यनसमवायःINTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF SANSKRIT STUDIES THE 17TH WORLD SANSKRIT CONFERENCE, VANCOUVER, CANADA, JULY 9-13, 2018 Smell or Incense in Vedic Ritual Chisei Ōshima Center for the Death and Life Studies & Practical Ethics, University of Tokyo,  Tokyo, Japan. Abstract In this article, Vedic gandha, the smell, was examined especially focusing on a ritualistic context. It is also known in modern times that gandha often means incense, aromatic woodchips to burn used for offering to the gods, or fragrant powder to apply to a priest’s body. In spite of the investigation into the gandha treated in Vedic Śrauta rituals, we do not find any such kind of gandha. Instead we can consider some suggestive cases. Above all, it seems reasonable to suppose that the smell of dairy products is quite significant and proper for a sacrifice. From this viewpoint we may say that it can be the origin or basis of the ritualistic smell in the Vedic Śrauta rituals. Pragmatic gandha as an offering item seen in modern history suddenly abundantly appears among Gṛhya rituals in the con-text of the hospitable reception of a guest. There has been established a set of offerings including the gandha in this period, being possibly associated with the development of manufacturing method of the gandha probably in the field of magical or medicine rites derived from the Atharvavedic tradition, or even from folk beliefs. As related materials, various substantial gandhas enumerated in Purāṇas and used in early Tantrism have been summarized in the latter part. Keywords: Veda, ritual, gandha, smell, perfume, incense. 1. Introduction In modern rituals of Hinduism or Buddhism and so on, there appears a kneaded stick incense burned, woodchip smoking on a piece of charcoal, or fragrant powder dusted over the clothing of priests or applied to their faces.   For instance, when we see the offerings of the Pāśupata ritual in early Śaivism, something fragrant called gandha is included as matter of course. It goes without saying that gandha is an important notion in Veda in terms of mythical or symbolical argument, and later period it is seen in the elaborated theory of categorizing olfactory sensation. However, much is not known about its origin. The question now arises: Is it possible to define gandha as a product to Proceedings of the 17th World Sanskrit Conference, Vancouver, Canada, July 9-13 2018, Section 1: Veda, edited by Shrikant Bahulkar and Joanna Jurewicz, 2019. DOI: 10.14288/1.0379849.  ŌSHIMA 2offer to the gods in the Śrauta rituals? First of all, we have to inquire into gandha in terms of religious significance and how it should be specified in Veda. 2. Gandha: Origin of smell 2.1. Gandharva: gandha and milk Let us see the example from AVŚ 8, 10, 27, which refers to gandha, good smell, as an attribute of Virāj, associated with Gandharva from the perspective of folk et-ymology and compared to sweet milk. AVŚ VIII 10, 27:  sód akrāmat. sā́ gandharvāpsarása ā́gachat. tā́ṃ gand1 -harvāpsarása úpāhvayanta púṇyagandha éhī t́i. | tásyāś citrárathaḥ sauryavar-casó vatsá ā́sīt puṣkaraparṇáṃ pā́tram. | tā́ṃ vásuruciḥ sauryavarcasó 'dhok. tā́ṃ púṇyam evá gandhám adhok. | tā́ṃ púṇyam gandháṃ gandharvāpsarása úpa jīvanti. púṇyagandhir upajīvanī ýo bhavati yá eváṃ véda.|| She (Virāj) ascended. She came to the Gandharvas and Apsarases. Gand-harvas and Apsarases called to her: O one who has good smell, come! Of her Citraratha, son of Sūryavarcas, was young as a calf, the lotus leaf [was] vessel. Her Vasuruci, son of Sūryavarcas, milked. From her he milked good smell. On that good smell the Gandharvas and Apsarases subsist. He who knows thus becomes one who has good smell and to be subsisted on.   These hymns tell a story that Gandharvas and Apsarases use gandha as nourishment. Virāj, a female principle involved in creating the world, who as-sumes diverse forms to bring their subsistence to the gods and men is here a cow that gives milk smelling good and being auspicious. Next passage is the related brāhmaṇa, MS 4, 2, 13: MS IV 2, 13:36, 13: átha gandharvāpsaráso 'duhra puṣkaraparṇéna púṇyaṃ gandhám. duhé púṇyaṃ gandhám̐ yá evám̐ véda. Then Gandharvas and Apsarases were milking good smell with the lotus leaf (known as a vessel). He who knows thus milks good smell. As far from these passages, gandha is supposed to be the smell of milk, symbolized in winning honor and prosperity.   AVP XVI 10, 28.1 Smell or Incense in Vedic Ritual  32.2. Butter Araṇyānī ,́ “Goddess of wilderness,” is praised in the following ṚV verse:  ṚV X 146, 6 : ā́ñjanagandhiṃ surabhím bahvannā́m ákṛṣīvalām | prā́hám mṛgā́-2ṇām mātáram araṇyāním aśaṃsiṣam || Smelling an ointment, sweet-smelling, rich in food without cultivation; mother of wild animals, goddess of wilderness, I have now praised.  It is also found in ṚV X 18, 7 that ā́ñjana sarpiṣ, an ointment-butter that women who have good husbands apply to their eyes in a relative’s funeral.  Ā́ñja-3na with surabhí also appears in the following passage about the preparation of the anointment with fat in the Sautrāmanī after Rājasūya. The sacrificer gets a kind of ointment rubbed onto his limbs before the anointment. ŚB XII 8, 3, 16: sarvasurabhy ùnmárdanaṃ bhavati. paramó vā́ eṣá gandhó yát sarvasurabhy ùnmárdanaṃ. gandhénaivàinam etád abhíṣiñcati. A rubbing down (of the Sacrificer) with all perfumes is applied. Verily such a rubbing down with all perfumes is supreme smell. With that smell he (the priest) thus anoints him.  Gandha here belongs to a conceivable kind of ointment provided with “all perfumes.”  It can be navanīta (ghee) or sarpis (butter) with multifarious per4 -fumes. On the other hand, it should be added that there is a small piece of wood called kuśā  used by the Prastotṛ at a stotra in the Soma pressing, which is 5smeared with gandha:  LāṭyŚS II 6, 1: … gandhaiḥ pralipya sarpiṣā eke…  [Over the small piece of wood] after he smeared with gandhas, [but] some [do] with sarpis butter… What this passage makes clear at once is that the gandha is considered to be distinct from sarpis butter.   = TB II 5, 5, 7; ŚāṅkhGS VI 2, 5.2 Caland 1896: 123. The same hymn is AVŚ XII 2, 31. On navanīta (body cream) and āñjana 3(eye-shadow) in the Dīkṣā, although there is no referring to their smell, see Ōshima 2011: 64-66. Also, in KātyŚS XIX 4, 14 without specific details. 4 Ranade 2006: 160f.5  ŌSHIMA 42.3. Various ritualistic gandhas  Let us see the following passages on the fragrance called gandha used in the Śrauta ritual. First, on the Kāmyeṣṭi, the Dvaidha-sūtra of BaudhŚS describes sprinkling water with the fragrant gandha added therein. BaudhŚS XXIII 1:148,13: sa ha smāha baudhāyanaḥ prokṣaṇīṣu ca gandhān āvapeyur gandhavantaś cartvijaḥ pracareyur iti. And teacher Baudhāyana used to say [about it]: “The priests should put gandhas into the sprinkling water, and endowed with gandhas they should perform.” What the passage here explains is that one who might lose his cattle or human resources should offer a puroḍāśa on eight potsherds to “surabhimant Agni.” The prokṣanī water is mixed with something fragrant. It remains an unset-tled question whether the gandhavant- indicates that the priests would apply themselves another kind of fragrance anew or they just become fragrant as a result of adding gandhas into the sprinkling water. Be that as it may, in both cas-es they are unidentifiable as fragrant substances, as can be also seen in the first quotation below from the ĀpŚS. ĀpŚS XIV 12,9 : gandhaiḥ priyavadyena ca talpam || 6[He who accepts a fee should go] with gandhas and beloved speech, to-wards the bed. ĀpŚS XXI 20,3 : tataḥ saṃvatsaragāthā. gāva eva surabhayo gāvo gulgulu7 -gandhayaḥ | gāvo ghṛtasya mātaras tā iha santu bhūyasīḥ || Then one-year-old stanza: cows truly with sweet-smelling, cows with the smell of a bdellium or resin, and cows as mothers of clarified butter, they should increase in this world. In the second passage we see the identifiable gandha that is the smell of resin from cows. As to the gandha of a bdellium or resin, see 2.6 below.   This is about the dakṣiṇā in the Soma sacrifice.6 In the Gavāmayana, a type of whole year Sattra, female servants (dāsya) chant the long 7stanzas. = VaitS XXXIV 9; KātyŚS XIII 3,21; ĀpŚS XXI 20,3; MānŚS VII 2,7,10. Smell or Incense in Vedic Ritual  52.4. Magical smell Let us now consider the ancient gandha playing a role of the magical smell in the following passages of the AVŚ, hymns to the earth. The smell of the earth is pri-mordial for the ancient people, who found it universally prevalent. Being sweet-smelling (even though it might be metaphorically) was necessary for them in or-der not to fall into disfavor.  AVŚ XII 1, 23-25 : yás te gandháḥ pṛthivi saṃbabhū́va. yáṃ bíbhraty óṣadhayo 8yám ā́paḥ | yáṃ gandharvā́ apsarásaś ca bhejiré téna mā surabhíṃ kṛṇu. mā́ no dvikṣata káś caná ||23|| yás te gandháḥ púṣkaram āvivéśa, yáṃ saṃjabhrúḥ sūryā́yā vivāhé | ámartyāḥ pṛthivi gandhám ágre téna mā́ surabhíṃ kṛṇu. mā́ no dvikṣata káś caná ||24|| yás te gandháḥ púruṣeṣu strīṣú puṃsú bhágo rúciḥ | yó áśveṣu vīréṣu yó mṛgéṣūtá hastíṣu | kanyāỳāṃ várco yád bhūme ténāsmā́m̐ ápi sáṃ sṛja. mā́  no dvikṣata káś caná ||25|| (23) What smell of you, O earth, came into being. Which the herbs bear, which the waters [bear], which the Gandharvas and Apsarases shared; with that [do thou] make me sweet-smelling, in order that no one ever hates us.  (24) What smell of you entered into the lotus, which they, the immortals, brought together at Sūryā’s wedding, O earth, [that] smell in the begin-ning; with that [do thou] make me sweet-smelling, in order that no one ever hates us. (25) What smell of you is in human beings, in women, in men [that is] a share, pleasure, what in horses, in heroes, what in wild beasts and in elephants, what splendor in a maiden, O earth, with that [smell] [do thou] unite us also, in order that no one ever hates us. Smell in the beginning is mythically born from the earth, considered as that of herbs and flowers, based on a fertile soil or earth and water. The impor-tance of the fragrance of the lotus flower has been inherited until today. These hymns are also applied to a bhauma, a ground-breaking ceremony.   9 AVP XVII 1, 23-25.8 KauśS V 2, 12; 16 (= XXXVIII 12; 16). See Whitney 1905: 661.9  ŌSHIMA 6Furthermore, according to the last refrain, the gandha provides him with amicable relations. Conversely, bad gandha could lead him to a bad situation, like being cursed as shown in the following:  MS II 5, 2:49, 12: vāyúr vā́ etásyāślīláṃ gandháṃ janátā anuvíharati yám abhiśám̐santi.  Vāyu verily distributes [back] ugly smell of this [sacrificer] among those who accuse [the sacrificer]. This is interesting in that it shows that we could symbolically wear bad smell when we were accused or cursed.  2.5. Talisman or amulet AVŚ IV 37, 2:  tváyā vayám apsaráso gandharvā́ṃs cātayāmahe | 
10ájaśṛṅgy ája rákṣaḥ sárvān gandhéna nāśaya || By you we cause to hide the Apsarases, the Gandharvas; O goat-horned one, drive the Rakṣas, make all disappear by [your] smell.  This is the part of the hymns praising some exorcising herb (óṣadhi-). It is known that the great ancestors slew evils with it.  It is specified by only late 11commentators.   122.6. Bdellium or resin  The following passage from the ŚB explains paridhi (enclosing-stick) and a bdel-lium or resin with its gandha.   13ŚB III 5, 2, 15-17 : śárīraṃ haivās̀ya pī t́udāru. tád yát páitudāravāḥ paridháyo 14bhávanti śárīreṇaivàinam etát sámardhayati. kṛtsnáṃ karoti ||15||  AVP XIII 37, 2.10 The similar one called oṣadhi is also found in the hymn of AVŚ VIII 6, 10, guarding a 11pregnant woman from various obstacles. Some commentators consider it as ‘an amulet of white and yellow mustard’ according to Whitney (1905 vol. 2: 493f.) See Winternitz 1909: 117 and 1981: 124. It is also used for a remedial rite, according to 12Kauś. See Whitney 1905 vol. 1: 211.  TS VI 2, 8, 2-4; AB I 28, 28 without referring to its smell, PB XXIV 13, 5 in different context.13 ŚBK IV 5, 2, 10.14 Smell or Incense in Vedic Ritual  7māṃsáṃ haivās̀ya gúlgulu. tád yád gúlgulu bhávati māṃsénaivàinam etát sá-mardhayati. kṛtsnáṃ karoti ||16|| gandhó haivās̀ya sugandhitéjanam tád yát sugandhitéjanam bhávati gandhé-naivàinam etát sámardhayati. kṛtsnáṃ karoti ||17|| (15) The pine,  namely, is the bodily frame  of this [fire]. So, when these 15 16enclosing-sticks of a pine-wood are, thereby he supplies the [fire] with a bodily frame.  He makes it whole. 17(16) And the bdellium,  namely, is the flesh of this [fire]. So, when the 18bdellium is, thereby he supplies the [fire] with flesh. He makes it whole. (17) And the good-smelling reed, namely, is the smell of this [fire]. So, when the good-smelling reed is, thereby he supplies the [fire] with [good] smell. He makes it whole. Bdellium is generally known as to be fragrant. The sugandhitejana in no. 17 is arranged with a pine-wood.  The good account for the pine-tree as an aromat19 -ic tree can be found in the explanation of the yūpa in the Aśvamedha:  ŚB XIII 4, 4, 7: átha yád āpomáyaṃ téja ā́sīt yó gandháḥ sá sārdháṃ samavadrútya cakṣuṣṭá údabhinat. sá eṣa vánaspátir abhavat pī t́udārus. tásmāt sá surabhír. gandhād dhí samábhavat. tásmād u jvalanás. téjaso hí samábhavat…  7. Then what was splendor consisting of water, what was smell, it flowed together from the sight [of Prajāpati] and burst forth. And this became that tree, the pine-tree (pī t́udāru). Therefore, it is sweet-smelling, since it originated from the smell. And therefore, it is inflammable, since it orig-inated from the splendor…   pī t́udāru- is supposed to be a Himalayan cedar, or probably spruce or pine, given the 15close affinities on pī t́u° with Greek and Latin. EWA vol. II: 137. Kāṇva: ásthi, a bone, similar as TS VI 2, 8, 5, PB XXIV 13, 5.16 Kāṇva: ásthnā.17 Kāṇva: gúggulu.18 The interesting and detailed myth on the employed utensils including the sugandhi-19tejana appears in the brāhmaṇas enumerated in n. 13.   ŌSHIMA 8Furthermore, according to the PB,  they use a bdellium mixed with an 20ointment in the Sattra lasting 49 days. Prajāpati, being parched up, anointed his eyes and his limbs (ā cāṅktābhi cāṅkta, XXIV 13,2) to moisten himself.  Based on 21this myth they use the same ointment in the Sattra:  PB XXIV 13, 4:  gauggulavena prātassavane saugandhikena mādhyandine 22savane pautudāraveṇa tṛtīyasavane.  With [ointment] mixed with bdellium at the morning-service; with [ointment] mixed with the (extract) from the good-smelling reed at the midday service; with [ointment] mixed with (resin) of the pine-tree at the afternoon-service. They do not refer to the effect of the smell directly, since their chief con-cern of this applying is to make themselves moisturized and bright (śubha-). The purpose of this quotation is to show that these ointments are basically made from butter according to the LāṭyŚS.   232.7. Stench  2.7.1. Visceral smell Gandha is not only fragrant but also stands for a visceral smell of a sacrificial animal. In the following passages from the ṚV, because the smell of its raw meat and guts seemed to be avoided in the animal sacrifice, they ordered the slaugh-terers to deal with it. ṚV I 162, 10-12, 15:  yád ū́vadhyam udárasyāpavā́ti yá āmásya kravíṣo gandhó ásti |
24sukṛtā́ tác chamitā́raḥ  kṛṇvantūtá médhaṃ śṛtapā́kam pacantu ||10|| 25  Cf. PB XXIV 13, 4. Also McHugh (2012: 235f.) deals with this account.20 Though its purpose was modified, it was clearly adopted from the navanīta and eye21 -shadow of the Dīkṣā. See Caland 1931: 616 with his comments on XXIV 14,5.22 See n. 21.23 =MS III 16, 1: 182, 12-; KS[Aśv.] V 6, 4: 177, 12-; TS IV 6, 8k, l; IV 6, 9a, d; VS XXV 33-35, 2438. No explanation is found. MS III 16, 1: 182, 13: táñ śamitā́raḥ. 25 Smell or Incense in Vedic Ritual  9yát te gā́trād agnínā pacyámānād abhí śū́laṃ níhatasyāvadhā́vati |
mā́ tád bhū́myām ā́ śriṣan mā́ tṛṇ́eṣu devébhyas tád uśádbhyo rātám astu ||11|| yé vājínam paripáśyanti pakváṃ yá īm āhúḥ surabhír nír haréti |
yé cā́rvato māṃsabhikṣā́m upā́sata utó téṣām abhígūrtir na invatu ||12|| … mā́ tvāgnír dhvanayīd  dhūmágandhir mókhā́ bhrā́janty abhí vikta jághriḥ |
26iṣṭáṃ vītám abhígūrtaṃ váṣaṭkṛtaṃ táṃ devā́saḥ práti gṛbhṇanty áśvam ||15|| (10) What the content in the stomach of the belly perspires, what the smell of the uncooked raw flesh is, to it slaughterers should skillfully do a good job,  and they should cook the sacrificial horse well-done. 27(11) What flows down from your limbs being cooked by the fire, struck on a spit; it should not stay down on the ground, it should not [stay down] in the grass; it should be given to the eager gods. (12) [Those] who observe the triumphant cooked, they say of him: “good-smelling, take out!” And [those] who sit near, expecting the meat-alms of the runner (steed), and their approval should drive us.  … (15) Smoke-smelling fire should not smoke (aor. inj.) you. The white-hot pot (ukhā) boiling should not boil over.  Consecrated, pursued [the 28wandering for a year], approved, and called out with vaṣaṭ-call, the gods accept the horse.  Being uncooked and viscera smell seem to be improper for the gods. The hymns 11 & 12 show the scene of ritualistic broiling. Its blood or meat fluids were not to be scattered as much as possible and the observers or the gods enjoyed its smell of broiling. The hymn 15 describes the horse, the fire and the utensil. Agni is now called dhūmagandhi and the horse is addressed as not to be smoked. There is a suggestion here that the smell of smoke is not preferable. Related to these  MS III 16, 1: 183, 10: dhanayīd; TS IV 6, 9d: dhvanayĭd; KS[Aśv.] V 6, 4: 178, 3: dhvanayed.26 For sukṛtā́, see Witzel, Gotō, Dōyama, Ježić 2007, p. 728.27 Hoffmann 1967: 57: “umkippen,” (“to tip over”), but I followed Witzel, Gotō et al 2007, p. 28728: “darauf schnellen” (“to burst on it”).  ŌSHIMA 10passages, the following also refers to the smell of the sacrificial horse, which supposed to be auspicious. ĀpŚS XX 21,8: ye 'śvasya hutasya gandham ājighranti sarve te puṇyalokā bha-vantīti vijñāyate || Those who inhale the smell of the horse offered, all of them belong to the auspicious worlds, as is known.  Gandha here, judging from the situation, indicates the smell of the smoke from the broiled meat.   2.7.2. Soma In terms of smell, Soma is also referred to in the mantras and brāhmaṇas. In the mantra listed in TS I 2,6,1 and VS XX 27, Soma is praised before pressing as gandhás te kā́mam  avatu: “your gandha should drive a desire.” The smell of Soma 29must be considered acrid, pungent, or stimulating. The following passages are relevant to this point. KS XXVII 3:142, 3-6: somo vai vṛtras. sa hato 'pūyat. te devā vāyum abruvann imaṃ no vivāhīti. so 'bravīd vāryaṃ vṛṇai maddevatyāny eva pātrāṇy ucyāntā iti. taṃ vyavāt. tasmād gandham apāhan. eṣa paśau pramīte. tasmāt tasmān nāpigṛhyam̐. somasya hi sa rājño gandho. Vṛtra is verily Soma. Killed, he turned putrid. the gods said to Vāyu: “Blow away this from us!” He said: “I shall choose the valuable, vessels having myself as their own deity shall be meant.” He blew it away. There-fore, he repelled the smell. It [is] in dead cattle. Therefore, it should not be closed from it, since it is the smell of the king Soma. ŚB IV 1, 3, 8: tásya devā́ḥ yāvanmātrám iva gándhasyā́pajaghnus. tám paśúṣv adadhuḥ. sá eṣá paśuṣu kuṇapagandhás. tásmāt kuṇapagandhā́n nā́pigṛhṇīta. sómasya haiṣá rā́jño gandháḥ || The gods repelled just the utmost of that smell [of Vṛtra’s]. They laid it into cattle. This is that smell of the corpse in the cattle. Therefore, one should not close [his nose] from those smells of the corpses. It is the smell of the king Soma.  VS: somám.29 Smell or Incense in Vedic Ritual  11These passages above are a part of the myth of a cup for Indra and Vāyu (aindravāyava graha) in the Soma sacrifice. According to the ŚB, Indra, who fought against Vṛtra was anxious whether he could really kill it or not. Then the gods asked Vāyu to check whether it died or not. He finally found the dead body of Vṛtra, divided into each cup by the gods. The gandha of the Soma originated from Vṛtra has been transferred into dead cattle. It should not be turned away from even if it is from carrion, since it is the smell of the Soma. This gandha might be worldly repellent but is ritualistically or religiously significant.  3. Dhūpa Let us now extend the observation into dhūpa. Its name is generally known as an incense offered in the Hindu ritual. A denominative verb or participle from dhūpa appears in the Brāhmaṇas, which means fumigation or smoldering.  However, we 30hardly find a reference to the smell of the smoke produced there in the YV, as seen in the fumigating of the ukhā pot in Agnicayana and smoking ulmuka or fire-brant in Agnihotra or Cāturmāsya, for example,  even though it is adequately conceiv31 -able incensing. We can find a barely notable usage example as follows:  ĀpŚS XV 15,1:  avakābhir dhūpatṛṇair iti pracchādayati māṃsasya rūpam. 32With Avakās (aquatic plants, Blyxa octandra) and fragrant grass and so on he covers [Mahāvīra], [making] the shape of flesh. It seems that dhūpatṛṇa is supposed to be a herb, whose origin is un-known. Or it is possible to presume that any herb could be applied no matter what plant it may be. 4. Upaniṣad and Smṛti Let us see the last examples from the Vedic texts. Since the Upaniṣadic era, we find gandhamālya – gandhas or odors and garlands. The latter especially shows the notable usage of gandha as an offering item to honor the gods: ChU VIII 2, 6: atha yadi gandhamālyalokakāmo bhavati, saṃkalpād evāsya gandhamālye samuttiṣṭhataḥ.   Also cf. dhūpana: fumigation, incensing ŚS+.30 Smoking ulmuka: MS I 10, 20:160, 1; KS XXXVI 14:80, 21, etc.31 ~BhārŚS XI 15,25; HirŚS XXIV 6,12.32  ŌSHIMA 12Then if he desires the world of gandhas and garlands, from his intention alone gandhas and garlands rise up. [Piṇḍapitṛyajña:] ManuSmṛ III 209: upaveśya tu tān viprān āsaneṣv ajugupsitān / gand-hamālyaiḥ surabhibhir arcayed daivapūrvakam // Now Having made the blameless Brāhmins take the seats, with sweet-smelling gandhas and garlands he should honor the gods first [them next].   Accordingly, the custom of offering gandha as an oblation has been estab-lished by that editorial time of Manusmṛti. 5. A set including gandha as an offering Here we get nearer to the modern gandha. Having examined the gandha in the Vedic literature, one can then go on to consider it in the post Vedic era. Let us pose here to look briefly at the arghya reception, Saṃskāras, and so on.  335.1. Arghya and saṃskāra Gandha as a substance of incense is not found in the arghya. Instead, dadhi, madhu, ghṛta, ap, darbha grass, and grains, etc. are found, and siddhārthaka or sarṣapa, mustard is later.  However, as an enumerated substance to offer, it is found in the 34Saṃskāras: Birth, Studying the Veda, Funeral, etc. For example in BhārGS III 11, 7: gandha-puṣpa-dhūpa-dīpānna-phalodaka, VaikhGS V 6: dhūpa-dīpādi,  ĀgniGS I 2,2, 3513: gandha-puṣpa-dhūpa-dīpa, II 3, 3, 9: gandhapuṣpādi, II 4, 6, 3: gandha-puṣpa-dhūpa-dīpādi, II 4, 6, 11: gandha-puṣpākṣata-dhūpa, II 4, 10, 13: gandha puṣpa dhūpa dīpa, III 10, 4, 4: gandhamālya, III 13, 4: gandhamālya-dhūpa-dīpa, III 11, 3: dhūpadīpavarja pūjā; ViṣṇuSmṛ XC 3: gandha-puṣpa-dhūma-dīpa-naivedya. It is noticeable that the ĀgniGS, what can be called a medieval text, enumerates a large number of sets. It is possible to think that collecting a set of oblations including gandha gradually became fixed in an editorial era of this text.  Afterwards, thoroughly helpful was EINOO CARD: http://card.ioc.u-tokyo.ac.jp/ by Dr. 33Singo Einoo. YājñSmṛ 290; BodhGṛŚeṣaSū II 13, 22; 16, 26; IV 2, 22 on Viṣṇupratiṣṭhā, Rudra-34pratiṣṭhā, and Dhūrtabali; also Gṛhyasaṃgrahapariśiṣṭa II 63.  For reference, III 14, 5: tilasarṣapair dhūpayitvā.35 Smell or Incense in Vedic Ritual  135.2. Astrology, etc.  In the field of astrology etc. represented by the AVPari, we also find a similar set including gandha, as follows. AVPari: I 31, 5 [Nakṣatrakalpaḥ]: dhūpa-gandha, IV 1, 15 [Purohitakrmāṇi]: gandhamālya, IV 3, 1-2 [Purohitakarmāṇi]: gandhamālya, dhūpa, IX 1, 3 [Tiladhenuvidhi] dhūpa-puṣpa, XV 1, 9-12 [Pāśupatavratam]: gand-hodaka, gandha-puṣpa-dhūpa-dīpodanapāyasa-yāvaka-lājādi, gandhahārin, XIX 3, 1 [Brahmayāgaḥ]: rocanā-candana,  puṣpa, dhūpa, XX 6, 8 [Skandayāgaḥ]: gandha, 36puṣpa, dhūpa, VXX 9, 1 [Gārgyāṇi]: gandhamālya, XXXVI 8, 3 [Ucchṣmakalpaḥ]: sarṣapa, LII 15, 2 [Grahasaṃgarahaḥ] : dhūpana.  376. Pūjā, etc. in Purāṇa texts I will now enumerate further lists from the various rituals such as pūjā shown in the Purāṇa texts. BrahmaPur CCXIX 52: kuśa, gandha, yava, puṣpa. (Śrāddha) PadmaPur VII 22,115: dūrvāpallava,  akhaṇḍataṇḍula. (mantra, Ekādaśīvrata) 38AgniPur XXXIV 20-21: yava, gandha, phala, akṣata, kuśa, siddhārtha,  39puṣpa, tila. (Pavitrāropaṇa)  LVII 21: yava, siddhārthaka, gandha, kuśāgra, akṣata, tila, phala, puṣpa. (Pratiṣṭhā)  LXXIV 63: dūrvā, puṣpās, akṣatāni.  (Śivapūjā) 40BhavPur I 163,37-38: āp, kṣīra, kuśāgra, ghṛta, dadhi, madhu, raktakaravīra,  41raktacandana.  (Sūryapūjā) 42 II 3,4,2: gandhaka, candana,  dūrvā, akṣata. (Taḍāgādi; Tāḍana) 43 rocanā̆: bile of cattle, also known as gorocanā. 36 On the opposition between the sun and the moon.37 A young shoot (pallava) of Panicum dactylon, bermuda grass.38 White mustard seed.39 Brown rice.40 Nericum odorum: rosebay.41 Caesalpina sappan: logwood (yellow flower).42 The direction for use of candana is described in an explanation of the place sprinkled by 43sandal: sthaṇḍilaṃ candanenoukṣitaṃ.  ŌSHIMA 14 II 3,8,1: gandhaka, candana, dūrvā, akṣata. (Aśvatthapratiṣṭhā)  II 2,20,270: pañcaratna, gandha, śaṅkhodaka. (Taḍāgādi; Tāḍana)   IV 13,81-84: candana, aguru, karpūra, dadhi, dūrvā, akṣata, samudraja ratna, vajra, vaiḍūrya,  mauktika,  puṣpa, phala. 44 45(Bhadracatuṣṭayavrata)  IV 17,2-3: virūḍha,  godhūma, saptadhānya,  tila, taṇḍula, piṇḍa. 46 47(Meghapālītṛtīyāvrata)  IV 96,8-9: phala, puṣpa, yava, kṣīra, dadhi, dūrvāṅkura,  jala in 48kumbha. (Naktopavāsavidhāna)  IV 115,10: tila, aruṇacandana,  phala, akṣata. (Ādityadinanakta) 49BvPur III 13,17: gaṅgodaka, dūrvā, akṣata, puṣpa, candana. (Gaṇeśapūjā)  IV 26,66: śaṅkhatoya,  puṣpa, dūrvā, candana. (mantra, Ekādaśī-50vrata) SkandhaPur  I 2,41,99: pāṇīya, akṣata, darbha, gandha, puṣpa, sarpiṣ, kṣīra, dadhi, madhu. (Śivapūjā)  IV 9,87-88: karavīra, raktacandana, dūrvāṅkura, akṣata. (Sūryā-rghyadāna)  V 1,60,42-43: toya, candana, akṣata, puṣpaka. (Adhimāsavrata)  V 3,218,50: pañcaratna, phala, puṣpa, akṣata. (Jāmadagnya-tīrthamāhātmya) MatsyaPur CCLXVII 2: dadhi, akṣata, kuśāgra, kṣīra, dūrvā, madhu, yava, siddhārthaka, phala. (Devasnapana) SauraPur  XLII 16-17: candana, vrīhi, yava, puṣpa, kuśāgra, siddhārtha, akṣata, ājya, bhasita.  (Śivapūjā) 51 Cat’s-eye. 44 Pearl.45 A young shoot?46 Seven grains.47 A shoot.48 Reddish sandal?49 śaṅkha-: a shell.50 Ash.51 Smell or Incense in Vedic Ritual  15VdhPur III 99: śankha, bilva,  padma uśīra, darbha, mūla, dūrvā kṣīra, 52akṣata, siddhārthaka, taṇḍula, tīrthodaka. (Pratiṣṭhā) ŚivaPur VI 6,40: raktacūrṇa,  suvarṇodaka, sraj, kuṅkuma, kuśa, puṣpa. 53(Saṃnyāsāhnikakarma) GaṇeśaPur I 49,27: pravāla,  muktāphala, putraratna, tāmbūla,  jāmbūnada,  54 55 56aṣṭagandha, puṣpa, akṣata. (mantra, Pārthivapūjā)   KālikāPur LIII 1-4: gandha, puṣpa, jala. (Mahāmāyākalpa)  LXIII 16-17: sitasarṣapa,  mudga,  tila, kṣīra, yava, raktacandana, 57 58puṣpa, dūrvā, rocanā.  (Kāmākhyāpūjā) 59 LXIII 76-77: dūrvā, siddhasarṣapa, raktapuṣpa, candana. (Tripurāpūjā)  LXVIII 41-42: kuśa, puṣpa, akṣata, siddhārtha, candana, toya, gandha. (Kāmākhyāpūjā) BdhPur II 27,12-17: śankha, śuklataṇḍula, dūrvā, gaṅgājala, puṣpa. (Śivapūjā) NsPur LXVII 13: śaṅkhe toya, sitapuṣpākṣata. (Agastyārghyadāna) NāradaPur I 113,75-76: raktacandana, kuśa, dūrvā, puṣpa, akṣata, śamīpattra,  60dadhi. (Saṃkaṣṭacaturthīvrata) The gandha is enumerated in one third of these examples. They are also interesting in that they show that candana, sandalwood, became fairly common among them.  Aegle marmelos: wood-apple tree.52 Vermilion.53 A young shoot.54 Piperceae betel.55 [Gold dust] from Jambū river.56 White mustard seed.57 Phaseolus mungo: black gram.58 Yellow pigment. Cf. gorocanā: bile of cattle.59 Mimosa pudica: a humble plant, see spṛk-60  ŌSHIMA 167. Dhūpa and gandha in Tantrism 7.1. Dhūpa It may be worth mentioning in passing, that, turning to a new era, we can find materials for a burning incense, dhūpa, and an offering perfume, gandha. Since I am not quite competent to discuss this subject as a whole, I will arrange the materials with the help of Tāntrikābhidhānakośa (=TAK).   61For dhūpadravya, incense substances, kṛṣṇāgaru (dark aloe wood), karpūra (camphor) mixed with agaru (aloe wood), and guggulu mahiṣākṣa (gum of a buffa-lo) are classified as the best. Uśīra (vetiver) and candana are middling. The worst are śrīvāsa (resin), sarja (Vateria indica bdellium),  lākṣā (shellac), ghṛta and ma-62dhu. They are to be burnt on the dhūpapātra with a charcoal.  I would like to em63 -phasize that Vedic traditional substances such as clarified butter and honey are underestimated here. In this era, they use a pleasant fragrance for a good deed such as an arbi-tration or bringing up. On the other hand, inverted smelling or impure sub-stances (not specified) for abhicāra, a curse.  7.2. Gandha in upacāra Upacāra (or called pañcopacāra, including arghya) is a series of services offered to a deity. For the offerings of the pūjā there in these services, gandha (or vilepana, an unguent), puṣpa (flower), dhūpa (incense), dīpa (light), and naivedya (havis)  64are listed.  As to gandha, See the following Table 1 and 2,  specific materials for 65 66the perfumes, gandha.  On this subject, see also Einoo and Takashima 2005, Hara 2010: 72 (gandha as an in61 -cense), McHugh 2012. Vateria indica is an Indian copal tree: contains copal varnish.62 TAK III: 108. The source for this recipe is ĪśgP II kp 5.86c-90b.63 niveda-: Offering or an oblation offered. Food cooked for the gods like dairy products or 64grains is called naivedya. TAK I: 237. The sources are PKār IV 374; ĪśgP II kp 5.7ab.65 TAK II: 178.66 Smell or Incense in Vedic Ritual  17Table 1. Eight forms of gandha listed in Sanatkumāra Saṃhitā, Śivarātra VIII 75-76b. Table 2: Nine forms of gandha in Vīratantra. Two types of śaivagandha and śāktagandha are listed in Vātulatantra quoted in ĪśgP II kp 5.72-74j. These are crushed and mixed with cold water. One śaiva-gandha is made of five: candana, agaru, karpūra (camphor), kuṅkuma, and cold water. The other śaivagandha is made of eight: candana, kuṅkuma, kuṣṭha, dala (a Name Identificationuśīra Andropogon muricatus: vetiver. Oil from roots (benzoic acid)kuṅkuma Saffronmāṃsī Nardostachys jatamansi: spikenard (honeysuckle), oil from a stalk or rootsmalayaja Sandal wood [grown in Mt. Malaya (MBh +)]murā A kind of aromatic treehrībera A kind of Andropogon (beard grass)kúṣṭha Probably Saussurea lappa: (AV +), oil from rootsagaru (aguru-) Amyris Agallocha: citrus treeName Identificationcandana Sandalkuṅkuma Saffronloha Agallochum, like an eaglewoodkhaḍgá Rhinoceros (MS +), or a rhinoceros-horn?jātī Jasmine or nutmeg tree or nut (Suśr), also in Pāli.vānara Monkey (Mn +); a kind of aromatic tree; Carpopogon pruriens: legume (L.)takkola (kakkola-) Loanword; an aroma extracted from a kind of aromatic plant or fruit (Suśr). kaṭuka Adj. - “sharp” (ṚV X 85,34); Picrorhiza Kurroa: perennial in highlandspatra (pattra-) Laurus Cassia: cinnamon  ŌSHIMA 18petal or leaf, ep. +) , śīta (cold one), agaru, karpūra, hirivera (hrībera), or another 67eight: candana, agaru, karpūra, kāśmīra (saffron), uśīra, rocana, kuṣṭha, and cold water. Śāktagandhas are made of eight: candana, agaru, karpūra, māṃsī, kuṅkuma, rocana, spṛk (spṛkkā, Trigonella Corniculata: fenugreek or Mimosa pudica: a hum-ble plant), and vānara. An aṣṭagandha is also listed:  candana, kuṅkuma, agaru, 68karpūra, kuṣṭha, māṃsī, kacca,  and uśīra. 698. Conclusions: From Applying to Offering So far, most notably in the first half, we have seen how the gandha has changed in the meaning of the ritualistic equipment throughout Vedic Śrauta rituals. In the oldest hymns it is referred to a mythological odor, noticeably expressed with a metaphor for milk (→2.1) and the smell of an ointment made from butter ap-plied (→2.2; 2.6) and a certain kind of perfume added (→2.3). The last two exam-ples are used in the actual rituals. It is also preferable that the smell produced by broiling the meat of the sacrificial animal (→2.7.1) and even that of carrion, for it originated from Soma (→2.7.2). At the same time, it is also observed that it has the conventional function of a talisman, remedy or the social evaluation of a per-son according to the AV (→2.4; 2.5).  Therefore, gandha essentially has two streams of recognition. First, it is the preferable fragrance in a ritual, derived predominantly from dairy products. Its purpose must be to be favorable to the gods. Secondly, it is a mythical smell, sometimes odious, which has a magical or medical power. It is entirely fair to say that this stream could have a connection with folk beliefs or a folk therapy.  What was a basic smell in the ritual? It is likely that they had a great affec-tion for dairy products and the origin of gandha is chiefly attributed to milk or a cow so far as it is related to Śrauta rituals, considered from what has been examined.  On the other hand, gandha itself, produced as an incense, had not been offered to the gods in the Śrauta rituals, even though there was the custom of priests acting provided with fragrance in the rituals, as mentioned above. Al-though it has been concisely investigated, such an offering substance is hardly  EWA III, p. 262. TAK considers it as “cinnamon leaf,” probably according to lexicogra67 -phers. TAK I: 152. The source is ĪśgP III, 194.68 It is possible to presume kaccu as a close synonym for vānara, on which I would like to 69thank Dr. Shrikant Bahulkar for valuable suggestions. Or one may assume kaccha or kacchu, meant as a certain plant by lexicographers. Smell or Incense in Vedic Ritual  19observed. It was in the hospitable reception to a guest described in the Gṛhyasū-tras that a set of offerings including the gandha suddenly appeared (→5; nearly 4). When and why they began offering an incense is still unknown to us even if we explore the history of the Vedic Śrauta texts to find a trigger. Did they gradually become aware of the smell to be appropriate for the sacrifice and invented an incense, or adopt the whole from outside? Besides, dhūpa, known as a burning incense in the present day but men-tioned in no earlier than the days of the Śrautasūtras, is a problem as well as gandha. (→5.1; 5.2; 7). If we trace the origin of dhūpa in the Saṃhitās and Brāh-maṇas, it drives us to investigations of the examples of dhūma: smoke, dhvanI: to smoke, or the denominative verb dhūpay :̊ to smoke or fumigate therein. Then first of all, we can easily reach back to the fumigation of the ukhā pot in the Pravargya, nevertheless, its smoke seems to remain to be just practical and its smell is not apparently given religious significance. Likewise, the mantra in VS XXXVII 9 mentions horse-dung as the fuel, but it does not refer to its smoke or smell. There are few references to the smell of smoke in Śrauta rituals. Therefore, we do not find an intimate association between Vedic smoke or fumigation and the modern burning incense. Even though we consider the smoke from broiling vapā, reticular fat, the most important oblation in the Paśubandha, we hardly find a reference to the smell of the smoke. Nevertheless, when it is said that those who sniff the smell of the sacrificial horse cooked in the Aśvamedha share a better world (→2.7.1), that smell is no other than the smoke from the broiled meat (or steam from a boiled meat). Thus, smell and smoke are not distinguish-able from time to time. We have also considered Agni being called “dhūmagandhi” (→2.7.1), which is a case in point. In spite of that, they do not give any specific significance to the smoke. As a whole, the historical background of the gandha established in a hospitable reception to a guest remains unknown in the Śrauta contexts.  In the early Tantric ritual, gandha is generally offered to the gods. One of the contributing factors for the establishment of the manner to offer a fragrant gandha to the gods following the hospitable reception could be the gods visual-ized by objects or images. We see various products manufactured (→7). To exam-ine their development, we have to consider preceding Gṛhya rituals, medical texts and the possibility that they could be borrowed from folk beliefs. It is too involved a subject to be treated here in detail. If we illustrate these assumptions by a diagram, we get the following figure. !SHIMA20Figure 1. Ritualistic Gandha: Hypothetical Transition or History.Acknowledgments &is work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI: Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Re-search (C) 18K00057. " Smell or Incense in Vedic Ritual  21Abbreviations ĀpŚS  Āpastamba Śrautasūtra  Aśv.  Aśvamedho nāma pañcamo granthaḥ (in KS)  AV  Atharvaveda  AVP  Atharvaveda Saṃhitā (Paippalāda) AVPari  Atharvaveda Pariśiṣṭa  AVŚ  Atharvaveda Saṃhitā (Śaunaka) BaudhŚS Baudhyāyana Śrautasūtra BdhPur  Bṛhaddharma Purāṇa  BvPur Brahmavaivarta Purāṇa BhavPur Bhaviṣya Purāṇa ep.  epic ĪśgP Īśānaśivagurudevapaddhati KātyŚS  Kātyāyana Śrautasūtra  KauśS Kauśika Sūtra  kp  kriyāpāda KS Kāṭhaka Saṃhitā  L.  lexicographers LāṭyŚS  Lāṭyāyana Śrautasūtra  MānŚS Mānava Śrautasūtra  MBh  Mahābhārata  Mn  Manusmṛti  MS  Maitrāyaṇī Saṃhitā  NsPur  Narasiṃha Purāṇa  PKār  Pūrvakāmikāgama PB  Pañcaviṃśa Brāhmaṇa ṚV Ṛgveda Saṃhitā TB  Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa TS  Taiitirīya Saṃhitā Suśr  Suśruta Saṃhitā ŚB  Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa (Mādhyandina) VaitS  Vaitāna Sūtra VdhPur  Viṣṇudharmottara Purāṇa VS  Vājasaneyi Saṃhitā   ŌSHIMA 22Bibliography Brunner, Hélène, Gerhard Oberhammer, and André Padoux, eds. 2003, 2004, 2010. Tāntrikābhidhānakośa: A Dictionary of Technical Terms from Hindu Tantric Literature, I – III. Vienna: Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wis-senschaften. Caland, Willem. 1896.  Die altindischen Todten- und Bestattungsgebräuche mit Benut-zung handschriftlicher Quellen dargestellt. Verhandelingen der Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen te Amsterdam, Afdeeling Letterkunde, Deel I, N .̊ 6. Amsterdam: J. Muller. ———. 1931. Pañcaviṃśa-Brāhmaṇa, The Brahmana of Twenty Five Chapters, Calcut-ta: Asiatic Society. Second Edition, Delhi: Sri Satguru Publications, 1982. Einoo, Shingo, and Jun Takashima, eds. 2005. From Material to Deity: Indian Ri-tuals of Consecration, Delhi: Manohar Publishers. Goodall, Dominic, ed. 2015. The Niśvāsatattvasaṃhitā: The Earliest Surviving Śaiva Tantra Vol. 1, A Critical Edition & Annotated Translation of the Mūlasūtra, Utta-rasūtra & Nayasūtra, Pondichery: French Institute of Pondhichery. Hara, Minoru. 2010. “A Note on Sanskrit Gandha.” Studia Orientalia 108: 65-86. Hoffmann, Karl, 1967. Der Injunktiv im Veda. Heidelberg: C. Winter. McHugh, James. 2012. Sandalwood and Carrion: Smell in Indian Religion and Culture, Now York: Oxford University Press. Mayrhofer, Manfred. 1986-2001. Etymologisches Wöterbuch des Altindoarischen, 3 vols. Heidelberg: Carl Winter Universitätsverlag. [=EWA]. Ōshima, Chisei. 2010-2011. “Dīkṣā́ in the Agniṣṭoma: Some Symbolic Aspects of the Sacrificer’s Role.” Journal of Indological Studies (Kyoto) 22/23: 61-86. Ranade, H. G. 2006. Illustrated Dictionary of Vedic Rituals. New Delhi: Indira Gandhi National Centre for the Arts. Whitney, William Dwight. 1905. Atharva-Veda-Saṃhitā. 2 vols., Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Winternitz, Moriz. 1909. Geschichte der indischen Litteratur. Vol. 1. Leipzig: C. F. Amelangs. ———. 1981.  A History of Indian Literature. Vol. 1. Trans. from original German by V. Srinivasa Sarma. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. Witzel, Michael, Toshifumi Gotō, et al. 2007. Rig-veda Das heilige Wissen Erster und zweiter Liederkreis. Frankfurt am Main : Verlag der Weltreligionen.

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