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A Non-Śrauta Ritual in the Oldest Yajurveda Text : Maitrāyaṇī Saṁhitā IV 2 (Gonāmika Chapter) Amano, Kyoko 2019

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 A Non-Śrauta Ritual in the Oldest Yajurveda Text: Maitrāyaṇī Saṁhitā IV 2 (Gonāmika Chapter) Kyoko Amano Proceedings of the 17th World Sanskrit Conference, Vancouver, Canada, July 9-13, 2018, Section 1: Veda.  Section Convenors: Shrikant Bahulkar and Joanna Jurewicz
General Editor: Adheesh Sathaye Published by the Department of Asian Studies, University of British Columbia, on behalf of the International Association for Sanskrit Studies. DOI: 10.14288/1.0379840.
URI: Suggested Citation Format: MLA:
Amano, Kyoko. “A Non-Śrauta Ritual in the Oldest Yajurveda Text: Maitrāyaṇī Saṁhitā IV 2 (Gonāmika Chapter).” Proceedings of the 17th World Sanskrit Conference, Vancouver, Canada, July 9-13, 2018, Section 1: Veda. Edited by Shrikant Bahulkar and Joanna Jurewicz, 2019. DOI: 10.14288/1.0379840. APA:
Amano, K. (2019). A non-Śrauta ritual in the oldest Yajurveda text: Maitrāyaṇī Saṁhitā IV 2 (Gonāmika chapter). In S. Bahulkar and J. Jurewicz, (eds.) Proceedings of the 17th World Sanskrit Conference, Vancouver, Canada, July 9-13, 2018, Section 1: Veda. DOI: 10.14288/1.0379840. Chicago:
Amano, Kyoko. 2019. “A Non-Śrauta Ritual in the Oldest Yajurveda Text: Maitrāyaṇī Saṁhitā IV 2 (Gonāmika Chapter).” In Proceedings of the 17th World Sanskrit 
Conference, Vancouver, Canada, July 9-13, 2018, Section 1: Veda, edited by Shrikant 
Bahulkar and Joanna Jurewicz. DOI: 10.14288/1.0379840. Proceedings of the 17th World Sanskrit Conference, July 9-13, 2018 University of British Columbia, Vancouver, CanadaTHE   17TH    WORLD   SANSKRIT  CONFERENCEVANCOUVER, CANADA • JULY 9-13, 2018Copyright © 2019 by the author. Content is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 4.0 International license (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0).वैधुसव ्मकबंटुकुअ ारा यसं ृ ता यनसमवायःINTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF SANSKRIT STUDIES THE 17TH WORLD SANSKRIT CONFERENCE, VANCOUVER, CANADA, JULY 9-13, 2018 A Non-Śrauta Ritual in the Oldest Yajurveda Text: Maitrāyaṇī Saṁhitā IV.2 (Gonāmika Chapter) Kyoko Amano Institute for Research in Humanities / Hakubi Center, Kyoto University,  Kyoto, Japan Abstract The Maitrāyaṇī Saṁhitā [MS] IV.2, Gonāmika chapter, contains descriptions of esoteric rites that don’t look like the orthodox Śrauta ritual. They are, on one hand, the rites of serving a cow that are concerned with the gopitṛyajña (MS I.6) and the śūlagava ritual belonging to the Gṛhya rites, and on the other hand, the worship of Rudra that is again concerned with the śūlagava ritual. Underlying them is an ancient popular rite of serving a cow to people of the community at the end of the year. The examination of these descriptions gives a clue to the an-swer to the question whether the Vedic Brāhmaṇa texts were composed in order to describe Śrauta rituals. The contents of this paper are following:  0. Were the Brāhmaṇa texts composed in order to describe Śrauta rituals?  1. Historic layers of language in the Maitrāyaṇī Saṁhitā. 2. Common features in I.9 (Caturhotṛ chapter) and IV.2 (Gonāmika chapter). 3. Contents of IV.2 (Gonāmika chapter). 4. Ritual of serving a cow at ekāṣṭakā. 5. Serving a cow described in IV.2 (and I.6) and Atharvaveda 8.10. 6. Serving a cow described in IV.2 (and I.6) and the gopitṛyajña.  7. Serving a cow described in IV.2 and the śūlagava in the Gṛhyasūtras. 8. Conclusions.  9. Reconsidering the ritual and texts in the Yajurveda Saṁhitā period.  Keywords: Śrauta ritual, Maitrāyaṇī Saṁhitā, gonāmika, śūlagava, serving a cow. Proceedings of the 17th World Sanskrit Conference, Vancouver, Canada, July 9-13 2018, Section 1: Veda, edited by Shrikant Bahulkar and Joanna Jurewicz, 2019. DOI: 10.14288/1.0379840.  AMANO 20. Were the Brāhmaṇa texts composed in order to describe Śrauta rituals?  The Śrauta rituals of the brahmanical tradition are described in the Śrautasūtras. We understand that the Śrauta rituals, containing haviryajña, paśu, and soma,  1are rituals with three sacred fires, performed by several priests who play their own role, and held by a sacrificer who gives a fee to these priests.  How to per2 -form these Śrauta rituals is based on the śruti literature, mainly the Brāhmaṇa texts that explain these rituals for the first time. One can say that the Brāhmaṇa texts give the basis for description of Śrauta rituals, but does it mean that the Brāhmaṇa texts aimed to describe the “Śrauta” rituals? In the Yajurveda Saṁhitā [YS] texts (Maitrāyaṇī Saṁhitā [MS], Kāṭhaka Saṁhitā, Taittirīya Saṁhitā) it seems that a classification of rituals as “Śrauta” or “Gṛhya” (house ritual as opposed to the official Śrauta ritual) was not the interest. We can find no definition of a Śrauta ritual. One can, however, perceive a con-cept of the rituals described in MS, that the priests in those days were develop-ing. Amano explains “orthodox Śrauta ritual in the YS period” as ritual whose core action is offering oblations with recitation of ṛc hymns by the hotṛ priest and to which also some other priests are invited to play their own role, so that it makes some social meaning in their society in benefit for the ritual holder (sacri-ficer) (Amano 2016a: 35). While this applies as orthodox Śrauta ritual, many “non-orthodox” ele-ments are found in the Maitrāyaṇī Saṁhitā, as Amano also has suggested (2016a: 36-37 and 61-64). That work pointed out that the thinking developed from the Brāhmaṇas to later philosophy (Āraṇyakas and Upaniṣads) came from these non- The classification into two (haviryajña and soma) and three (+ paśu) is found since the 1younger Brāhmaṇas: e.g., ŚB haviryajñé 'tha saumyè 'dhvaré (~ ŚB; ŚB  haviryajñávidho ha vā́ anyáḥ, paśubandháḥ savávidho 'nyás; ŚB havirya-jñás … paśús. PB 17.13.18 enumerates haviryajña, paśu, and soma. The Śrautasūtras and Dharmasūtras use this classification, also adding pākayajña (indicating a “Gṛhya” ritual, i.e., the domestic ritual): LātyŚS 5.4.22: haviryajñasaṃsthā (including paśu and pāka-yajña) and somasaṃsthā; BaudhŚS 24.4: pākayajña, haviryajña, and soma; GautDhS 1.8.19: pākayajña, haviryajña (including paśu), and soma. My special thanks go to Prof. Masato Fujii, Prof. Kiyotaka Yoshimizu, and Dr. Makoto Fushimi for helpful sug-gestions about the definition of the Śrauta ritual. See Hillebrand 1897: 97-166. The Paribhāṣās in the Śrautasūtras give a general rule and 2an outline of the rituals (see Chakrabarti 1980). Later Dharmasūtras, e.g., Yājñavalkya Smṛti I.97 (96) and 314 (309), indicate a “Śrauta” ritual as a ritual with three sacred fires. A Non-Śrauta Ritual in the Oldest Yajurveda Text  3orthodox cultures crossing with the orthodox ritual and thinking (Amano 2016a: 63-64). In this paper I attempt to discuss a quite non-orthodox chapter, MS IV.2 (Gonāmika), and its relationship with rites incorporated in other rituals, espe-cially the śūlagava, “serving a spit-roasted cow,” as described in the Gṛhyasūtras, i.e. recognized as a domestic ritual. This examination will deepen our under-standing about the background of composing the old Brāhmaṇa literature. 1. Historic Layers of Language in the Maitrāyaṇī Saṁhitā  My recent studies make it clear that every chapter of MS shows its own peculiar-ities of style and language.  It possibly means that there are several historic lay3 -ers of language in MS, in other words each chapter was composed by a different author. Also, the contact status with other schools, Kāṭhaka Saṁhitā and Taittirīya Saṁhitā, is quite different among chapters; some chapters show an active ex-change of ritual opinions with KS (and TS) and some chapters do not. Each chapter was formed in a different period and different situation.  4The subjects of all prose chapters and their parallels in KS and TS are the following: Brāhmaṇa chapters in the  MS KS/TS ParallelsKS TSI.4 yajamāna duty of a sacrificer 32 I.6-7I.5 agnyupasthāna   worship of sacred fires 7 I.5I.6 ādhāna establishment of sacred fires 8I.7 punarādhāna re-establishment of sacred fires 9 I.5I.8 agnihotra daily offering to sacred fires 6I.9 caturhotṛ caturhotṛ formulas 9I.10 cāturmāsya seasonal rites 36I.11 vājapeya soma drinking for a chariot race 14 Amano 2014-2015: 1-36; 2015: 1161-1167; 2016a: 37-38; 2016b: 484-487; 2016c: 29-56; forth3 -coming a and b.  Therefore, a simple relative chronology of the entire texts (such as MS is older than KS 4or vice versa) is not possible.  AMANO 4The MS chapter IV.2 that will be examined in this paper has no parallel chapter in KS and TS. My studies (2014-2015, 2015, 2016b, 2016c) attempted to clarify features of each chapter in MS. From these observations, the relationship among the chapters became clear to some extent, and also with the process of composing the text (see Amano 2016c: 51-52 and forthcoming a: §6): I.6 and I.8 are the oldest chapters, and III.6-10 took over the tradition from these. The sequence of chapters I.5 - III.1-5 - IV.1, which are closely related with one another, is located at the center of the tradition in composing MS. III.1-5 and IV.1, in particular, show a period of maturity of ritual phi-losophy. I.9, IV.2 (and I.4) brought a new wave with some features in common with the Āraṇyakas and Upaniṣads;  IV.5-8 has connection with both the traditional group (I.6/I.8 - III.6-10) and the new wave group (I.4, I.9, IV.2). The tentative model for composing MS is as follows: II.1-4 kāmyā-iṣṭi rites for special wish (with cake and gruel) 10-12 II.2-4II.5 kāmya-paśu rites for special wish (with sacrificial animal) 13 II.1III.1-5 agniciti piling of fire altar 19-22 V.1-7III.6-10 soma adhvara preparation for soma ritual 23-26 VI.1-3IV.1 darśapūrṇamāsa new and full moon sacrifice 31IV.2 gonāmika rite for naming cowsIV.3-4 rājasūya royal coronationIV.5-8 soma graha soma drawing 27-30 VI.4-6Brāhmaṇa chapters in the  MS KS/TS ParallelsKS TSA Non-*rauta Ritual in the Oldest Yajurveda Text 5 Figure 1. /e process of composing MS (Amano 2016c: 52, Table 4). 2. Common features in I.9 (Caturhot$ chapter) and IV.2 (Gon"-mika chapter) As has been suggested, I.9 (Caturhot$ chapter) and IV.2 (Gon"mika chapter) are supposed to belong to the same historic layer, or in other words, to have come from the same social-cultural background. #e linguistic features in both chap-ters (indicated in Amano 2010: 5, 8 and Amano 2016a: 49-50, 59-60) are the oc-currence of rare vocabulary and rare syntactic phenomena, and new style of us-ing yá evám$  véda. #e peculiar ritualistic-cultural features that are common in both chapters are the reference to sattra and philosophical thinking (see Amano 2010: 11, 2016a: 49, 58-59, 61-64). I.9 is named caturhot!ras or c!turhotrika-prap!)haka, “the chapter for catur-hot$ formulas.” #is chapter ostensibly teaches the use of these formulas, but it actually indicates the mah!vrata ritual in the ambiguous way, concealing its   AMANO 6name.  Amano (2017: 1039-1046) gives a conclusion that I.9 shows the trace of an 5attempt to embed a non-orthodox ritual, the mahāvrata, into the context of the orthodox Śrauta ritual.  One of the most important features I.9 and IV.2 commonly indicate is that both rituals are prescribed as rituals not only for an āhitāgni (qualified sacrificer) but for an anāhitāgni (not qualified sacrificer) in Mānava Śrautasūtra [MŚS] (~ Vārāha Śrautasūtra [VārŚS] pariśiṣṭa):    6MŚS cāturhotṛkagonāmikam apy anāhitāgner dvādaśarātraṃ tri-rātram ekarātraṁ vā. pākayajñopacārād agnim upacarati. The caturhotṛ and gonāmika are held also by one who has not established his sacred fire (i.e., not qualified as sacrificer) for twelve nights, three nights or one night. He deals with the fire in the way of the house ritual. The second important point is that the mantras referred to in I.9 and IV.2 are not found in any other chapters in MS, although I.9 and IV.2 teach to use these mantras in soma and other rituals. This fact indicates that these chapters could have been composed later than other chapters or isolated from other ritu-als (or teachers of other rituals). The following passages from I.9 and IV.2 that show the same style prescribe to use the mantras in soma ritual respectively: I.9.5(4b): 136.20-137.3: dáśahotāraṁ  vadet purástād bahiṣpavamānásya … cáturhotāraṁ vadet purástād ā́jyānāṃ. páñcahotāraṁ vadet purástān mā́dhyaṃdinasya pávamānasya. saptáhotāraṁ vadet purástād ā́rbhavasya pávamānasya. IV.2.4(2):26.6-11: [// +vásvyai híṃkuru. tásyai prástuhi. tásyai mé 'varuddhyai //] íti purástād bahiḥpavamānásya vadet. [// íḍāyai híṃkuru, … //] íti purástād ā́jyānāṁ vadet. [// jyótiṣe híṃkuru, … //] íti purástān mā́dhyaṃdinasya pávamā-nasya vadet. [// ā́yuṣe híṃkuru, … //] íti purástād ā́rbhavasya pávamānasya +vadet.  This ritual was originally from the vrātya culture, that has been argued in many studies, 5for example Heesterman 1962, Falk 1986, Parpola 2012 and 2015, Mucciarelli 2015: 65-69, Amano 2016a. See Amano 2010: 1-17; van Gelder 1961: 5 and 1963: 284, note 1; Kashikar 2003: LIX. See 6also Heesterman 1993: 135-136. A Non-Śrauta Ritual in the Oldest Yajurveda Text  7But the use of these formulas and mantras is found nowhere in the soma ritual in MS.  73. Contents of IV.2 Gonāmika chapter MS IV.2 (Gonāmika chapter) was studied in detail by Gandhe (1976-77: 19-26). This study provides an overview of the contents in IV.2, namely birth-ritual of cattle, naming the cattle, setting a bull free, marking the cattle, housing the cat-tle, cattle-raids, maintenance of a breed, disposal of aged cattle. He makes im-portant suggestions about the contents: The gonāmika, directly or indirectly, speaks of the practices and beliefs prevalent in a society that had taken on to agriculture but still retained cattle-keeping as a major source of livelihood (p. 19). … The gonāmika (MS. iv.2) was essentially a sort of manual for cattle-keep-ing. Occasionally it gives a religious garb to ordinary practices … (p. 25). What is important is that MS IV.2 doesn't have any parallel chapter in its sister texts, KS and TS. Among the later Śrautasūtras, only MŚS and VārŚS that belong to the Maitrāyaṇī school have corresponding ritual descriptions. It can be supposed that the author(s) of MS IV.2 hold(s) a peculiar, probably not major position in the brahmanical society in those days. 4. Ritual of serving a cow at ekāṣṭakā  As Gandhe suggested, MS IV.2 mainly contains practices and beliefs at cattle-keeping. Here I will discuss interesting passages according to a ritual of serving a cow. The ritual context in MS IV.2 is quite difficult to understand. How the de-scribed ritual acts and ordinary actions are related with each other and whether they stand in time order are not clear (that can be applied to many chapters of MS). So, I will cite passages here that can possibly be concerned with a ritual of serving a cow.  MŚS (the chapter for soma sacrifice) indicates the both combined: daśahotāraṁ 7yajamāno japati purastād bahiṣpavamānasya “vasvyai hiṅkurv” iti ca. In the same way, ĀpŚS 12.17.13-14.  AMANO 8A. Serving a cow at ekāṣṭakā: MS IV.2.3(3): 24.16-25.5; MŚS devā́ś ca vā́ ásurāś cāspardhanta=. áditir devéṣv ā́sīt, kústā́sureṣu. té devā́ amanyanta: “yády abhijeṣyā́maḥ, kústāyāḥ śírā ā́haniṣyāmā” íti. “yády abhi-jeṣyā́mā” íty ásurā amanyanta=, “ádityāḥ śírā ā́haniṣyāmā” íti. tā́ṃ devā́ abhijí-tyāghnata. yásya vái +jitáṁ, yásya víjitaṃ, tásyaiṣā́  gṛhé hanyata. eṣā́ vái kṣút. 8kṣúdhaṁ vā́ etád dhate. tád, yá eváṁ vidvā́n ekāṣṭakā́yāṃ gā́ṁ haté, saṁvatsa-rā́yaivá kṣúdhaṁ hate. The gods and asuras fought against each other. Aditi belonged to the gods, Kustā to the asuras. Then the gods thought: “If we win, we will cut Kustā's head off.” “If we win,” thought the Asuras, “we will cut Aditi's head off.” The gods won and slayed her. In the house of a man who is de-feated [and] whose [belongings] are depredated,  this [cow] is slayed. 9This is hunger. In this way, he defeats the hunger. When he, knowing this, slays a cow at ekāṣṭakā, he defeats hunger for the year. This passage explains the serving of a cow at ekāṣṭakā, i.e., at a day around winter solstice. The rite has the meaning to defeat hunger for the coming year. This is probably an old custom at seeing the old year out, for the Atharvaveda has a passage concerning to this: AV 14.1.13.:   sūryā́yā vahatúḥ prā́gāt savitā́ yám avā́sṛjat |
10maghā́su hanyante gā́vaḥ phálgunīṣu vyùhyate ||  The bridal (vahatú) of Sūryā, which Savitar sent off (ava-sṛj), has gone forth; in the Maghās are slain the kine; in the Phalgunīs is the wedding. (Tr., Whitney 1905). The maghās are the constellation around the winter solstice,  so the rite is 11corresponding to that description in MS IV.2,3, although the contexts are differ-ent (one is after a battle, another at a wedding).  So Schroeder M, Sātavalekar; H Bb tásyaivā́; (MS [Ed. Schroeder] 25, n. 1).8 I interpreted yásya at jitám and víjitam as the object of jay, so “a man who is defeated.” 9Heesterman (1985: 67) interprets yásya as the agent of jay, so “a victorious conqueror.” ṚV 10.85.13 is parallel to this. In ṚV aghā́su stands instead of maghā́su in AV, and árjun10 -yos instead of phálgunīṣu. See Sakamoto-Goto 2016: 268-266. See Weber 1860: 341-345.11 A Non-Śrauta Ritual in the Oldest Yajurveda Text  9The next passage is for the “saptastavirya” ritual. In this rite, man tries to obtain new cows through calling them with the names for the seven “gods” cows. The addressing words are collected in IV.2.5: 26.13-14: (1) vásīyasy éhi (2) śréyasy éhi  (3) bhū́yasy éhi  (4) cíttā  éhi 12(5) dádhṛṣy éhi (6) íḍā éhi (7) sū́nṛtā éhi This calling is used in various situations as IV.2.6-7 explain, for example, at a battle, at a scene in the regular (new and full moon) ritual, or at grazing. And following them, IV.2.7: 29.1-10 explains it as a ritual provided with a formality of orthodox or “Śrauta” ritual, that is recognized in the technical expression of yā-jayet – “[a priest] should make [a sacrificer] hold a ritual”  use of ṛc, sacrificial 13gift, especially traditional rice gruel for brahmins: B. “Saptasthavirya” ritual formed as orthodox ritual: MS IV.2.7: 29.1-10 (~ MŚS grā́makāmaṁ yājayet +sárasvata  ṛgbhyā́ṁ. saṁvatsaró vái sárasvānt. saṁvat14 -saréṇaivā́smai grā́maṃ cyāvayati. [vásīyasy éhi, śréyasy éhi=] íty. etád-etad +evā́smā  atyā́hvayati. paśúkāmaṁ  yājayet +sárasvata ṛgbhyā́ṃ. … sárvāsāṃ 15dugdhé cátuḥśarāvam odanáṃ paced brāhmaṇébhyaḥ paśúkāmas.   cítte (voc. sg. f.). e > ā before an accented vowel (except á) is a special sandhi in MS.12 About the prescriptions with yājayet, see Amano 2014 and forthcoming c.13 Muusses 36 (in Mittwede 160) corrected so; Schroeder and Sātavalekar: sā́rasvata. Like14 -wise 29,4 below. Mittwede 160 with Muusses 36 corrected so; Schroeder and Sātavalekar: evā́syā. 15  AMANO 10[The priest] should make [a sacrificer] hold it (saptasthavirya ritual) with two ṛc verses for Sarasvant  if he wishes a village. Sarasvant is a year; 16with a year he (the priest) moves a village to him (the sacrificer). [He says:] “Richer one, come on! Better one, come on!” In this way or that way, he calls more [cows] to him. [The priest] should make [a sacrificer] hold it (saptasthavirya ritual) with two ṛc verses for Sarasvant if he wish-es cattle. … He should cook four dishes of gruel in milk gained from all milk cows for the (invited) brahmins if he wishes cattle.  The four dishes of gruel referred to in the last sentence is prescribed also in the chapters of agnyādhāna (establishment of sacred fires):  17I.6.11(2): 103.13-14.: téṣāṃ cátuḥśarāvam odanáṃ paktvā́ brāhmaṇébhyo jīvátaṇḍulam
ivópaharet (see Amano 2009: 251-252). I.6.12(1): 104.9-10.: yásyā rā́tryāḥ prātár agním ādhāsyámānaḥ syā́t, tā́ṁ rā́trīṃ cátuḥ-śarāvam odanáṃ paktvā́ brāhmaṇébhyo jīvátaṇḍulam ivópaharet (Amano op. cit. 254). Agnyādhāna had been systematized as orthodox ritual when they were composed into the text. IV.2,7 seems to have taken the ritual act from these.  The next passage that follows above is about sacrificial gift, too.  C. Sacrificial gift: MS IV.2.8: 29.12-14 (~ MŚS yā́m adānīyā́ya dádāti, tā́m asya paśávo 'nvápakrāmanti. yádi mányeta= “adānīyā́yādām” íty, etád evá yájur vaden [ná me tád +úpādambhiṣyad  +ṛṣ́ir 18brahmā́ yád dadā́] íti. …  When he gives sacrificial gift to one who is not appropriate for a gift, his cattle runs away after this [gift]. If he thinks: “I have given something to one who is not appropriate for a gift,” he should say the following yajus: “A (right) ṛṣi, a (right) brahmin would not make that pointless for me what I gave.” …  It is probably related with offering for Satasvant described in I.4.15(2). The two ṛcs that 16are used there are MS IV.10.1:142.11f. (= ṚV 7.96.5) and 13f. (= AV 7.40.1). I.4.15 belongs to the newest layer in MS; (see Amano 2014-15: 23 n. 5, 30). Cf. also I.10.1(3): 140.14-15: marúdbhyo gṛhamedhébhyaḥ sárvāsāṃ dugdhé sāyám odaná. 17(Amano op. cit.: 354). I corrected so; Schroeder according to M úpadambhiṣar dhṛṣ́ir; H Bb (B) úpadambhiṣa 18dhṛṣ́vir (MS [Ed. Schroeder] 29 n. 7; Mittwede 1986: 161). Úpādambhiṣyat is conditional. A Non-Śrauta Ritual in the Oldest Yajurveda Text  11Following that, blessings for the new-born are explained. It is not obvious whether passages C and D concern the same ritual context, but I interpreted so because of the continuity in the order.  D. Blessings for the new-born: MS IV.2.8: 29.16-30.11 (~ MŚS [// vīrávatīr bhūyāsta … //] íti púmāṁsaṃ jātám abhímantrayeta. [// bhū́yasīr bhūyāsta … //] íti stríyaṃ jātā́m. [// annādā́ bhūyāsta … //] íti balihṛt́o 'bhí-mantrayeta. [// bhū́yāṁso bhūyāsta … //] íti sabhāsádaḥ. … [// púṇyā púṇyam +asūt … //] íti púmāṁsaṃ jātám abhímantrayeta=. ūrjáivā́s-mai sahá jā́yate, gácchati paśūnā́ṁ saṁvídam. [// púṇyā púṇyām +asūt, … //] íti stríyaṃ jātā́ṁ. rāyás-póṣeṇaivā́smai sahá jā́yate, …  yé prācī ńam ekāṣṭakā́yā jā́yante, pū́rvasya té sasyásyottamā́. yé pratīcī ńam áparasya, té sasyásya prathamā́s. tā́n ubháyān sahā́bhímantrayeta. He should recite a charm to a newborn boy, “You [mothers] may be those who bear brave men” … He should recite a charm to a newborn girl, “You [mothers] may be those who increase in number,” … He should recite a charm to those who bring tribute to him, “You may be those who obtain food,” … He should recite a charm to those who sit at the meeting [i.e., his people], “You may increase in number,”…  He should recite a charm to a newborn male [calf], “A good [mother] has born a good [calf],” … It is born together with refreshment for him [the sacrificer], it is admitted among the cattle. He should recite a charm to a newborn female [calf], “A good [mother] has born a good [calf],” … It is born together with increasing property for him … Those [barley sprouts] that come out before ekāṣṭakā are the last of early sowing. Those [barley sprouts] that come out after [ekāṣṭakā] are the first of later sowing. He should recite a charm to both of them together.  The ritual scene is the meeting where people who bring tribute to the man of political weight and also his own people sit together, and the newborn are blessed. Púmāṁsaṃ jātám and stríyaṃ jātā́m are referred to twice, the latter indi-cates calf, that is understood from the statements "it is born together with re-freshment for him, it is admitted among the cattle." MŚS 9,5,6,4-5 prescribe the use of these mantras for the calves for ekāṣṭakāyām. It can be recognized also from the statement about barley sprouts in MS that come out before and after ekāṣṭakā. It is understandable that such a meeting (sabhā) of people with bless-  AMANO 12ing the newborn in the year was held at the end of the year, where a cow could be served to the people as described in A (IV.2,3).  The problem of a gift to an inappropriate person in passage C is probably concerning this situation where various people meet in the meeting.  And one more argument for continuity of passages B,C and D is eventually the continuity of I.6.11(2) four dishes of gruel for brahmins at agnyādhāna (see above B) and I.6.11(3) gambling with a cow at the sabhā and eating it. It is impor-tant to note that agnyādhāna is fulfilled, in an ideal case, at around change of the year that corresponds to ekāṣṭakā.  The passage about gambling with a cow at 19the sabhā is as follows: I.6.11(3): 103.19-104.8 (Agnyādhāna): trír vā́ idáṁ virā́ḍ vyàkramata, gā́rhapatyam āhavanī ýaṁ sábhyaṃ. …+madhyā́dhidevane  rājanyàsya juhuyād vāruṇyà ṛcā́. … śatám asmā akṣā́n 20práyachet. tā́n vícinuyāt. … gā́m asya tád áhaḥ sabhā́yāṃ dīvyeyus. tásyāḥ párūṁṣi ná hiṁsyus. tā́ṁ sabhāsádbhyā úpaharet. táyā yád gṛhṇīyā́t, tád brāhmaṇébhyo déyaṃ. Virāj parted this [world] into three with her stride, [namely] gārhapatya, āhavanīya, and sabhya [belonging to the meeting house] [fire]. … He [the priest] should make a offering into the fire that is placed in the middle of the place for dice game [in the meeting house] for a kingship with the ṛc verse for Varuṇa. … He [the priest] should give him [the sacrificer] hun-dred dice nuts. He should winnow [some] from them. … They [the people at the meeting]  should gamble with his [the sacrificer’s] cow throughout the day in the meeting house. They should not break its joints. He should serve it to the people who are sitting at the meeting. That [part] he gets should be given to the brahmins. (Amano 2009: 252-3; Krick 1982: 442-443; Sakamoto-Goto 2016: 282, n. 5). Keywords that connect the two ritual scenes are slaying a cow, people sit-ting at the meeting (sabhāsád-), four dishes of gruel for brahmins (cátuḥśarāva-  I.6,3(1) tells the origin of agnyādhāna with the burning bush at vasantāśiśirá, “period of 19time around the change of the cold season to the spring” – i.e., around the change of the year, I.6.9(1), (2) and (6) prescribe to establish fires at a period of time with the con-stallation phalgunīs that is the beginning of a year.  See Amano 2009: 252, n. 664.20 A Non-Śrauta Ritual in the Oldest Yajurveda Text  13odaná-). The time for the ritual is possibly the ekāṣṭakā. From these, an event of community at the year-end emerges. The next passage tells the origin of Rudra's names.  E. Worship of Rudra / Śiva: MS IV.2.12: 35.8-16  21prajā́patir vái trī ń mahimnò sṛjatāgníṁ vāyúṁ sū́ryaṃ. té catvā́raḥ pitāputrā́ḥ sattrám āsata. té svédaṁ samávaukṣaṁs. tád +abhavat.  tád vā́ asyaitán nā́ma= 22“×ábhūd”  íti. “sárvam abhūd” íti. +té  vā́ asyaité nā́manī krūré áśānte. tásmād 23 24eté ná grahītavyè; krūré hy èté áśānte.  prajā́patir vái svā́ṃ duhitáram abhyàkāmayatoṣásaṁ. … tám ā́yatayābhiparyā́-vartata. tásmād vā́ ×abibhet.  sò 'bravīt: “paśūnā́ṃ tvā pátiṃ karomy, átha me 25mā́sthā”  íti. tád vā́ asyaitán nā́ma “paśupátir” íti. tám abhyāyátyāvidhyat. sò 26'rodīt. tád vā́ asyaitán nā́ma “rudrá” íti. té vā́ asyaité nā́manī śivé śānté. tásmād eté kā́maṃ grahītavyè; śivé hy èté śānté. Prajāpati created the three expanses, [namely] Agni, Vāyu, and Sūrya. The four, the father and sons, sat at a sattra sitting. They dripped down sweat. It came into existence (abhavat) [as Rudra]. This is the well-known name of him, [namely] “abhūt.” It [is said also as] sarvam abhūt. These (Bhava and Śarva) are the "well-known two names of him that are terri-fying, not calmed. Therefore, one should not take these two [names], for these are terrifying, not calmed.  Prajāpati desired his own daughter, Uṣas … Then he [Rudra] went round by him [Prajāpati], taking aim at him with a set [arrow]. So he (P) feared him (R), and he (P) said: “I make you the lord of cattle (paśūnā́m … pátim). So don't shoot me.” This is the well-known name of him, [namely] Paśu- Falk 1986: 48-49; Jamison 1991: 292, note 278 and 290-291.21 So corrected; Schroeder and Sātavalekar ábhavat (MS [Ed. Schroeder] 35 note 3; Mit22 -twede 1986: 163). Sātavalekar nā́mā́bhūd; Schroeder nā́mābhūd.23 Schroeder and Sātavalekar tád; see the sentence of the same construction under 35,15: 24té vā́ asyaité nā́manī …. So Sātavalekar; Schroeder ábibhet (Mittwede 1986: 16).25 Schroeder and Sātavalekar mā́  sthā (Mittwede 1986: 163 with reference to Hoffmann 261967: 59-60, et alibi.). It is to be read as asthās, the injunctive of the root aorist of as-.  AMANO 14pati. [But] he (R) set [arrow], taking aim at him (P), and pierced him. So he (P) cried out (arodīt). This is the well-known name of him, [namely] Rudra. These [Rudra and Paśupati] are the well-known two names that are auspicious, calmed. From this origin one should call these two as one likes, for these are auspicious, calmed. It is prescribed not to call Rudra as sarva and abhūt that imply Śarva and Bhava,  but as paśupati and rudra.  But it is not indicated in what situation 27 28these names are called.  As discussed below, some Gṛhyasūtras connect the rite 29of serving a cow with the worship of Rudra with these different names. It is quite sure that MS IV.2.12 connect the worship of Rudra with the cattle keeping as seen also in many places in MS.  30One more argument for connection of Rudra worship with the rite at the end of the year is the myth about Prajāpati’s incest that is told in this context.  31This myth comes from Atharvaveda (AV) 4.4. Parpola (1983: 52) argues that these AV verses are closely connected with the mahāvrata rite that is also a fest at the end of the year, that is an important vrātya ritual.  The mahāvrata is the hidden 32subject in MS I.9, the sister chapter of IV.2, which is argued by Amano (2017). The community fest of serving a cow and the esoteric mahāvrata fest were prob-ably not unrelated with each other, but different forms of the year-end rite.   33 See Falk 1986: 48.27 This passage corresponds to a mantra found in MS II.9,5: 124,8f. (Agniciti mantra 28chapter): námo bhavā́ya ca śarvā́ya ca, námo rudrā́ya ca paśupátaye ca. It can be based on AV.4,28, a praise of Bhava and Śarva. It is to be noted that the name Śarva is men-tioned only in MS II.9, the so-called “Hinduistic” mantra collection (see Amano 2016a: 36). Acharya (2013) argues for the govrata and anaḍudvrata mentioned in the Jaiminīya Brāhmaṇa, Mahābhārata, and Brahmāṇḍapurāṇa as the origins for the Pāśupata vrata, which could have been related to Rudra worship in AV and MS. Probably at the rite for breed (setting a bull free), analysed from the order of description.29 Rudra as Paśupati: I.6.4(3), I.10.20(2); Rudra concerning with cattle: I.4.13(6), I.6.6(1), I.306.7(4), I.6.11(2), I.8.4(8), I.8.5(3), I.8.6(1), I.10.20(4), II.1.6(1), II.1.10(7), II.3.7(3). It occurs in several texts, so in MS III.6.5, ŚB I.7.4, AB III.33, JB III.262; see Jamison 311991: 289-293. See also Amano 2016a: 51. See Amano 2016a: 51, with n. 49, indicating Gonda 1975: 424-428, Parpola 2015: 138-140, 32192, 242, 250. See Sakamoto-Goto 2016: 272, with n. 17.33 A Non-Śrauta Ritual in the Oldest Yajurveda Text  155. Serving a cow described in IV.2 (and I.6) and AV.8.10 From the descriptions in IV.2 and I.6, a ritual of community at the year-end is revealed, where people gathered at the meeting (sabhāsád-) and ate a cow. Athar-vaveda 8.10 could have described the same ritual, and probably had an influence on MS I.6 and IV.2, for AV 8.10 shows many common descriptions with them (see Sakamoto-Goto 2016: 283-271):  AV 8.10.2:  sód akrāmat. sā́ gā́rhapatye ny àkrāmat. …   3:  sód akrāmat. sā́havanī ýe ny àkrāmat. …  5:  sód akrāmat. sā́ sabhā́yāṃ ny àkrāmat.  She [Virā́j-] ascended (ut-kram); she descended (ni-kram) in the house-holder's fire (gā́rhapatya); … She ascended; she descended in the fire of offering (āhavanīýa); … She ascended; she descended in the assembly (sabhā́); … (tr. Whitney).  ~ See above, MS I.6.11(3). AV 8.10.9:  tā́ṃ devamanuṣyā ̀abruvann, “iyám evá tád veda yád ubháya upajī v́ema=, imā́m úpa havayāmahā” íti.  10:  tā́m úpāhvayanta:  11:  “ū́rjā éhi svádha +éhi  sū́nṛta éhi= írāvaty éhi=” íti. 34Of her gods and men said: “She verily knoweth that upon which we of both classes may subsist; let us call to her.” They called to her: “O re-freshment, come! O svadhā́, come! O pleasantness, come! O thou rich in cheer (írā), come! (tr. Whitney) ~ See above, MS IV.2.5; (the 6th and 7th callings are (6) íḍā éhi, (7) sū́nṛtā éhi); MS IV.2.7 (B saptasthavirya ritual) etád-etad +evā́smā atyā́hvayati. AV 8.10.19:  sód akrāmat. sā́ pitṝ̀n ā́gacchat. … prá pitṛyā́ṇaṃ pánthāṃ jānāti, yá eváṃ véda.  20:  sód akrāmat. sā́ devā́n ā́gacchat. … prá devayā́naṃ pánthāṃ jānāti, yá eváṃ véda. She ascended; she came to the Fathers; … he understandeth the road that goes to the Fathers who knoweth thus. She ascended; she came to the  So corrected; ed. ehi.34  AMANO 16gods; … he understandeth the road that goes to the gods who knoweth thus. (Tr. Whitney). ≈ MS IV.2.1(4): 22.16.18-19 prá devayā́naṃ pánthāṃ jānāti, yá eváṁ véda. … prá pitṛyā́ṇaṃ pánthāṃ jānāti, yá eváṁ véda. AV 8.10.22:  sód akrāmat. sā́surān ā́gachat. … ayaspātráṃ pā́tram. / tā́m dvímūrdhā-rtvyò 'dhok. tā́ṃ māyā́m evā́dhok. …   23:  sód akrāmat. sā́ pitṝ̀n ā́gachat. … rajatapātráṃ pā́tram. / tā́m ánakto mā-rtyavó 'dhok. tā́ṃ svadhā́m evā́dhok. …  She ascended; she came to the Asuras;  … the metal (áyas-) vessel [was] ves-sel; her Dvimūrdhan son of Ṛitu milked; from her he milked illusion; … She ascended; she came to the Fathers; … the silver-vessel [was] vessel; her Antaka son of Mṛityu milked; from her he milked svadhā́; … (tr. Whitney).  (AV.8.10.22-29 ≈ MS IV.2.1(2): 21.11-19 and IV.2.13: 36.8-16);
≈ MS IV.2.1(2): 21.14-15 and 16-17: átha pitáro 'duhra rajaténa pā́tre-ṇa svadhā́ṃ. … áthā́surā aduhrāyaspātréṇa srávatā súrām;
MS IV.2.13: 36,10-11 and 15-16: átha pitáro 'duhra rajaténa pā́treṇórjaṃ ca svadhā́ṃ ca. … áthā́surā aduhrāyaspātréṇa +sráva-tā́bhūtiṃ  ca párābhūtiṃ ca. 35The word pitṛyā́ṇa- is AV’s vocabulary (totally in 11 places attested in AVŚ and AVP). Except AV, this word appears only in ṚV 10.2.7 and here in MS, not at all in the other Yajurveda Saṁhitās. It can be supposed that AV influenced MS IV.2. To summarize, key elements of the ritual in AV.8.10 and MS I.6 / IV.2 are listed: As Sakamoto-Goto (2016) suggested, AV 8,10 could have shown a primitive form of the year-end rite including the ancestor rite.  Mittwede 164 corrected; MS (Ed Schroeder) srávatā bhū́tiṃ; MS (Ed Sātavalekar) śrávatā́ 35bhūtiṃ.AV 8.10.2,3,5 Virāj strided to gārhapatya, āhavanīya, and sabhya fire MS I.6.11(3)AV 8.10.9-11 Calling cows with special calls MS IV.2.5,7AV 8.10.19-20 Path for the gods and path for the ancestors MS IV.2.1AV 8.10.22-29 “Milking”  with different vessels by different races MS IV.2.1,13 A Non-Śrauta Ritual in the Oldest Yajurveda Text  176. Serving a cow described in IV.2 (and I.6) and Gopitṛyajña The rite described in AV 8.10, MS I.6 and IV.2 was taken over by gopitṛyajña, a form of pitṛyajña described only in Baudhāyana Śrautasūtra II.8-11 and Vādhūla Śrautasūtra, Upavasathagavi chapter.  36BaudhŚS II.8 (45.6-7): athāgnyādheyasyopavasatha ity upakalpayate gāṃ māṃsalām ahataṃ vāsaś catura udakumbhāṃs trīn audumbarāñ chūlān … II.9 (48.4-6): tad akṣān paryupaviṣanti catvāraḥ pitāputrāḥ. … dvādaśākṣān pitā prachinatti. … II.9 (48.11-49.2): athaibhyo barhir ādāya gām upakaroti …. tām atraiva pratīcīnaśirasīṃ dakṣiṇāpadīṃ saṃjñapayanti. … tūṣṇīṃ vapām utkhidya hṛdayam uddharati. prajñātāni cāvadānāni. prajñātau ca matasnū. tāny eteṣv eva śūleṣūpanikṣyaitasminn evāgnau śrapayanti. On the day preceding the day on which fires are to be set up, the sacrificer procures a fat cow, a new garment, four pitches of water, three spikes of udumbara wood, … Four persons – father (sacrificer) and sons – sit around the dice … The father draws up twelve dice … Having taken up darbha-blades from them (the players), (the Adhvaryu) consecrates the cow … She is immolated there only with her head towards the west and feet towards the south … Having extracted out the omentum, he cuts out the heart, the organs and the two kidneys knowingly. Having stuck them on those three spikes, they cook them on this very fire. (Tr. Kashikar 2003: 83-85). We see common acts of BaudhŚS II.8-9 with MS I.6. MS I.6 doesn't say that the rite is an ancestor ritual. But it is possible that a year-end rite of com-munity had also a meaning of an ancestor ritual, or it was developed to such a ritual. It reminds us of another type of ancestor ritual, namely aṣṭakā, a ritual at the eighth day of the dark half-month in Taiṣa, Māgha, Phalgunī, among those the aṣṭakā in Māgha, that corresponds to the winter solstice, is the most impor-tant.  The aṣṭakā is connected with śrāddha that is the house ritual version of an 37 See Ikari 1999: 1-30.36 See Caland 1893: 166-192. 37  AMANO 18ancestor ritual, and contains serving a cow.  So it is also one of various devel38 -oped forms of the year-end rite of community.  7. Serving a cow described in IV.2 and śūlagava in the Gṛhyasūtras On the other hand, the year-end rite of serving a cow was taken over in śūlagava (“serving a spit-roasted cow”) as described in the Gṛhyasūtras (Baudhāyana Gṛhyasūtra II.7.4-28, Bhāradvāja GS II.8-9, Āśvalāyana GS IV.9.1-40, Pāraskara GS III.8.1-17, Āpastambha GS 7.19.13-14, Mānava GS II.5.1-5, Kāṭhaka GS 52.1-13).  39BaudhGS II.7.8-13: tām atraiva pratīcīnaśirasīṃ dakṣiṇāpadīṃ saṃjñapa-yanti. … tūṣṇīṃ vapām utsvidya hṛdayam uddharati. prajñātāni cāvadānāni. tāny eṣv eva śūleṣūpanīkṣya tasminn evāgnau śrapayanti. This is rightly corresponding to BaudhŚS II.9, gopitṛyajña. The gopitṛya-jña described as a Śrauta ritual and the śūlagava described as a Gṛhya ritual seem to be closely related with each other.  40And what is important is that Rudra's names are uttered at the śūlagava: BaudhGS II.7.18: atraitāny avadānānīḍāsūne pracchaudanaṃ māsaṃ yūṣam ity ājyena samudāyutya mekṣaṇenopaghātaṃ pūrvārdhe juhoti “bhavāya de-vāya svāhā śarvāya devāya svāhā īśānāya devāya svāhā paśupataye devāya svāhā rudrāya devāya svāhā ugrāya devāya svāhā mīmāya devāya svāhā ma-hate devāya svāhā” iti.  41Worship for Rudra concerned with rituals for cows is implied in MS IV.2, as seen in E above. The śūlagava and MS IV.2 have the same background in this point. A problem is the time for the ritual. Some of the Gṛhyasūtras prescribe the harvest as the time for śūlagava:   See Caland 1893: 23; Sakamoto-Goto 2016: 273-272 n. 14.38 See Iwasaki 1964: 820-814, Takahashi 1987: 997-995 and 1989: 980-977; Sakamoto-Goto 392016: 272 n. 14. The chapter of the animal sacrifice, BaudhŚS IV.6, describes killing a sacrificial animal 40in a different way from gopitṛyajña and śūlagava. BaudhŚS IV.6: tad etaṃ paśuṃ pratīcī-naśirasam udīcīnapādaṃ nighnanti – “The animal is immolated with its head towards the west and feet towards the north” (Kashikar 2003: 209). Similar mantras in ĀśvGS IV.9.17, PārGS III.8.6, BhārGS II.8-9; ĀpGS 7.19.8: atra 41rudrān japet. A Non-Śrauta Ritual in the Oldest Yajurveda Text  19BaudhGS: mārgaśīrṣyāṃ paurṇamāsyām, MGS: śaradi.  But ĀśvGS and KGS add the spring that is the season beginning after the winter solstice, so corresponding to MS IV.2:  ĀśvGS IV.9.2 and KGS 52.3: saradi vasante vā. 8. Conclusion To summarize, key elements according to the ritual for serving a cow are listed:  ? The chapter indicates the element.
 ? The element is optional or just implied. 9. Reconsidering the ritual and texts in the Yajurveda Saṁhitā period In the Yajurveda Saṁhitā period, the rituals were not classified into “Śrauta” ritu-al or “Gṛhya” ritual. There was a community rite of serving a cow at the end of the year, originally a popular rite, that was taken over in the Śrautasūtras as gopitṛya-jña that was held before the agnyādheya, and on the other hand, in the domestic ritual, as śūlagava, connected with the worship for Rudra. MS IV.2 integrated this popular ritual into the framework of the orthodox ritual, that consists of participation of the priests and sacrificial gift. Such an integration of non-orthodox ritual into the orthodox framework is seen com-Killing a cow Gift (gruel) for brahminsMeeting of community people (or relatives)End of the year (and beginning)Worship for RudraMS IV.2 Gonāmika ? A ? B (C) ? C D ? A D ? EMS I.6 
Agnyādhāna ? ? ? ?AV 8.10 ? ?ŚS Gopitṛyajña ? ? ? ?GS Aṣṭakā and Śrāddha ? ? ?GS Śūlagava ? ? ?  AMANO 20monly in MS I.9 and IV.2, where linguistic peculiarity can be recognized. From this point, a common social-cultural background can be supposed for both chap-ters. As Amano has suggested (2016a), the non-orthodox (possibly vrātya) culture could have influenced on the situation. The close relationship with AV  and the 42worship for Rudra described in IV.2 can indicate this fact.  43It is very important that MS IV.2 has no parallel passage in other Brāh-maṇa literature. The classification of rituals was rounded out in a later period, and the framework of the rituals was unified among the Vedic schools just with trivial differences at each ritual action. Why was the gonāmika not admitted into the “Śrauta” ritual in all other Vedic schools? Possible answers are that other schools avoided to admit it as an orthodox ritual, or the Maitrāyaṇīyas made a secret of their knowledge (because of a special technique of cattle keeping). It is still an unsolved problem. Acknowledgments This work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number JP16K02167. Bibliography Primary Sources & Abbreviations AB Das Aitareya Brāhmaṇa: Mit Auszügen aus dem Commentare von Sāyaṇācārya und anderen Beilagen. Edited by Theodor Aufrecht. Bonn: Adolph Marcus 1879. Reprinted, Hildesheim: Georg Olms, 1975. ĀpGS The Āpastambīya Gṛhyasūtra : with Extracts from the Commentaries of Haradatta and Sudarśanārya & an Index of Words. Edited by M. Winternitz. New Delhi: Meharchand Lachhmandas Publications, 2016. ĀpŚS  Āpastamba Śrauta Sūtra (text with English Translation and notes), Vols. 1 and 2. Edited by Ganesh U. Thite. Delhi: New Bharatiya Book Corporation, 2004 / 2013.   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The Domestic Ritual According to the School of Bhā-radvāja, critically edited Sanskrit text with an introduction and list of words by Henriette J. W. Salomons. New Delhi: Meharchand Lachhman-das Publications, 1981. GautDhS Gautama Dharmasūtra, in Dharmasūtras. The Law Codes of Āpastamba, Gautama,  Baudhāyana, and Vasiṣṭa. Annotated Text and Translation. Edited by Olivelle, Patrick. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers, 2000. GS Gṛhyasūtra(s). JB  Jaiminīya Brāhmaṇa of the Sāmaveda. Edited by Raghu Vira and Lokesh Chandra. Sarasvati Vihāra Series, 31. Varanasi: Arya Bharati, 1954. Reprin-ted, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1986.  KGS  The Kāṭhakagṛhyasūtra with Extracts from Three Commentaries, an Appendix and Indexes. Edited by Willem Caland. Lahore: Lalji Das Manager Hindi Press, 1925. KS Kāṭhaka Saṁhitā. LātyŚS Śrautasūtra of Lātyāyana: with the Commentary of Agniswāmī, with a New Ap-pendix Containing Corrections and Emendations to the Text. Edited by C. G. Ka-shikar. New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal, 1982. MGS  Mānavagṛhyasūtra of the Maitrāyaṇīya Śākhā, with the Commentary of Aṣṭāva-kra, edited with an introduction, indexes, etc. by Ramakrishna Harshaji Sastri. New Delhi: Meharchand Lachhmandas Publications, 1982. MS  Maitrāyaṇī Saṁhitā. Edited by Leopold von Schroeder, 4 Vols. Leipzig: Brockhaus, 1881, 1883, 1885, 1886. Reprint, Wiesbaden: Steiner, 1970.   AMANO 22 Yajurvedīya Maitrāyaṇī Saṃhitā. Edited by S. D. Sātavalekar. 4th ed. Paradi: Svādhyāya-Maṇḍala, 1983. MŚS  The Mānava Śrauta Sūtra belonging to the Maitrāyaṇī Saṃhitā, ed by Jeanette van Gelder, with New Appendix Containing Corrections and Emendations to the Text by Dr. C. G. Kashikar. Śatapiṭaka Series, 17. New Delhi: Sri Sat-guru Publications, 1961, 1963. PārGS Pāraskara Gṛhyasūtra. Sanskrit Text, Complete English Translation with Intro-duction. Edited by V. Narain, transl. by Hermann Oldenberg. Delhi: Chau-khambha Sanskrit Pratishthan, 2005. 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