World Sanskrit Conference (WSC) (17th : 2018)

Purāṇic Studies : Proceedings of the Purāṇa Section of the 17th World Sanskrit Conference, July 9-13,… Balkaran, Raj; Taylor, McComas 2019

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Proceedings of the Purāṇa Section of the 17th World Sanskrit Conference , July 9-13, 2018Edited by Raj Balkaran and 
McComas TaylorPURĀṆIC STUDIESUniversity of British Columbia   Vancouver, CanadaTHE   17TH    WORLD   SANSKRIT  CONFERENCEVANCOUVER, CANADA • JULY 9-13, 2018Purāṇic Studies:
Proceedings of the Purāṇa Section of the 
17th World Sanskrit Conference, July 9-13, 2018, Vancouver, Canada DOI: 10.14288/1.0379613.
URI: Edited by Raj Balkaran and McComas Taylor
General Editor: Adheesh Sathaye Published by the Department of Asian Studies, University of British Columbia, for the International Association for Sanskrit Studies. © Individual authors, 2019. Content is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 4.0 International license (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0). All papers in this collection have been peer reviewed. वैधुसव ्मकबंटुकुअ ारा यसं ृ ता यनसमवायःINTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF SANSKRIT STUDIESTable of Contents Preface  Raj Balkaran and McComas Taylor v ...............................................Structural Analysis of the Gaṇeśa Sahasranāma as Found 
in the Gaṇeśa Purāṇa  Les Morgan 1
...........................................................................Tying of Maṇis in the Viṣṇudharmottara Purāṇa  Mrunal S. Patki  27
The ‘Sthala’ Analysis of the Karavīra Māhātmya  Madhavi Narsalay 37 .................................................................
Who Is the Viṣṇu of the Viṣṇu Purāṇa?  Sucharita Adluri 47 ...................................................................Kṛṣṇa’s Son Pradyumna as Kāma and Māyin in the 
ʻKārṣṇaʼ Purāṇas  Christopher R. Austin 79
.............................................................Preface Raj Balkaran and McComas Taylor The last meeting of the World Sanskrit Conference (Bangkok, 2015) marked the first such conference at which there was a section solely dedicated to papers on the purāṇas. Prior to this, purāṇa papers were found in the Epics section, if anywhere at all. Clearly, the tides are turning with respect to purāṇic studies, evidenced by the even more robust turn out in the purāṇa panels in Vancouver in 2018. Befitting all things Indic, we commence our collected volume with a paper on Gaṇeśa, lord of auspicious beginnings. Les Morgan’s paper closely examines the structure of the Gaṇeśa Sahasranāma found in the Gaṇeśa Purāṇa. He shows that the selection and arrangement of names in some sections of the Gaṇeśa Sa-hasranāma was based on a formal meditation that included visualization of a yantra. His work reveals parallels to other Mahāgaṇapati worship sources, in-cluding the text of Jagannātha Bālakṛṣṇa Śrutapeṭava (Umānanda-nātha) of 1745 CE. He concludes that the Nityotsava’s Mahāgaṇapati pūjā and the Gaṇeśa Sa-hasranāma emerge from a shared ritual tradition dedicated to Mahāgaṇapati (‘The Great Gaṇapati’), a tantric form of Gaṇeśa who is the focus of distinct reli-gious practices.  Tying into the theme of ritual practice, we proceed to Mrunal Patki’s paper on the use of maṇis, protective amulets ritually prepared and tied on the body to repel evil energies, bring luck and cure diseases. This study probes a chapter of the Viṣṇudharmottara Purāṇa that is related to this practice wherein the sage Puṣkara instructs Rāma on the Atharva Vedic incantations, materials and rituals employed for producing and properly deploying these protective amulets. Madhavi Narsalay looks to the role of sacred geography in the develop-ment of sectarian consciousness. She examines the 1300–1350 CE text Karavīra Māhātmya, a sthala-māhātyma from the Padma Purāṇa. The text celebrates the sacred geography surrounding the Mahālakṣmī temple of Kolhapur, Maharash-tra (also known as Karavīra). The Karavīra Māhātmya encapsulates the religious change taking place in Maharashtra in the 13th–14th CE, with the spread of Vaiṣṇavism in the region. Narsalay traces Śākta remnants in the text (unsurpris-ing given the site’s inclusion among India’s śaktipīṭhas), now a predominantly Vaiṣṇava text.    BALKARAN AND TAYLOR viSucharita Adluri shows the dynamism innate to the purāṇic tradition in her study of philosophical commentarial traditions engaging the Viṣṇu Purāṇa. She compares Viṣṇucitta’s 12th CE Viśiṣṭādvaita commentary, Viṣṇucittīya, to Śrīdhara’s 13th–14th CE Advaita Vedānta commentary, Ātmaprakāśa, to show the extent to which the characterizations we see in the Viṣṇu Purāṇa undergo vari-ous permutations in the hands of these two exegetes.  We then turn to an avatar of Viṣṇu, as Christopher Austin examines the Kṛṣṇa-centric purāṇas: the Viṣṇu (ca 5th century CE), Bhāgavata (ca 9th century CE) and Brahmavaivarta (ca 15th century CE) to examine the significance of Kṛṣṇa’s son Pradyumna. Austin shows the significance of three facets of Pradyumna’s identity—as Kāmadeva, as māyin or controller of illusory powers, and as a replica or double of his father Kṛṣṇa—to the evolving Kārṣna bhakti cult. This rich array of papers represents not only the diverse methods used to broach the purāṇas, but also the colossal reach of the purāṇas spanning across sociological, mythological, theological, historical, philosophical, geographical and ritual spheres of Indian religious life and culture. The purāṇas themselves betray an acute awareness of their own dy-namism, i.e., their penchant to respond to religious change across time. Apro-pos of their object study, the theoretical and methodological approaches to this very important genre showcased in this volume bespeak an evolution in Indolog-ical scholarship. It seems we have officially moved away from the stringent his-toricism that has dominated the field thus far. This volume commemorates this important rite of passage: it is a testament of the disintegration of that domin-ion in favour of receiving the purāṇas in a manner befitting their position as the dynamic life-blood of Indian tradition itself. the 17th world sanskrit conference, vancouver, canada, july 9-13, 2018 Purāṇa Studies: Proceedings of Purāṇa Section of the 17th World Sanskrit Conference, Vancouver, Canada, July 9-13 2018, edited by Raj Balkaran and McComas Taylor. pp. 1-26. DOI: 10.14288/1.0379613. Structural Analysis of the Gaṇeśa Sahasranāma as Found in the Gaṇeśa Purāṇa With the Khadyota Commentary by Bhāskararāya Les Morgan Abstract Close examination of the structure of the Gaṇeśa Sahasranāma (GSN) as found in the Gaṇeśa Purāṇa I.46 shows clear parallels to other sources for the worship of Mahāgaṇapati, including the Nityotsava (N), a text written in 1745 CE by Jag-annātha Bālakṛṣṇa Śrutapeṭava (Umānandanātha). Mahāgaṇapati (‘The Great Gaṇapati’) is a Tantric form of Gaṇeśa that is the focus of distinct worship prac-tices. This paper explains the organization of the GSN, with focus on passages that suggest the selection and arrangement of names in some sections was based on a specific pūjā or formal meditation that included visualization of a yantra. My approach to the topic is based on study of Bhāskararāya’s Khadyota commentary on the Gaṇeśa Sahasranāma, which has not been translated into English previously. The Khadyota commentary is of value to help put the Gaṇeśa Sahasranāma into perspective as reflecting an established ritual tradition. My conclusion is that some ritual aspects of the Nityotsava’s Mahāgaṇapati pūjā closely parallel portions of the GSN, with both texts reflecting a shared tradi-tion. This paper also includes a summary of the organizational structure of the thousand names in the GSN. Copyright and License Copyright © 2019 by Les Morgan. This paper was first presented at the 17th World Sanskrit Conference, Vancouver, Canada, 11 July 2018. Content is li- 2 MORGAN  censed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 4.0 International license (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0). Acknowledgements This paper is one result of a long association with Dr. Ram Karan Sharma, a former President of the International Association of Sanskrit Studies. Dr. Sharma passed away in December 2018 and did not have an opportunity to re-view this paper. Dr. Sharma wrote the introduction for the 1993 edition of the Gaṇeśa Purāṇa (GP),1 which includes a variant of the source text for this project. He is also the author of a comparative study of eight versions of the Śiva Sa-hasranāma.2 His familiarity with the conventions of the sahasranāma as a form of devotional scripture was most helpful. He was a true kavi—a poet, scholar, and wise man rolled into one. I am deeply grateful for his willingness to guide me in this work. In approaching this paper I have tried to adhere to one of his primary principles, which was to stick close to the source text and avoid adding analytic abstractions that sometimes only distance us from what the text itself says. In 2011 I had the opportunity to meet Greg Bailey at the World Sanskrit Conference in New Delhi, and he provided me with a copy of his translation of the GP, which includes a translation of the Gaṇeśa Sahasranāma.3 His work has been helpful to me in establishing the larger context within which the GSN ap-pears. Many footnotes in this paper point to the work of Gudrun Bühnemann, who has published detailed reviews of the iconography and ritual context for Gaṇeśa, and the Mahāgaṇapati form in particular. I discovered parallels to sec-tions of the GSN almost by accident thanks to reading that prior research, par-ticularly regarding yantra traditions.                                                 1 Sharma, Ram Karan, ed. 1993. The Gaṇeśa Purāṇa. Delhi: Nag Publishers. 2 Sharma, Ram Karan. 1996. Eight Collections of Hymns Containing One Thousand and Eight Names of Śiva. Delhi: Nag Publishers. 3 Bailey, Greg. 1995. Gaṇeśapurāṇa, Part I: Upāsanākhaṇḍa: Translation, Notes and Index. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz.   Structural Analysis of the Gaṇeśa Sahasranāma  3  About the GSN A stotra is a hymn of praise. A sahasranāma stotra is a hymn of praise in which a deity is referred to by a thousand or so different names. Sahasra means a thou-sand, or more generally, a very large number, but some works may contain only a few hundred names. The GSN contains exactly one thousand names. The word sahasranāman, as an adjective, means ‘thousand-named.’ Hindu scriptures often use terms like thousand-eyed, thousand-armed, or thousand-faced to express the concept of the limitless dimension of divinity. A sahasranāma provides an encyclopedic guide to the attributes and mythology surrounding a deity. The stories behind the names summarize powers, events and relationships. Details of the names and epithets included are useful for estimating dates of composi-tion and placement of a text within a larger tradition. Both the Gaṇeśa Sa-hasranāma and the Khadyota commentary by Bhāskararāya are metrical works composed in the anuṣṭubh class of meters.4 Anuṣṭubh is a very common Sanskrit meter, used extensively in the epics, the Purāṇas, and other types of literature. The GSN is a celebration of Gaṇeśa in all his aspects. The appearance of a sahasranāma dedicated to Gaṇeśa is a sign of his rise to prominence as a major divinity. Stories about Gaṇeśa appear in the early purāṇas (c. 300–500 CE) in-cluding the Brahmāṇḍa, Matsya, the Sṛṣṭikhaṇḍa of the Padma and the Hari-vaṃśa. The middle and later purāṇas (c. 500–1300 CE) give more details about him, including the Devī, Liṅga, Śiva, Skanda, Vāmana, and Varāha Purāṇas. The Gāṇapatya sect produced two late Purāṇas (c. 1300–1600 CE) of their own, the Gaṇeśa Purāṇa and the Mudgala Purāṇa. These two Purāṇas include materials not found in the earlier sources and are considered authoritative by devotees of Gaṇeśa.5 There are two different major versions of the GSN, with subvariants of each version. I will describe these two major types as the Gaṇeśa Purāṇa version and the alliterative version. Gaṇeśa Purāṇa version A Gaṇeśa sahasranāmastotra appears in chapter I.46 of the GP. No critical edition of the GP has been published, and different editions have variations in the                                                 4 For information on meters see Morgan, Les. 2011. Croaking Frogs: A Guide to Sanskrit Met-rics and Figures of Speech. Pacifica: Mahodara Press. 5 References to Gaṇeśa in the purāṇas are discussed in Krishan, Yuvraj. 1999. Gaṇeśa: Unravelling an Enigma. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Pvt. Ltd. Pp. 33-70.  4 MORGAN  names used in that sahasranāmastotra. The versions I have seen are very similar, so this group of variants can collectively be called the ‘GP’ version. Bhāska-rarāya’s Khadyota commentary (GSN-B) is based on a variant of the GP version of that stotra. As my first primary source for the GP version I used the 1993 full-length reprint edition of the 1892 edition of the GP, which I cite as GP-1993.6 It provides the full text of the GP in Devanāgarī script. Dr. Ram Karan Sharma, the editor of that edition, recalls that in the production of the GP-1993 edition he was not asked to edit the text, resulting in many typographical errors, misprints and grammatical impossibilities.7 In 2004 and 2005 Dr. Sharma reviewed the text of GP1993 I.46 for errors and suggested many corrections for misprints. My second primary source for the GP version of the GSN is within Bhāskararāya’s Khadyota commentary, which I cite as GSN-B. Alliterative version Apart from the GP version there is a completely different alliterative version in which all names begin with the letter g ( ग ् ). The names and structure bear no resemblance to the GP GSN. I interviewed the priests at the Gaṇeśa temples in Nashville, Tennessee, and South Jordan, Utah, and in both cases the alliterative version was the one they used for regular chanting at worship services. The priest at the Nashville temple said that the alliterative version was more popular than the GP version because worshippers felt that the use of the letter g for all names made it particularly auspicious. The priests did not know the source for the text. They kindly provided me with photocopies of the handwritten versions that they used for chanting. The alliterative version is available in print as a de-votional prayer booklet in Sanskrit that is sold in Hindu bookstores8 and as a devotional audio CD chanted by Anuradha Paudwal.9 A slightly modified version of this alliterative GSN was published with an English translation by Sadguru                                                 6 Sharma, Ram Karan (ed.) 1993. The Gaṇeśa Purāṇa, Nag Publishers, Delhi.  Cited herein as GP-1993. 7 Ram Karan Sharma, personal communication, 15 March 2004. Also see the ‘Introduc-tion’ to that volume dated Feb. 9, 1993, by Ram Karan Sharma. 8 अथ %ी गणशे सह, नामावली ॥ 3काशक ॥ ि6वणेी 3काशन ॥ माधवबाग । सी पी टँक ॥ 9 Audio CD, Shree Ganapati Sahasranamavali. Sung by Anuradha Paudwal. Music by Shekhar Sen. Super Cassettes Industries Limited, Plot No. 1, Sector 16-A, Film Centre, NOIDA Distt. Ghaziabad (U. P.).   Structural Analysis of the Gaṇeśa Sahasranāma  5  Sant Keshavadas.10 There is no citation or bibliography within any of these works identifying the original source of the names appearing in the alliterative GSN. I have not been able to determine an authoritative source for the first ap-pearance of the alliterative version, and I am not aware of any commentary on it. Bhāskararāya’s Khadyota Commentary Bhāskararāya’s commentary on the GP version of the GSN has not previously been translated into English.11 I cite his commentary and the version of the source text used therein as GSN-B. GSN-B contains 607 Khadyota commentarial verses and 172 base text (mūla) verses. The source text for the stotra itself (mūla) in GSN-B generally follows GP-1993 but there are many differences in names and the versification differs slightly. I have followed GSN-B when readings dif-fer from GP-1993. Bhāskararāya titled his commentary Khadyota (‘Firefly’), playfully alluding to two different meanings of that Sanskrit word. In his opening remarks Bhāskararāya says that some will say that because the commentary is very brief it is inconsequential like a firefly (khadyota) but to devotees it will shine like the sun (khadyota). The pun in the title is typical of the text, which delights in finding unusual interpretations for seemingly obvious names. The first printed edition of the Khadyota was published in 1889 by Nirnaya Sagar Press, Bombay.12  Dr. Ram Karan Sharma and I spent many hours over three years (2004 through 2007) discussing and making sound recordings of the text of the GSN, including Bhāskararāya’s Khadyota commentary. During 2004 and 2005 we                                                 10 Keshavadas, Sadguru Sant. 1988. Lord Ganesha. Oakland: Vishwa Dharma Publica-tions. There is no citation or bibliography within the book showing the source of the names appearing in the alliterative ‘G’-based sahasranāma. The name list does not cor-respond to that in GP. The English translation was dictated by Keshavadas to Janaki Nivedita (Joane Franks), who informed me that ‘Unfortunately, I don’t know his origi-nal source, just that it was a Nagari or Kannada text’ (personal communication, 23 February 2004). 11 Martin-Dubost, Paul. 1997. Gaṇeśa: The Enchanter of the Three Worlds. Mumbai: Franco-Indian Research Pvt. Ltd. On pp. 286, 334 he refers to this commentary but does not translate it completely. He identifies Bhāskararāya as a ‘13th century Śākta author from Bijapur’ but provides no citation for that date. Bhāskararāya Bhārati was an 18th century scholar. 12 Brooks, Douglas Renfrew. 1992. Auspicious Wisdom: The Texts and Traditions of Śrīvidyā Śākta Tantrism in South India. Albany: State University of New York Press. P. 240, note 112.  6 MORGAN  worked with the text as given in Dr. Sharma’s 1993 edition of the Gaṇeśa Purāṇa (GP-1993). In 2006 I obtained a copy of Bhāskararāya’s commentary on a variant of the GP version of the GSN (GSN-B).13 We began an audio recording project in which Dr. Sharma would chant and translate the entire Khadyota commentary. Recording of the entire commentary was completed on 16 May 2007, with a final session to chant the sahasranāma itself. Some of the audio files of those sessions are now shared with the world via the Internet.14 Since 2007 I have been develop-ing the materials into book form.15  Bhāskararāya Bhārati (b. 1690, d. 1785; fl. 1728–1750 CE), also known as Bhāsurānandanātha, was a celebrated 18th-century Ṛg Vedic brahmin and Śākta adept.16 He was a great scholar who wrote over forty works. He was born in Bha-ga in Maharashtra. He travelled widely before settling in Tamil Nadu under the patronage of the Maratha scholar-king Serfoji of Tañjavūr. Bhāskararāya re-vived the worship of Gaṇeśa in Maharashtra and restored the eight great Gaṇeśa places of pilgrimage (kṣetras) there. His first major work was the well-known Saubhāgyabhāskara commentary on the Lalitā Sahasranāma, completed in 1728.17 The Khadyota commentary, which has numerous references that reflect Bhāska-rarāya’s Śākta background, is part of a larger work he wrote on Tantric methods of worship of Gaṇeśa. The fact that there was a distinct Tantric tradition relat-ing to Gaṇeśa is independently documented in the Śaktisaṅgamatantra, which refers to a Tantric sect of Gāṇapatyas, and in the Sammoha or Sammohanatantra which claims the existence of 122 Gāṇapatya Tantras.18                                                 13 Khiste, Baṭukanātha Śāstrī (ed) 1991. Gaṇeśasahasranāmastotram: mūla evaṃ śrībhāska-rarāyakṛta ‘khadyota’ vārtika sahita, Prācya Prakāśana, Vārāṇasī. Includes the full source text and the commentary by Bhāskararāya in Sanskrit. I cite this edition as GSN-B. 14 URL verified 4 July 2018: 15 Now planned for publication in 2019 as The Thousand Names of Gaṇeśa: The Gaṇeśa Sa-hasranāma with Bhāskararāya’s Khadyota Commentary. 16 Some details of Bhāskararāya’s biography are drawn passim from Brooks, Douglas Renfrew. 1990. The Secret of the Three Cities: An Introduction to Hindu Śākta Tantrism. Chi-cago: The University of Chicago Press; and from Bhattacharyya, N. N. 1999. History of the Tantric Religion. 2nd revised edition. New Delhi: Manohar Publishers. 17 Sastry, R. Ananthakrishna. 1970 (pp. vi-vii). Lalitā-Sahasranāma with Bhāskararāya's Commentary. 1st Indian reprint edition, 1986. Delhi: Gian Publishing House. For com-pletion date of 1728, see Brooks 1990, p. 37. 18 Bhattacharyya 1999, p. 51.   Structural Analysis of the Gaṇeśa Sahasranāma  7  One of Bhāskararāya’s students, Jagannātha Paṇḍita (Umānandanātha), summed up his master’s teachings in the Nityotsava, a Sanskrit work written in 1745 CE. The Nityotsava details various rituals and mantras used in the Śrīvidyā school of Tantric worship.19 Chapter Two of the Nityotsava covers the worship of Mahāgaṇapati (‘The Great Gaṇapati’, a Tantric form) and his śakti.20 Enough de-tails of worship as given in the Nityotsava are alluded to in some names of GSN-B to suggest that the sahasranāma was composed within the Mahāgaṇapati sect. Mahāgaṇapati in the GSN The Gaṇapati tradition includes several tantric branches.21 Major tantric forms of Gaṇeśa that are explicitly mentioned in the GSN include Mahāgaṇapati and Ucchiṣṭagaṇapati.22 The central importance of Mahāgaṇapati in the GSN is shown by the following key details:  1. The prārambha23 and viniyoga24 for the GSN refer to Mahāgaṇapati as the deity who revealed the thousand names.25                                                 19 Bhattacharyya 1999, p. 81. 20 For a detailed study of the worship of Mahāgaṇapati as given in the Nityotsava see Bühnemann, Gudrun. 2003. The Worship of Mahāgaṇapati According to the Nityotsava. 1st Indian edition. Delhi: Kant Publications. 21 For a detailed review of tantric forms of Gaṇeśa see Bühnemann, Gudrun. 2008. Tan-tric Forms of Gaṇeśa: According to the Vidyārṇavatantra. Reissue of 1989 edition. New Del-hi: D. K. Printworld Ltd. 22 Ucchiṣṭagaṇeśa is mentioned in GSN-B v. 67. 23 manasā sa vinirdhāya tatas tadvighnakāraṇam । mahāgaṇapatiṃ bhaktyā samabhyarcya yathāvidhi ॥ GSN-B 1.46.3 ॥ vighnapraśamanopāyamapṛcchadaparājitaḥ । santuṣṭaḥ pūjayā śambhor mahāgaṇapatiḥ svayam ॥ GSN-B 1.46.4 ॥  sarvavighnaikaharaṇaṃ sarvakāmaphalapradam ।  tatas tasmai svakaṃ nāmnāṃ sahasram idam abravīt ॥ GSN-B 1.46.5 ॥  After ascertaining mentally that cause of the obstacles, and worshipping the Great Gaṇapati (Mahāgaṇapati) with devotion according to the prescribed procedure… ॥ 1.46.3 GSN-B ॥  Śiva asked Gaṇeśa the way to allay all the obstacles. The Great Gaṇapati (Mahāgaṇapati) of his own accord was completely satisfied by Śambhu’s worship.॥ 1.46.4 GSN-B ॥  Gaṇeśa then imparted his own thousand names that relieve all obstacles and grant the fulfillment of all wishes. ॥ 1.46.5 GSN-B ॥  8 MORGAN  2. Mahāgaṇapatiḥ is included as name 37 of the GSN (GSN-B verse 10), and is included in a list of 21 names that are of special importance.26 Mahāgaṇapati is explicitly mentioned in verse 167a of the GSN-B com-mentary on verse 48. 3. Names 177-278 correspond to a dhyāna for Mahāgaṇapati that is found in other sources. The ten attributes of the ten-armed Mahāgaṇapati are described in names 255-264 (GSN-B verses 46b-47). His eleventh attrib-ute, a pot of gems held in the trunk, is mentioned in name 277 (GSN-B verse 50). 4. Names 280-323 correspond to a yantra for Mahāgaṇapati that is found in other sources. The inclusion of this yantra is not overtly explained in the text of GSN-B, but those familiar with the tradition could have been ex-pected to recognize it. Recitation of the names in this series would con-stitute mental construction of the yantra that was used in physical ritu-als. For someone not aware of the tradition, the dhyāna and yantra are hidden features embedded within the sahasranāma.  The worshippers of Mahāgaṇapati are one of the six sects of Gāṇapatyas de-scribed in the Śaṅkaravijaya (14th c. CE), where his meditation is given as fol-lows: One should meditate on the remover of obstacles, who holds in the raised lotuses of (his) hands: the fruit of the citron tree, a mace, bow of sugarcane, trident, discus, conch/lotus, noose, water-lily, tip of the rice(-shoot), (and) his own tusk, (and in his trunk) a vessel with jewels, who is embraced by Vallabhā, who holds a lotus in her hand (and) who has shining ornaments, (Gaṇapati), who effects the creation, mainte-                                                                                                                     24 GP-1993 1.46.6 version:  asya śrīmadgaṇeśadivyasahasranāmāmṛta-stotramālā-mahāmaṃtrasya। śrīmahāgaṇapatir ṛṣiḥ. GSN-B version: asya stotrasya mahāgaṇapatir eva । mantradraṣṭṛtvād ṛṣiḥ. The equivalent variant of verse 1.46.6 of GP 1993 appears in GSN-B, p.5, but without any verse num-ber. 25 GSN-B and GP-1993 give two variants of book 1, chapter 46, of the Ganeśa Purāna and differ in their organization of materials that precede the actual names. Some of these materials appear in only one or the other of the two sources, while others appear in both, but with notable differences. 26 GP-1993 1.46.204-206a; GSN-B 1.46.211-213a.   Structural Analysis of the Gaṇeśa Sahasranāma  9  nance, and destruction of the universe, (and) who grants (all) desired objects.27 The Śāradā-Tilaka (ŚT) Tantra 13:31-38 provides a dhyāna śloka for this ten-armed form. John Woodroffe (Arthur Avalon) translates the passage as follows: His face is that of the great elephant with the moon on it. He is red and has three eyes. He is held in loving embrace by his beloved who is seated in his lap and has a lotus in her hand. In each of his ten hands he is hold-ing a pomegranate, a mace, a bow, a trident, a discus, a lotus, a noose, a red water-lily, a sheaf of paddy and his own tusk. He is holding a jew-elled jar in his trunk. By the flapping of his ears he is driving away the bees attracted to his temples by the fluid exuding therefrom, and he is scattering gems from out of the jar held in his trunk. He is wearing a ru-by-studded crown and is adorned with gems.28 Rao29 gives a variant translation, with the hands bearing citrus fruit, mace, bow, discus, rosary, arrow, noose, blue lotus, tusk, and pot of jewels. Rao does not mention an attribute held by the trunk that is gesturing toward the śakti seated on his thigh. Figure 1 is a reproduction of Mahāgaṇapati’s form as depicted in the Śrītattvanidhi (‘The Illustrious Treasure of Realities’), an illuminated manuscript prepared by scholars and artists at the court of the King of Mysore, Kṛṣṇa Rāja Woḍeyar IV (1794–1869), in the latter half of the nineteenth century.30                                                  27 Bühnemann 2003, pp. xx-xxi. 28 Woodroffe, John (Arthur Avalon), ed. 1933. Śāradā-Tilaka Tantram. 1st edition, reprint, 2001. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Pvt. Ltd. Pp. xxxviii cites Śāradā-Tilaka Tantra 13:31-38. He gives this verse on p. 225: बीजापरूगदाधनिुBिशखयEुFाGपाशोIलJीKLMिवषाणरOकलशान ् हPवै RहS ं॥ ३५ ॥ 29 Rao 2005, p. 77, citing commentary on Śāradā-Tilaka Tantra 13: 70. Rao, S. K. Rama-chandra. 2005. The Compendium on Gaṇeśa. 2nd revised & enlarged edition. Delhi: Sri Satguru Publications. 30 Martin-Dubost 1997, pp. 224-228. Thapan, Anita Raina. 1997. Understanding Gaṇapati: Insights into the Dynamics of a Cult. New Delhi: Manohar, pp. 169, 194.  10 MORGAN  Figure 1: Mahāgaṇapati, depicted with ten arms and accompanied by a śakti.31 Gudrun Bühnemann has published a detailed review of the iconography associated with Mahāgaṇapati that includes discussion of variant forms drawn from multiple ritual sources.32 Table 1 compares the attributes of Mahāgaṇapati according to the Nityotsava with corresponding names in the GSN, along with Bhāskararāya’s list of these attributes in his Khadyota commentary verse 164:  Table 1: Mahāgaṇapati attributes in the Nityotsava and the Khadyota commentary.  Nityotsava attributes33 Khadyota attributes34 GSN-B Name 1. A citron fruit (mātuluṅga or bījāpūra) मातिुलXं 255. Bījāpūrī ‘Holding a citron fruit’ 2. Mace (gada) गद 256. Gadādharaḥ ‘Wielding a mace’                                                 31 Public domain image. URL verified 27 June 2018: 32 Bühnemann 2003 and Bühnemann 2008. 33 Bühnemann 2003, pp. 112-113. 34 मातिुलXं गदYेZू ंधनःु शलंू सदुश Rनम ् । श\पाशोIलJीिहकिणशािन रदाध Rकम ् ॥ Khadyota १६४ ॥   Structural Analysis of the Gaṇeśa Sahasranāma  11  Nityotsava attributes33 Khadyota attributes34 GSN-B Name 3. Bow of sugarcane (ikṣucāpa) इYZू ंधनःु 257. Ikṣucāpadharaḥ ‘Bearing a sugarcane bow’ 4. Trident (śūlam) शलंू 258. Śūlī ‘Armed with a trident’ 5. Conch (śaṅkha).  Variant: lotus (saroja)35 श\ 260. Sarojabhṛt ‘Holding a lotus’ 272. Kambudharaḥ ‘Bearing a conch shell’ 6. Discus (cakra) सदुश Rनम ् 259. Cakrapāṇiḥ ‘Bearing a discus’ 7. Noose (pāśa) पाश 261. Pāśī ‘Holding a noose’ 8. Water-lily (utpala) उIल 262. Dhṛtotpalaḥ ‘Bearing a blue lotus’ 9. Rice-shoot (śālimañjarī) Jीिहकिणशािन 263. Śālīmañjarībhṛt ‘Holding rice shoots’ 10. His own broken tusk (svadanta) रदाध Rकम ् 264. Svadantabhṛt ‘Holding his own [broken] tusk’ 11. In his trunk, a vessel filled with jewels  271. Pūrṇapātrī ‘Whose pot of blessings is full’ 277. Puṣkarasthasvarṇaghaṭīpūrṇaratnābhivarṣakaḥ ‘Showering gems from a brimming golden pot at the tip of his trunk’ He bears the crescent moon on his head  107. Bhālacandraḥ ‘Having the moon on his forehead’ 105. Khaṇḍendukṛtaśekharaḥ ‘Having the crescent moon as his headdress’ Rut is flowing from his temples  Numerous names in the GSN refer to the state of ma-da. The name in the immediate series that parallels the Nityotsava is: 273. Vidhṛtālisamudgakaḥ ‘Having attracted a flock of bees’ (attracted to his temples by flowing ichor) His consort Siddha-lakṣmī is seated on his left thigh  280. Mahālakṣmīpriyatamaḥ ‘Very dear to Mahālakṣmī’ 281. Siddhalakṣmīmanoramaḥ ‘Who delights the mind of Siddhalakṣmī’                                                  35 Conch is an alternate for lotus as an attribute of Mahāgaṇapati in some sources. Bühnemann 2003, p. xviii, note 18.  12 MORGAN  There are several types of Gaṇeśa yantra. Figure 2 shows the pattern used in the worship of Mahāgaṇapati as given in Nityotsava The yantra visualizes Mahāgaṇapati and Siddhalakṣmī located within the central triangle (see name 417. Ekārapīṭhamadhyasthaḥ). The triangle is within a hexagon (see name 870. Ṣaṭkoṇapīṭhaḥ). The hexagon is within an eightfold circular lotus (see name 899. Aṣṭapatrāmbujāsanaḥ). Five sets of deities are placed in these surrounding areas. Figure 3 colorizes the yantra to help explain the placement of the surrounding deities.   Figure 2: Mahāgaṇapati yantra.                                                       36 Bühnemann, 2003, pp. xviii, xxi. Figure 2 is a simplification of Bühnemann, 2003, plate 33.   Structural Analysis of the Gaṇeśa Sahasranāma  13    Figure 3: Mahāgaṇapati yantra (colorized).     Correspondences between GSN and ritual sources Table 2 focuses on names 177-323 where the organization shows close parallels to ritual sources. This is a subset of the more detailed analysis of 1,000 names shown in Table 3. The column for Yantra Points refers to the numbering system used for the Mahāgaṇapati yantra published in Bühnemann 2003, plate 33.  Table 2: Structural parallels with Nityotsava and ŚT dhyāna and yantra. GSN Names Theme Parallels Nityotsava  Yantra Points Bühnemann 2003, plate 33 177-180 Meditation on Gaṇeśa within the lotus of the devotee’s heart N 4.0.16  191-194 Meditation on fabulous island and jew-elled setting ŚT 13.31-34  380 Sea of sugarcane juice ŚT 13.31  195-203 Nine pīṭhaśaktīs surrounding the seat N ŚT 13.7-9   14 MORGAN  GSN Names Theme Parallels Nityotsava  Yantra Points Bühnemann 2003, plate 33 204-206 Seated upon a lotus of letters (mātṛkāmbuja) N ŚT 13.34 4th enclosure 207-253 Meditation on the divine body   255-264 Description of 10-armed Mahāgaṇapati N 4.0.16 ŚT 13.35-38  265-277 Other attributes, including some of Mahāgaṇapati   278, 352-667 278: Bhāratī, goddess of Speech 352-667: Names in alphabetical order N 4.0.14 alphabet nyāsa  280-281 Mahāgaṇapati and Siddhalakṣmī N 4.0.15 Central pair 282-285 Four pairs of surrounding deities placed to the East, South, North, and West, in the space between the triangle and the hexagon N 1st enclosure, points 1-4 286-297 Six vighna pairs located in the hexagon corners N 2nd enclosure, points 5-10 298-303 Six deities of the limbs (ṣaḍaṅga) located at the six joints of the hexagon N. 3rd enclosure, points 13-18 304-305 Two lords of treasure with their consorts (associated with the six vighna pairs) N ŚT 13.51 2nd enclosure, points 11-12 306 Reference to all sadgurus connects to worship of a lineage of twenty teachers N 4.1.5 3 parallel lines in space between top of central triangle and top horizontal line of hexagon   Structural Analysis of the Gaṇeśa Sahasranāma  15  GSN Names Theme Parallels Nityotsava  Yantra Points Bühnemann 2003, plate 33 307-315 Guardians of the directions, weapons, and references to fierceness N Line of the square of the eight direc-tions, points 27-3437 316-323, 903 Group of eight goddesses that may cor-respond to the eight mother goddesses (mātṛkās) placed on the petals of the surrounding circular lotus. Being sur-rounded by eight mothers is also men-tioned in name 903 (Aṣṭamātṛsamāvṛtaḥ) ‘Surrounded by the eight mothers’. N 8 lotus petals, points 19-26  Organization of the GSN-B thousand names The organizational structure of the GSN-B thousand names is summarized in the following table.  Table 3: Organization of 1,000 names in the Gaṇeśa Sahasranāma (GSN-B variant)  GSN-B names GSN-B verse Themes 1-54 1a-12a Most commonly used names and familiar associations. 55-60 12b-13a A group of names based on a set of six Vināyakas mentioned in a ritual found in Mānavagṛhyasūtra and Yājñavalkyasmṛti (where the multiple Vināyakas are merged into one entity, Mahāgaṇapati). 61-72 13a-14a Epithets on his powerful, imperishable, and pervasive nature. 73-79 14b-15a Names inspired by the famous Vedic verse that celebrates Brahmaṇaspati as ‘sage of sages’ (kaviṃ kavīnām). Two Vedic mantras (ṚV 2.23.1 and Yajur Veda TS 2.3.143) originally addressed to                                                 37 N has eight guardians of the directions but the GSN lists only four, so GSN numbering of these points would not correspond exactly to Bühnemann 2003, plate 33.  16 MORGAN  GSN-B names GSN-B verse Themes Brahmaṇaspati are interpreted in Gāṇapatya tradition as referring to Gaṇeśa. 80-126 15b-23a General epithets and role as protector of the gods. 127-135 23b-24b Relationships with Śiva and Pārvatī and his origin. 136-175 25a-31a Description of the divine body on a universal cosmological scale. 176-180 31b-32b Names with playful twists on elephant metaphors, including affectionate descriptions of his loving relationship with devotees. He is to be meditated on as residing in the lotus of the devotee’s heart, which is playfully visualized as an elephant’s pen. The dhyāna in Nityotsava 4.0.16 also specifies that the devotee is to meditate on Gaṇapati in the lotus of the heart. 176. Jyotirmaṇḍalalāṅgūlaḥ ‘Having the stellar sphere as his tail’ 177. Hṛdayālānaniścalaḥ ‘Tethered at the hitching post of the [devotee’s] heart’ 178. Hṛtpadmakarṇikāśāliviyatkelisarovaraḥ ‘Who resides in the space of the pericarp of the heart-lotus as his splendid sporting lake’ 179. Sadbhaktadhyānanigaḍaḥ ‘For whom the meditation of his true devotees is his foot-chain’ 180. ‘Enclosed [Held safe] within the elephant-pen of worship’ 181-190 33a-33b General epithets. 191-194 34a-34b Traits visualizing his loka as a wonderful island in a sea of sugarcane juice and the setting for his throne.38 This wonderful island is consistent with the dhyāna for Mahāgaṇapati in ŚT 13.31-34.39 This is the beginning of an extended visualization series. 191. Cintāmaṇidvīpapatiḥ ‘Lord of the island of the wish-fulfilling gem’ 192. Kalpadrumavanālayaḥ ‘Dwelling in a forest of wish-fulfilling trees’ 193. Ratnamaṇḍapamadhyasthaḥ ‘Situated at the center of a jewelled pavillion’ 194. Ratnasiṃhāsanāśrayaḥ ‘Seated on a jewelled royal throne’                                                 38 For the sea of sugarcane juice see name #380 (Ikṣusāgaramadhyasthaḥ ‘Abiding in the midst of a sea of sugarcane juice’, which is consistent with the visualization of his fab-ulous island as mentioned in ŚT 13.31. Scholars, A Board of, trans. 1988. Śāradā-Tilaka Tantram. Reprint edition, 2002. Delhi: Sri Satguru Publications, p. 145. 39 Dhyāna in ŚT 13.31-38. Woodroffe 1933, p. xxxviii; Scholars 1988, p. 145.   Structural Analysis of the Gaṇeśa Sahasranāma  17  GSN-B names GSN-B verse Themes 195-203 35a-37a The nine pīṭhaśaktīs surrounding his throne. The nine are mentioned by name in Nityotsava and in ŚT 13.7-9.41 195. Tīvrāśirodhṛtapadaḥ ‘Placing his feet on the head of the goddess Tīvrā’ 196. Jvālinīmaulilālitaḥ ‘Who playfully puts the flaming goddess Jvālinī upon his head as a shining diadem’ 197. Nandānanditapīṭhaśrīḥ ‘The splendor of whose seat delights the goddess Nandā’ 198. Bhogadābhūṣitāsanaḥ ‘Whose seat is adorned with the goddess Bhogadā’ 199. Sakāmadāyinīpīṭhaḥ ‘Having the goddess Kāmadāyinī as his seat’ 200. Sphuradugrāsanāśrayaḥ ‘Resting upon the glittering goddess Ugrā as his seat’ 201. Tejovatīśiroratnam ‘Who has the brilliant goddess Tejovatī as a jewel upon his head’ 202. Satyānityāvataṃsitaḥ ‘Who eternally has the goddess Satyā as an ornament’ 203. Savighnanāśinīpīṭhaḥ ‘Having the goddess Vighnanāśinī as his seat’ 204-206 37a-37b Description of him seated upon the lotus of letters, glorified by the abode of the three fires. This corresponds to the placement of eight mother-goddesses in the eight petals of the lotus of the Mahāgaṇapati yantra described in Nityotsava, the fourth enclosure of that yantra.42 The lotus of letters (mātṛkāmbuja) also appears in ŚT 13.34.43 In GSN-B, the names of the eight goddesses on the petals of the lotus of letters may be given later in names 316-323. Being surrounded by eight mothers is also mentioned in name 903 (Aṣṭamātṛsamāvṛtaḥ). 204. Sarvaśaktyambujāśrayaḥ ‘Seated upon a lotus of all powers’ 205. Lipipadmāsanādhāraḥ ‘Seated upon the lotus of letters’ 206. Vahnidhāmatrayāśrayaḥ ‘Seated upon the hearth of the three fires’                                                 40 Bühnemann  2003, pp. 70-71, 117. Bühnemann notes that their names are also found in Prapañcasāratantra 17.11, ŚT 13.7-8, Agni-Pūrāṇa 313.1-6, Nārada-Pūrāṇa 68.22, and Paraśurāmakalpasūtra 2.7. 41 ŚT 13.5-26. Woodroffe 1933, pp. xxxviii, ५४९. Scholars 1988, p. 143. 42 Bühnemann 2003, p. 78. 43 ŚT 13.34. Woodroffe pp. xxxvii, ५५४. Scholars 1988, p. 145.  18 MORGAN  GSN-B names GSN-B verse Themes 207-247 38a-44b Description of the divine body, beginning with the feet. 248-253 45a-46b Conclusion of the meditation on his body. Every epithet here begins with the word sarva (‘all’). 254 46b 254. Śārṅgī ‘Armed with Viṣṇu’s bow’ 255-264 46b-47b Description of the 10-armed Mahāgaṇapati, a tantric form. The description is consistent with ŚT 13.35-38. His eleventh attribute, a pot of gems held in the trunk, is mentioned in name 277. Mahāgaṇapati is explicitly mentioned in verse 167a of the GSN-B commentary (on verse 48). 255. Bījāpūrī ‘Holding a citron fruit’ 256. Gadādharaḥ ‘Wielding a mace’ 257. Ikṣucāpadharaḥ ‘Bearing a sugarcane bow’ 258. Śūlī ‘Armed with a trident’ 259. Cakrapāṇiḥ ‘Bearing a discus’ 260. Sarojabhṛt ‘Holding a lotus’ 261. Pāśī ‘Holding a noose’ 262. Dhṛtotpalaḥ ‘Bearing a blue lotus’ 263. Śālīmañjarībhṛt ‘Holding rice shoots’ 264. Svadantabhṛt ‘Holding his own [broken] tusk’ 265-277 48a-50a Group of thirteen names listing other attributes associated with Gaṇeśa. These include some of the aspects included in the dhyāna for Mahāgaṇapati. 271. Pūrṇapātrī ‘Whose pot of blessings is full’ 272. Kambudharaḥ ‘Bearing a conch shell’44 273. Vidhṛtālisamudgakaḥ ‘Having attracted a flock of bees’45 274. Mātuliṅgadharaḥ ‘Holding a citron fruit’ 277. Puṣkarasthasvarṇaghaṭīpūrṇaratnābhivarṣakaḥ ‘Showering gems from a brimming golden pot at the tip of his trunk’. This is the eleventh attribute of Mahāgaṇapati.46                                                  44 Conch is an alternate for lotus as an attribute of Mahāgaṇapati in some sources. Bühnemann 2003, p. xviii, note 18. 45 The detail of bees attracted to the ichor flowing from his temples is noted in ŚT 13.36. Scholars 1988, p. 145. 46 The attribute is mentioned in ŚT 13.37. Scholars 1988, p. 145.   Structural Analysis of the Gaṇeśa Sahasranāma  19  GSN-B names GSN-B verse Themes 278 50b Reference to Bhāratī (Sarasvatī) as goddess of Speech. In Nityotsava 4.0.14 there is a nyāsa with the alphabet (mātṛkānyāsa) that is followed by meditation on Sarasvatī (Bhāratī), whose body is the alphabet.47 278. Bhāratīsundarīnāthaḥ ‘Lord of the beautiful Goddess of Speech’ 279 50b 279. Vināyakaratipriyaḥ ‘Fond of playing with Garuḍa’48 280-281 51a Beginning of yantra series, with various deities surrounding Mahāgaṇapati and Mahālakṣmī/Siddhalakṣmī at the center.49 Nityotsava 4.0.15 details a yantra for Mahāgaṇapati surrounded by five circles of deities. Mahāgaṇapati and Siddhalakṣmī are within the central triangle (see name 417. Ekārapīṭhamadhyasthaḥ). The triangle is within a hexagon (see name 870. Ṣaṭkoṇapīṭhaḥ). The hexagon is within an eightfold circular lotus (see name 899. Aṣṭapatrāmbujāsanaḥ). 280. Mahālakṣmīpriyatamaḥ ‘Very dear to Mahālakṣmī’ 281. Siddhalakṣmīmanoramaḥ ‘Who delights the mind of Siddha-lakṣmī’                                                 47 Bühnemann 2003, pp. 110-111. 48 The reason for mention of Garuḍa at this point in the series is not clear to me. Garuḍa is included in a list of the guardians of the directions in VT II 669.30-670.9 Bühnemann 2003, p. 122, note 58. 49 Nityotsava specifies Siddhalakṣmī as Mahāgaṇapati’s consort at the center, but some texts add Mahālakṣmī and a form of Gaṇapati as a fifth pair in the central grouping of the yantra (Bühnemann 2003, p. xviii, note 21). ŚT 13.45 adds Lakṣmī and Gopanāyaka (Woodroffe 1933, p. ५५६).  20 MORGAN  GSN-B names GSN-B verse Themes 282-285  51b-52a Four pairs of surrounding deities placed to the East, South, North, and West. These correspond to the first enclosure (āvaraṇa) of the yantra described in Nityotsava, where four pairs are located in the space between the triangle and the hexagon.50 282. Ramārameśapūrvāṅgaḥ (East or upper) ‘With Lakṣmī and Viṣṇu as his Eastern aspect’ 283. Dakṣiṇomāmaheśvaraḥ (South or to the right) ‘With Umā and Maheśvara as his Southern aspect’ 284. Mahīvarāhavāmāṅgaḥ (North or to the left) ‘With the Earth and the Boar as his Northern aspect’ 285. Ratikandarpapaścimaḥ (West or last) ‘With Rati and Kāma as his Western aspect’ 286-297 52b-55a Twelve names based on six vighna pairs associating forms of Gaṇeśa with śaktis. The same six vighna pairs are worshipped along with two nidhi pairs as parts of a Mahāgaṇapati yantra in Nityotsava The six vighna pairs are located in the hexagon corners, forming the second enclosure of the yantra.51 The same six pairs are also listed in the ritual as given in ŚT 13.46-48. 286. Āmodamodajananaḥ 287. Sapramodapramodanaḥ 288. Samedhitasamṛddhaśrīḥ 289. Ṛddhisiddhipravartakaḥ 290. Dattasaumukhyasumukhaḥ 291. Kāntikandalitāśrayaḥ 292. Madanāvatyāśritāṅghriḥ 293. Kṛttadaurmukhyadurmukhaḥ 294. Vighnasampallavopaghnaḥ 295. Sevonnidramadadravaḥ 296. Vighnakṛnnighnacaraṇaḥ 297. Drāviṇīśaktisatkṛtaḥ                                                 50 Bühnemann 2003, pp. 77, 121. 51 Bühnemann 2003, pp. 77-78, 121.   Structural Analysis of the Gaṇeśa Sahasranāma  21  GSN-B names GSN-B verse Themes 298-303 55b-56b  The placement of six śaktis at this point corresponds to the instruction in Nityotsava that worship of Gaṇeśa’s six limbs (ṣaḍaṅga) is performed in the six ‘joints’ (saṃdhi) of the hexagon (the third enclosure of the yantra).52 The GSN-B commentary explicitly refers to these six names as forming a group. 298. Tīvrāprasannanayanaḥ ‘He looks upon Tīvrā with delight’ 299. Jvālinīpālitaikadṛk ‘One of whose eyes is protected by Jvālinī’ 300. Mohinīmohanaḥ ‘Who enchants the Enchantress (Mohinī)’ 301. Bhogadāyinīkāntimaṇḍitaḥ ‘Adorned with the beauty of Bhogadāyinī’ 302. Kāminīkāntavaktraśrīḥ ‘The beauty of whose face is like the beauty of Kāminī’ 303. Adhiṣṭhitavasundharaḥ ‘Presiding over the goddess Vasundharā’ 304-305 57a-57b In Nityotsava, two lords of treasure (nidhis) and their consorts are worshipped along with the six paired vighnas (names 286-297) as part of the second enclosure of the yantra, within the hexagon.53 The same two pairs are mentioned in ŚT 13.51.54 304. Vasundharāmadonnaddhamahāśaṅkhanidhiprabhuḥ ‘He is the lord of Mahāśaṅkha, whose consort is the enraptured Vasundharā’ 305. Namadvasumatīmaulimahāpadmanidhiprabhuḥ ‘He is the lord of Mahāpadma, whose consort Vasumatī is bowing her head’ 306 58a Reference to all sadgurus, connects to the worship of the lineage of teachers in Nityotsava In the Nityotsava ritual a total of twenty teachers in three lineages are worshipped, placed in three parallel lines in the space between the top of the central triangle and the top horizontal line of the hexagon. 306. Sarvasadgurusaṃsevyaḥ ‘Worshipped by all good teachers’                                                 52 Bühnemann 2003, pp. 78, 121. Bühnemann explains these as the six points of intersec-tion of the sides of both triangles forming the hexagon. 53 Nityotsava Bühnemann 2003, pp. 23, 77-78, 121. 54 ŚT 13.51: ‘Besides the six angles Śankhanidhi and Padmanidhi shall be worshipped.’ Scholars 1998, p. 146. Woodroffe 1933, p. ५५७. 55 Bühnemann 2003, pp. 74-77, 120, and plate 40.  22 MORGAN  GSN-B names GSN-B verse Themes 307-310 58a-58b Agni (#307), Īśāna (#308), Indra (#309), and Vāyu (#310) are four of the eight deities mentioned as guardians of the directions in Nityotsava in the line of the square in the eight directions.56 This is the fifth enclosure of the yantra. Four deities mentioned in Nityotsava that do not appear in GSN-B in this sequence are Yama, Nirṛti, Varuṇa, and Soma. The lokapālas and their weapons are also mentioned in ŚT 13.53.57 307. Śociṣkeśahṛdāśrayaḥ ‘One who is the shelter of the hearts of  Agni’ 308. Īśānamūrdhā ‘Who is the head of Lord Śiva’ 309. Devendraśikhaḥ ‘The leader of Indra’ 310. Pavananandanaḥ ‘One who rejoices with the wind (Vāyu)’ 311-315 59a-60a More references to weapons, fierceness. and the guardians of the directions. 311. Agrapratyagranayanaḥ ‘Having sharp eyes’ 312. Divyāstrāṇāṃ prayogavit ‘Expert in the use of divine weapons’ 313. Airāvatādisarvāśāvāraṇāvaraṇapriyaḥ ‘Fond of protecting Airāvata and the other elephants of the directions’ 314. Vajrādyastraparīvāraḥ ‘Surrounded by weapons such as the thunderbolt (vajra) and others’ 315. Gaṇacaṇḍasamāśrayaḥ ‘The one to whom the fierce Gaṇas go for shelter’                                                 56 Bühnemann 2003, pp. 79, 122, and plate 33. 57 Scholars 1988, p. 146.   Structural Analysis of the Gaṇeśa Sahasranāma  23  GSN-B names GSN-B verse Themes 316-323 60b-62a A group of eight goddesses: Jayā, Vijayā, Aparājitā, Nityā, Vilāsinī, Śauṇḍī, Anantā, and Maṅgalā. The GSN-B commentary describes them as a group of eight aspects of the life force (prāṇaśaktis). This may correspond to the placement of eight mother-goddesses (mātṛkās) in the eight petals of the lotus of the Mahāgaṇapati yantra described in Nityotsava This is the fourth enclosure of the yantra.58 In the GSN, being seated upon a lotus of letters was previously described in name 205 (Lipipadmāsanādhāraḥ). Being surrounded by eight mothers is mentioned in name 903 (Aṣṭamātṛsamāvṛtaḥ). 316. Jayājayaparīvāraḥ ‘Having both Victory and Invincibility as his attendants’ If two goddesses, Jayā and Ajayā, were read here as indicating two different names of Gaṇeśa, it would bring the total to nine names in this group, not eight. Bhāskararāya specifically rejects this in his commentary. 317. Vijayāvijayāvahaḥ ‘The one who brings victory to the goddess of victory’ 318. Ajitārcitapādābjaḥ ‘One whose lotus feet are worshipped by Ajitā’ 319. Nityānityāvataṁsitaḥ ‘Always wearing the goddess Nityā as an earring’ 320. Vilāsinīkṛtollāsaḥ ‘Who is made joyful by Vilāsinī’ 321. Śauṇḍīsaundaryamaṇḍitaḥ ‘One who is decorated by the beauty of Śauṇḍī’ 322. Anantānantasukhadaḥ ‘Giving infinite happiness to the goddess Anantā’ 323. Sumaṅgalasumaṅgalaḥ ‘The one who puts the good luck in good luck’ 324-331 62b-64a The threefold icchāśaktijñānaśaktikriyāśakti, and mention of other śaktis associated with Gaṇeśa. 332-334  64b Reference to the guru concealing part of a mantra, success with mantras, and the Goddess of Speech. 332. Guruguptapadaḥ ‘Part of his mantra is kept secret by the teacher’ 333. Vācāsiddhaḥ ‘Propitiated by chanting of mantras’ 334. Vāgīśvarīpatiḥ ‘Lord of the goddess of speech’ 335-338 65a-65b Further mention of various goddesses.                                                 58 Bühnemann 2003, pp. 78, 121.  24 MORGAN  GSN-B names GSN-B verse Themes 339-343 65b-66a Huṃbīja, Tuṅgaśaktika, and other mantric references. 344-351 66b-67b Names suggestive of Ucchiṣṭagaṇapati plus some general epithets. 352-667 68a-117b Names in alphabetical order from a ( अ ) to kṣa ( Y ). The ritual in Nityotsava 4.0.14 is a mātṛkānyāsa in which the letters of the alphabet are placed on different parts of the body.59 Apparently the authors could not find any names starting with ḷ ( ऌ ) or ḷ ̄( ॡ ), so in verse 78 they substituted four names beginning with lu (  ) and lū (  ) (names 413-416). Similarly, the authors could not find any names starting with tha ( थ ), so in verse 94b they substituted four names beginning with stha ( g ) (names 507-510). 668-688 118a-121a General epithets describing benefits Gaṇeśa can confer. 689-708 121b-122b Series of time periods. 709-729 123a-124a Series of astrological terms. 730-741 124b-125a Terms associated with creation, preservation, and destruction of the universe and related philosophical ideas. 742-760 125b-126b Gods and other types of beings. 761-766 127a Six descriptors of the physical world, including past, present, and future. 767-793 127b-130a Series of 27 disciplines and classes of scripture. 794-807 130b-131a General epithets, including philosophical terms. 808-816 131b Series of salutations and mantras used in rituals. 817-823 132a General epithets, including philosophical terms. 824-1000 132b-172a Names based on numbers, in ascending order, climaxing with ‘Infinite’ (ananta) names.                                                    59 Bühnemann 2003, pp. 11-13, 52-55, 110-111. The alphabet forms the mystical body of Sarasvatī (Bhāratī). By this rite the devotee’s body becomes identified with the alphabet.   Structural Analysis of the Gaṇeśa Sahasranāma  25  Bibliography Bailey, Greg. 1995. Gaṇeśapurāṇa, Part I: Upāsanākhaṇḍa: Translation, Notes and Index. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz. Bhattacharyya, N. N. 1999. History of the Tantric Religion. 2nd revised edition. New Delhi: Manohar Publishers. Brooks, D.F. 1992. Auspicious Wisdom: The Texts and Traditions of Śrīvidyā Śākta Tantrism in South India. Albany: State University of New York Press. Brooks, D.F. 1990. The Secret of the Three Cities: An Introduction to Hindu Śākta Tan-trism. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. Bühnemann, G. 2008. Tantric Forms of Gaṇeśa: According to the Vidyārṇavatantra. Reissue of 1989 edition. New Delhi: D. K. Printworld Ltd. Bühnemann, G.  2003. The Worship of Mahāgaṇapati According to the Nityotsava. 1st Indian edition. Delhi: Kant Publications. Joshi, Labhashankar Mohanlal. 1998. Lalitā-Sahasranāma: A Comprehensive Study of One Thousand Names of Lalitā Mahā-tripurasundarī. New Delhi: D. K. Printworld (P) Ltd. Keshavadas, Sadguru Sant. 1988. Lord Ganesha. Oakland: Vishwa Dharma Publi-cations. Khiste, Baṭukanātha Śāstrī, ed. 1991. Gaṇeśasahasranāmastotram: mūla evaṃ śrībhāskararāyakṛta ‘khadyota’ vārtika sahita. Vārāṇasī: Prācya Prakāśana. Krishan, Yuvraj. 1999. Gaṇeśa: Unravelling an Enigma. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Pvt. Ltd. Martin-Dubost, Paul. 1997. Gaṇeśa: The Enchanter of the Three Worlds. Mumbai: Franco-Indian Research Pvt. Ltd. Morgan, Les. 2011. Croaking Frogs: A Guide to Sanskrit Metrics and Figures of Speech. Pacifica: Mahodara Press. Rao, S. K. Ramachandra. 2005. The Compendium on Gaṇeśa. 2nd revised & enlar-ged edition. Delhi: Sri Satguru Publications. Sastry, R. Ananthakrishna. 1970. Lalitā-Sahasranāma with Bhāskararāya's Com-mentary. 1st Indian reprint edition, 1986. Delhi: Gian Publishing House. Scholars, A Board of, trans. 1988. Śāradā-Tilaka Tantram. Reprint edition, 2002. Delhi: Sri Satguru Publications.  26 MORGAN  Sharma, Ram Karan. 1996. Eight Collections of Hymns Containing One Thousand and Eight Names of Śiva. Delhi: Nag Publishers. Sharma, Ram Karan, ed. 1993. The Gaṇeśa Purāṇa. Delhi: Nag Publishers. Thapan, Anita Raina. 1997. Understanding Gaṇapati: Insights into the Dynamics of a Cult. New Delhi: Manohar. Woodroffe, John (Arthur Avalon), ed. 1933. Śāradā-Tilaka Tantram. 1st edition, reprint, 2001. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Pvt. Ltd.  THE 17TH WORLD SANSKRIT CONFERENCE, VANCOUVER, CANADA, JULY 9-13, 2018 Tying of Maṇis in the 
Viṣṇudharmottara Purāṇa Mrunal S. Patki 
Deccan College Postgraduate and Research Institute  Abstract One particular chapter of Viṣṇudharmottara Purāṇa (2.109) cast addition light on the concept of maṇi in the Atharva Veda. Before looking into the details of this chapter we need to understand the Ātharvaṇik Concept of maṇi. Basically these maṇis are objects that work like amulets. They are prepared from herbs (vanas-patija), metals (dhātuja) and from the material produced by animals (prāṇija). They are tied on the body to repel evil energies, to bring luck and to cure dis-eases.  Introduction The Atharva Veda is a diverse Veda. It portrays the life of the common man in all its lights and shades, hopes and fears from pre-natal to post-death conditions. Many of its hymns are about curing diseases, prayers for long life and health, and charms for all-round prosperity of family, cattle, fields and all other occupa-tions. It also contains charms to get rid of sins and guilt, mantras for marriage and love and also for royal families to conquer or destroy enemies.  The employment of these hymns can be seen in various rituals in the Kauśika-sūtra, such as the Bhaiṣajyāni, Pauṣṭikāni, Sāmmanasyāni and Strīkarmāṇi, etc. These hymns address many types of disturbances and fears of man and the different means to overcome them. These means have been elabo-rated in various ritual texts. One means is the use of maṇis. Basically, maṇis are objects that function like protective amulets. They are prepared from herbs (vanaspatija), metals (dhātuja) and from the material produced by animals (prāṇija). They are tied on the body to repel evil energies, to bring luck and to cure diseases.  Purāṇa Studies: Proceedings of Purāṇa Section of the 17th World Sanskrit Conference, Vancouver, Canada, July 9-13 2018, edited by Raj Balkaran and McComas Taylor, pp. 27-35. DOI: 10.14288/1.0379613.  PATKI 28The Atharva Vedic seers consider that evil spirits such as kaṇvas, kābavas and cātanas infected the human race with diseases and disturbed people’s physi-cal and mental health. These demons may be driven out of the body by spells, maṇi and medicines. To control these negative factors, people tried to find reme-dies in their surroundings. To be in constant contact with the magical elements giving the desired effects they devised maṇis composed of various substances. These substances include medicinal plants, certain metals and other objects such as pieces of a chariot wheel or plough, etc.  Few sources give basic information about the term maṇi in the Atharva Veda. One exception is Shende (1961) who gives an overview of the beliefs in the period of the Atharva Veda. The use of spells and maṇis were a crucial part of that belief system. Shende mentions the names of all the maṇis and briefly describes the purpose of tying them. The Bhāratīya Saṃskṛtīkośa Volume VI (1970: 681) elaborates on the Atharvavedic maṇi. The Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics also has an article on charms and amulets (394–472). That article describes how these items were used in various ancient cultures, and men-tions their use in Vedic culture. Beni Gupta’s Magical Beliefs and Superstitions is an exhaustive work covering the theories and practices of magic and supersti-tions. It contains discussions about magic in the Atharva Veda, including the use of maṇis (133–177), and gives examples of a few hymns in the Atharva Veda. A re-cent MA dissertation by Sara Spayer (University of Copenhagen) deals with the post-Vedic concepts of maṇi, ratna etc. In the preliminary discussions of these words, we find occasional mentions of the word maṇi. All the above works, however, merely touch the periphery of the subject.  Mahulikar (1993) introduces every variety of maṇi in her article. She has also tried to trace present practices to some extent. Parivrajak Brahmamuni (1976) discusses all the maṇis mentioned in the Śaunaka branch of the Atharva Veda. Sometimes this writer has tried to show that the herbs prescribed for a particular disease in the Atharva Veda are also used for the same purpose in an-cient medicinal texts, such as Caraka Saṃhitā and Suśruta Saṃhitā.  The above review of previous work shows that a complete study of the Atharvavedic maṇis is yet to be done. The word maṇi, when it appears in the Atharva Veda, conveys a completely new concept. This uniqueness makes it more important to study the Atharva Vedic concept of maṇi in detail. It is important to know what exactly the Atharva Veda Saṃhitā wishes to say when hymns use the word. The above review of the literature shows that most of the available works just touch on one aspect of maṇi.   Tying of Maṇis in the Viṣṇudharmottara Purāṇa   29A major focus of the current study is to explore the materials used to pro-duce maṇis. There are many hymns that mention herbs and metals but 35 select-ed substances are used in maṇis in the Atharvavedic tradition. The present paper explores these materials and their relation to the hymns and rituals. This study naturally casts light on many aspects of social life.  One particular chapter of the Viṣṇudharmottara Purāṇa (VDP) is related to the concept of maṇi in the Atharva Veda. There is a dialogue in VDP 2.109 be-tween the sage Puṣkara and Rāma. Rāma requests the sage to teach the vidhi of those maṇis that are tied on to accomplish desires and also to get protection from mishaps. This dialogue focuses on the Ātharvaṇik concept of maṇi. Puṣkara tells Rāma that he will give him knowledge about the maṇikarma with proper procedure, as conveyed by Ātharvaṇa (belonging to Atharvans). This chapter of the VDP talks about all the important maṇis that fulfil de-sires and repel ill fortune. In the first part of the chapter the sage mentions a common ritual that is to be performed to make any type of maṇi. This ritual be-gins with the cutting of a plank from a branch to carve the maṇi and ends with the enchanted maṇi ready for tying. After this, the chapter elaborates on specific types of maṇis, their purposes and their rituals along with their mantras. The sage follows a specific order to describe the ritual of any maṇi. The first step is the selection of a herb or material. The second step is to carve it, and the last step is to enchant the maṇi and tie it. He suggests a mantra for addressing the herb or substance. Then another mantra is suggested for its carving. In the end the sage recommends a mantra for tying the maṇi. This process is common throughout the chapter. While describing each maṇi he sometimes discusses the required shape. In the following section these topics are discussed in detail.  A common ritual for maṇis  The common process is as follows. A person approaches the tree from which he wants to create a maṇi. Uttering the first caraṇa of the verse dhruvaḥ tiṣhṭhet, a person sprinkles the place from where the maṇi is to be carved. Accompanying the second caraṇa of the same verse the maṇi is prepared. Then the subandhuḥ cet verse is recited while cutting a part of the tree for carving the maṇi. Using the third verse of the same hymn a person brings the maṇi to the place where the further ritual will be done.  Regarding the specifications of shape, it is known that these maṇis should have be size of the phalange of the thumb on all sides. It should be well finished or possibly square, and should have four knots on four sides and on the head and   PATKI 30at the root as well. Then the wood shaped thus is to be made hollow and washed with water. A vessel is placed on a fire and the maṇi is kept in it after a thread has been inserted through it. Reciting the verse yatrācakṛ-rityanayā, ghee is poured on it. Remnants of the homa (fire sacrifice) are brought to the iron vessel filled with pacifying waters. Uttering the liṅgamantra, whatever remnants are left are also poured on the maṇi. Uttering the verse vimucya sarvaṃ this maṇi is stirred in the same vessel. After this process it becomes ready to wear.  Types of maṇis and their rituals  Maṇis made of herbs and other substances  Turning now to the description of the maṇis made with herbs and other sub-stances, the text says that the presence of the wife is important while performing rituals on the maṇis made from substances and plants. The sage then tells Rāma about the vidhāna (the method of performing a ritual) for oṣadhi. So saying, he starts describing maṇis that are carved out of herbs. First, he explains a common ritual for all maṇis made from herbs. The process is as follows. While uttering mantras, twenty-one blades of rice and barley should be cut. In this way a clever person who desires prosperity should use a specific herb grown at a specific place. Accompanied by the two verses ghṛtāhuteti, the maṇi should be sprinkled with ghee. Again uttering māteriṣyati it should be empowered. A person should then apply to it a perfume (gandhaṃ samchhadayet). This common ritual is per-formed for all herbs.  Ekaka maṇis  Maṇis carved for a single purpose are termed ekaka. This type of maṇi is prepared from herbs. The text defines the term ekāṇka as a maṇi for one purpose (ekāṇka ekakāmāyetyekāṇke vidhivatkhanet). The sage explains that knowledgeable people should carve out ekaka maṇis with the liṅgamantras (mantras that include the name of that herb which is used to tie maṇi). Under this ekaka type of maṇi, the chapter mentions names of many herbs. Those are madhugha (Madhuca longi-folia), nitanī, kapikacchu (Mucuna pruritus, khaj kuiri), daśadhā, mahākhyā, ḍhabī, pippala (Piper longum), saidhraka, svargapatrī, māṣaparṇī (Glycine debilis) and khaṇḍārikā. I could identify very few among these.  The chapter describes the process of tying the maṇi formed by each herb. Rather than considering every plant in detail some examples are considered here. For example, accompanying the verse iyaṃ vīrut, one should dig the mad-hugha tree. Reciting the whole hymn this maṇi is tied. Imāṃ khanāmi is uttered   Tying of Maṇis in the Viṣṇudharmottara Purāṇa   31and nitanī is carved out. Uttering pratīcī saumamasitāṃ, nitanī should be tied. A similar practice is prescribed for every herb. With the hymn yātvā gandharva in-drābhyāṃ intelligent people dig the kapikacchu. With the same hymn tanmedre it is tied. Daśadhā is cut uttering imāṃ khanāmi. Uttering the pāṭhā hymn, ekarajñī should be tied. Uttering the two verses daśaśīrṣa a herb named mahākhya should be carved. With the hymn āpaḥ punantu it is tied. Chanting the hymn imāṃ khanāmi auṣadhīṃ tvāṃ, a herb named ḍhabī should be cut. With the kāṇḍīya verse it should be tied.  Ekārka maṇis  The next category of maṇi the sage talks about is ekārka maṇi. Elaborating on this concept the sage says that the hymn samīyātvāha varuṇa mentions material used as fuel in the sacrificial ritual. The material should be used to prepare the maṇi. Again it also has a procedure. That direction is already given in the Vedic texts, hence it should be followed as it is. Chanting the liṅgamantra, the earlier method of common ritual should be followed.  Maṇis of the kuṣṭha plant  Further, the chapter mentions five maṇis prepared from kuṣṭha (Saussurea lappa). Whether these maṇis should be considered amongst ekārka or not is unclear. About these five maṇis, the text says that intelligent people know that five maṇis of kuṣṭha are kept in a pot of purifying water. We have heard that each verse should be uttered for purity. This maṇi should be made square, just like the añjana maṇi (maṇi of collyrium). With the mantra imaṃ me kuṣṭha five planks of the kuṣṭha plant should be collected. Preparing the water with the proper proce-dure, a host should drink the water. Five maṇis of kuṣṭha wood should be pre-pared with the common ritual. Each of them gives different results. One maṇi destroys headaches. The second one saves from poison. The third one is said to be a destroyer of viṣamajvara. Likewise, the fourth one cures a recurring fever. The fifth maṇi is for the eyes. Butter should be mixed in a vessel filled with water. A maṇi of kuṣṭha should be then dipped in that water. After tying that processed maṇi the bearer drinks the water. The same water should be smeared on the wounded part.  Naimittika maṇis  The naimittika types of maṇis (maṇis that are tied occasionally) include ghora (maṇis for witchcraft) and sāmpada maṇis (for prosperity). While tying the ghora type of maṇi, the ghora mantra is uttered, and for sāmpadas the saṃpada mantras are used. This chapter gives one example of each type. First it describes the ghora   PATKI 32maṇi. Perhaps the hymn sīmātryātvāha sīmasaṃ is a bid for leadership among people, but due to the ambiguous text it is difficult to determine the exact mean-ing. It is the destroyer of piśācas and antidote to witchcraft. It is to be recognized by the mantraliṅga which is described in the mantra. Joining the sīsa on the shaft of an arrow and bending the string of a bow a person who is suffering should draw the picture of the piśāca and beat it with the help of priest. Only the north-ern arrow can kill the piśāca. This method diverges from the commonly known image of the maṇi.  Then comes the example of the sāmpada maṇi. This maṇi is cone-shaped. The text is corrupted hence I will try to convey what I have understood. The ānusūryaṃ mantra is used to tie the cone-shaped maṇi. From the description it seems that this maṇi is composed from the skin of a red cow. The skin is stretched on the floor and a śaṇku is kept on it. The cone-shaped maṇi is fash-ioned from the area where the śaṇku was placed. Such a maṇi brings prosperity. It destroys diseases that aggravate passion and it also gives long life to the bear-er. If a person sits on the skin from which the maṇi is produced, he is blessed with ornaments and milk.  Maṇis against witchcraft The chapter further talks about the vidhi for maṇis against witchcraft, and a maṇi of salt is given as an example. The text states that with the verse yāh purastāt, the maṇi of salt should be tied. The salt should be covered in a cloth belonging to one’s father and tied, which then destroys malign practices. With the verse vyāghrarūpa (khantacyam vāṭaruṣakaṃ), it should be dug. With two verses of the same hymn it should be tied. Certainly this maṇi will become the slayer of demons. Other maṇis for witchcraft should be prepared in the same way.  Four animals like the pataṇga are used by clever people to make four maṇis to overcome witchcraft. While cleansing the whole body one should utter the tṛṣṇatvaptai mantra. With the first hymn dravamaṇi, the veṇu is fashioned. The veṇu should be created from devadāru. Beans should be crushed uttering the same mantra. The paste then should be applied on the body. Utterance of a common mantra tṛṣṇatvaptai thereafter counteracts witchcraft. This process is also different from the usual concept of maṇi. Combining vidhūla and dhūśira, a maṇi should be fashioned and it should be blocked by gunja (Abrus Precatorius, raktikā). It is unknown what exactly vidhūla and dhūśira mean. Hence here it is hard to understand the indication of the text.    Tying of Maṇis in the Viṣṇudharmottara Purāṇa   33Pratisara maṇis  The verse dūṣyā is used to fashion pratisara maṇi. Tying should accompany the mantra ayaṃ pratisaraḥ. It should be tied with thread. It is said that with the same ritual Indra killed Vṛtra. Uttering the mantra aśaṁsa it should be tied with proper rituals. It is fashioned to make one’s life free from evil. One ties this maṇi when departing on a journey. At the time of departure, it is tied on the hands as it slays enemies. The pratisara destroys yakṣas and dispels the powers that create trouble for wellbeing and prosperity, etc. The seven maṇis fashioned from bamboo are inserted in the bow string. It should be tied on the fourth month of pregnancy. Every month one maṇi should be dropped towards the west uttering the mantra prācīdigiti udīcī bhayanāśanī. It is well known that the peacock, cow, gods and old people all know these two. (It is hard to guess exactly what the sage wants to indicate when he says this).  Other Maṇis  Abhīvarta maṇis  Let us now turn to the abhīvarta maṇi. As mentioned above, one should perform the prescribed ritual and offer remnants of ghee to the maṇi. While offering remnants one should utter three verses of the hymn beginning with abhīvartena maṇinā  or verses of the hymn beginning with ayaṃ.  These two optional hymns 1 2are suggested here for offering remnants of ghee to the maṇi. The hymn begin-ning with abhīvartena maṇinā is from the Śaunaka branch of the Atharva Veda and the hymn beginning with ayaṃ appears in the Atharva Veda Paippalāda. The sage further states that ‘datvā sarveṇa sūktena maṇeḥ ādhanvanaṃ bhavet’. The of-fering of the remnants when reciting each verse should be accompanied by im-mersing the mani in pacifying water (śānti udaka).  Dākṣāyaṇa maṇis  The text specifies that a homa should be performed for all dākṣāyaṇa maṇis. The word dākṣāyaṇa refers to the descendants of Dakṣa. The text is talking about the maṇis used by them. We only know one of these maṇis: the maṇi of gold (AVŚ 1.35) which is termed dākṣāyaṇa maṇi in AVŚ 1.35. Uttering the hymn viṣkandasya iti triparṇī, this medicinal herb famous in the world should be scooped for the maṇi. It repairs a damaged shoulder. The hymn yasmādaṇgāt gaṇas is sung. The ritual  The AVŚ hymn (1.29.1,2,3): 144-145.1 The AVP hymn (1.11.1): 10. 2  PATKI 34for gaṇas is common and it is not necessary to perform it every time. Rituals should be performed for both saindhava and lavaṇa maṇis, as for vyāghra and yava maṇis.  Shape of maṇis  There are no specifications about the shape of maṇis in the Atharva Vedic tradi-tional texts. The text recommends maṇis of different shapes based on their pur-pose. The maṇis that are fashioned for a single purpose (kāraṇa kālajau) and those that are carved for some limited period must be square in shape. The other type of maṇis that are prepared for certain occasion (naimittikas) should be understood to have a shape like a maṇi i.e. perhaps round. These maṇis have their own mantras. In this way the sage says that he has conveyed all the maṇis that fulfil desires and which are auspicious. If they are tied, they repel evil, dispel fear and bestow prosperity.  Conclusion In the post Ātharvaṇic period the text discussed here is the only material where the Ātharvaṇic concept of maṇi is discussed in detail. Along with the basic rituals of Atharva Veda we can see some elaborations. The chapter introduces different types of maṇis. It also recommends different shapes for serving different pur-poses, whereas specific mentions of shape are absent in the earlier Atharva Vedic texts. The eleventh-century text by Keshava mentions that the maṇi is square. Perhaps it is due to the Mughal invasions where taviz were used for protection, as these were always square. It doesn’t seem that the author was aware of maṇibandhana chapter in the Vishṇudharmottara Purāṇa. Generally maṇis are carried by the person or tied on the body for protection. This chapter includes two examples that are different from the common image of maṇis. In one exam-ple, a person draws the name of a demon on the floor and beats it, and in the second, a person applies paste on the body for protection in the Ātharvaṇic tra-dition. The majority of mantras found in the text are from the Paippalāda Saṃhitā. This suggests a connection between this chapter and that earlier text. There are a few verses which are unidentified, and the text is quite corrupt and needs serious revision. We propose to publish an edition of this chapter in fu-ture.    Tying of Maṇis in the Viṣṇudharmottara Purāṇa   35Bibliography  Joshi, M. et al. (eds). 1968. Āyurvedik Śabdakośa. Mumbai: Maharashtra Sahitya and Sanskriti Mandal.  Mahulikar, Gauri. 1993. Maṇidhāraṇa in the Atharva Veda: a comparative study. Vishveshvaranand Indological Journal 31–32: 37–46 (published in 1998).  Monier Williams, M. 2008. Sanskrit English Dictionary. Delhi: Parimal Publica-tion. Parivrajak Brahmamuni. 1976. Atharvavedīya Mantravidyā. New Delhi: Dayanand Sansthan. Sharanasimha, N. 1985. The Viṣṇudharmottara Purāṇa. Delhi: Naga Publishers.  Shende, N.J. 1961. The Foundations of Atharvaṇic Religion. n.p. Upadhyay Kunjabihari. 2010. Atharvaṇa Veda: Paippalada Samhita. Puri: Nijiya Publication. Vishvabandhu et al. (eds) 1960–1962. The Atharvaveda (Śaunaka, with the padapā-tha and Sāyaṇācārya’s commentary). Hoshiarpur: Vishveshvarananda Ve-dic Research Inst. Whitney, W.D. 1962. Atharvaveda Saṃhitā, Delhi: Motilal Banarasidas.  THE 17TH WORLD SANSKRIT CONFERENCE, VANCOUVER, CANADA, JULY 9-13, 2018 The ‘Sthala’ Analysis 
of the Karavīra Māhātmya Madhavi Narsalay Department of Sanskrit, University of Mumbai Abstract Śrī Karavīra Māhātmya is a sthala māhātyma pertaining to the formation of the sacred geography in and around the temple of the goddess Mahālakṣmī alias Ambābāī of Kolhapur, also known as Karavīra, a district in the state of Maha-rashtra. The text is a self-proclaimed section of the Padma Mahāpurāṇa com-prising 73 chapters. This māhātmya has been edited by Prof. G.V. Tagare using seven manuscripts located in Kolhapur and Pune. However, existing works studying the origins of the goddess Mahālakṣmī and of Kolhapur as a city give subordinate treatment to the Karavīra Māhātmya. As a result, the processes of acculturation and appropriation (the ‘sthala’ dimensions) of this māhātyma re-main underexplored. Investigating these aspects systematically may help devel-op new scholarly insights into evolution of the temple of the goddess Mahālakṣmī, which regarded as one of the śaktipīṭhas located in Maharashtra. Drawing insights from a detailed textual analysis, this research will provide a comprehensive sthala analysis of this sacred text.  Introduction  Sacred geography plays a pivotal role in the development of religious conscious-ness of people. In India, this development is encircled by the compositions of various Sanskrit māhātmya texts. In the words of Anne Feldhaus, generally a māhātmya glorifies a particular holy place, but there are also māhātmyas that praise a particular ritual practice, a certain month of the year (Feldhaus 2003: 18). These māhātmya texts, which are attached to the Purāṇas, connect the reli-gious sensibilities of people with the place, shrine and the deity. As the deity or the shrine become popular, the area i.e. the sthala, encircling them sanctifies them, giving rise to numbers of minor deities and their shrines. These minor Purāṇa Studies: Proceedings of Purāṇa Section of the 17th World Sanskrit Conference, Vancouver, Canada, July 9-13 2018, edited by Raj Balkaran and McComas Taylor. pp. 37-45. DOI: 10.14288/1.0379613.  NARSALAY 38shrines and their deities are connected to the central deity and its shrine through numbers of myths and legends. Pertaining to Maharashtra, these māhātmya texts, which are attached to the Sanskrit Purāṇas were later translat-ed or abridged in Marathi. To cite a few, we have the Gautamī Māhātmya, a Nadī Māhātmya attached to the Brahma Purāṇa; the Renuka Māhātmya attached to the Skanda Purāṇa eulogizing goddess Reṇukā of Mahur, and the Karavīra Māhātmya attached to the Padma Purāṇa.  About the text  Śrī Karavīra Māhātmya (KM), a sthala māhātyma, pertaining to formation of the sacred geography in and around the temple of goddess Mahālakṣmī (alias Am-bābāī) of Kolhapur district in the state of Maharashtra, is a self -proclaimed sec-tion of the Padma Purāṇa comprising of 73 chapters. The KM is not included into the table of contents of the Padma Purāṇa as given in the Nārada Purāṇa (1.93), nor is it found printed in the extant editions (both the Vyankateshwara Press of Bombay or the Anandashram edition of Poona). It is to be noted that Kolhapur and its surroundings are also known as Karavīra. The text of this māhātmya has been edited by Prof. G.V.Tagare using seven manuscripts located in Kolhapur and Pune in 1980 (Tagare 1980: 2). Tagare has argued that the māhātmya is to be dated to approximately 1300–1350 AD.  The author of the text call himself as Vyāsa. Through the study of the KM and references to various tīrthas, gods and goddesses, there is a probability that he may have been brahmin by birth. However, it is to be noted that the author has not taken into account historical facts of Karavīra, e,g. who built the temple of the goddess, details of the image of the goddess etc.  About the goddess  The goddess, who is the focal point of this māhātmya, finds mention in texts other than the KM. Some of these texts were composed before the KM. The De-vībhāgavata Purāṇa mentions Kolapura, wherein resides the goddess Mahālakṣmī (7.38.5–6). Mahāpīṭhanirṇaya, a text referred to by D.C.Sircar men-tions of 51 śaktipīṭhas, incorporating the goddess Mahālakṣmī of Kolāpura as one among them (Sircar 1998: 107–108). When Satī immolated herself in the sacrifice of Dakṣa, Śiva wandered throughout the world with her burning corpse. The places where her organs fell became śaktipīṭhas (Dhere 2009: 4–5). At Kolhapur,  The ‘Sthala’ Analysis of the Karavīra Māhātmya  39the eyes of Satī fell on the ground rendering it one such place. The Sahyā-drikhaṇḍa (2.25–27) mentions Karavīra and its deity Lakṣmī.   1Another myth mentioned in the popular tradition is that of Bhṛgu and his tryst with the Trinity. Once the sages gave him the task of finding the best amongst the Trinity. Bhṛgu approached Brahmā, who did not even notice him. Śiva ignored him as he was busy with Pārvatī. Viṣṇu was dozing off while having a conversation with Lakṣmī. Enraged, Bhṛgu kicked the chest of Viṣṇu, who did not express any resentment at this deed. On the contrary, he asked whether the delicate feet of Bhṛgu have been hurt by kicking the hard heart of Viṣṇu. Bhṛgu’s behaviour angered Lakṣmī, who left him and settled in Kolhapur.  Interestingly, 2neither of these accounts is mentioned in the KM. The same story of Bhṛgu kick-ing the chest of Viṣṇu is associated with Sriveṅkaṭeśvara of Tirupati, wherein the angered goddess leaves Viṣṇu and settles in Karavīra. It is said that every year, Srivenkaṭeśvara sends a sari to the goddess in order to appease her.   3The effigy of the goddess is 2 to 2.5 feet in height. She has four hands wielding the mace, shield, citron fruit and a bowl. Her crown has the phallus (liṅga) and the hooded serpent. Caturvargacintāmani by Hemādri mentions of this iconography.  The earliest records of the shrine and the goddess occur in the 4epigraphy of the Rashtrakuta king Amoghavarṣa who offered his little finger to the goddess to redeem his subjects from an epidemic in about the 9th CE. The  tanmadhye pañcakrośaṃ ca kāśyā yavādhikaṃ bhuvi | kṣetraṃ vai karavīrākhyaṃ kṣetraṃ 1lakṣmīvinirmitaṃ || tatkṣetraṃ hi mahatpuṇyaṃ darśanāt pāpanāśanaṃ | tatkṣetre ṛṣayaḥ sarve brāhmaṇā vedapāragāḥ || teṣāṃ darśanamātreṇa sarvapāpakṣayo bhavet | tatkṣetraṃ kevalaṃ pīṭhaṃ mahālakṣmyāśca tattvataḥ || -laksmi-history-verified/ accessed on 6 January 2019, at 1.30pm. ac-cessed on 6 January 2019, at 2.00pm. Interview with Mrinalini Newalkar dated 20 May 2018: https://timesofindia.india3, accessed on 6 January 2019, at 2.15 pm. dakṣiṇādhaḥ kare pātramūrdhve kaumodakī tathā | vāmordhve kheṭakaṃ dhatte śrīphalaṃ 4tadadhaḥ kare | bibharti mastake liṅgaṃ pūjanīyāṃ vibhūtaye || (Khare 1958: 54). Another work with the title Nityakarmasaṅgraha says, ‘dhṛtvā śrīmāturliṅgaṃ tadupari ca gadāṃ kheṭakaṃ pānapātraṃ | nāgaṃ liṅgaṃ ca yoniḥ śirasi dhṛtavatī rājate hemavarṇā || ādyā śak-tirstrīrūpā triguṇagaṇayutā brahmaṇo hetubhūtā | viśvādyā sṛṣṭikartrī mama vasatu gṛhe sar-vadā suprasannā || (Khare 1958: 55).  NARSALAY 40shrine is built in Yadava style (Hemadpanti), but it is not clear who built it or when (Tagare 1980: 21).  This paper will comment on the process of acculturation and appropria-tion in the light of three episodes mentioned in the KM. The text has involved a number of narrators in the course of its narration. Vyāsa narrated it to the Sūta, the Sūta narrated it to the sages in the Naimiṣa forest, among whom the sage Mārkaṇḍeya was present. He narrated it to Nārada, who in turn narrated it to Agastya, Agastya narrated it to his wife Lopāmudrā.  The KM as a text has not found prime preference in scholarly works writ-ten on Mahālakṣmī and Kolhapur. However, works studying the origins of the goddess and of Kolhapur as a city provide subordinate treatment to Karavīra Māhātmya. As a result, the processes of acculturation and appropriation (the ‘sthala’ dimensions) of this māhātyma remain under-explored. Exploring them systematically may help develop new scholarly insights around the evolution of temple of the goddess Mahālakṣmī, regarded as one of the three and a half śakti-pīṭhas located in Maharashtra.  The KM at the very outset discusses how Karavīra is superior to Vārāṇasī. The deity Viṣṇu founded two Vārāṇasīs, one to the north and one to the south. The northern one was assigned to Śiva and the southern to Śakti. In the dispute between Śiva and Śakti regarding the greatness of each, Karavīra literally out-weighed Vārāṇasī (KM 2.27–35). The Śākta character of Karavīra and its goddess becomes evident in this myth. This is indicated by the presence of Bhairava named Raṅka and his shrine Raṅkatīrtha, near the temple now known as the water body Raṅkāḷa-talāv. The myth of the eyes of Satī falling at Karavīra, where-in a Śākta shrine developed, is conspicuously absent from the KM.  That Viṣṇu 5plays a judgmental role indicates that the Vaiṣṇava tradition appropriated this place from the Śaiva-Śākta tradition. The place is described as having the shrine of Kātyāyanī and 64 yoginīs, which indicates the Śākta linkages of the goddess and the shrines. However, the mythology encircling this māhātmya has de-em-phasized these linkages and emphasized on its Vaiṣṇava character (KM 6.90–91 and 13.17)  The narratives in the KM show how the place is Vaiṣṇava in nature (ādyam tu vaiṣṇavam kṣetram śaktyāgamasamanvitam| bhuktisuktipradam nṛṇām vārāṇasyā yavādikam 2.25). It is in fact Viṣṇu residing in the form of Lakṣmī at Kolāpura. (It needs to be noted that the spelling used in the text is Kolapura, the official spell- yasmin kṣetre vilasati mahābhairavo raṅkanātho devyā yo vihito viduṣṭadamane rakṣaṇe saj5 -janānāṃ KM. 50ab and 13.19. The ‘Sthala’ Analysis of the Karavīra Māhātmya  41ing is Kolhapur with the mahāprāṇa ‘h’ for kolhā- stands for jackal in Marathi.) The same chapter mentions the fact that Dattātreya visits this place for alms (KM 2.57). The Episode of Parāśara (Chapters 6-15) The episode of Parāśara opens with Agastya settling down in the south in order to prevent the Vindhya mountain from extending its height to compete with Meru (Chapter 6). He was instructed by Śiva to settle in Karavīra as he yearned for Vārāṇasī. During the journey from the banks of Godāvarī to Karavīra, Agastya narrated the greatness of this place to his wife Lopāmudrā.  Agastya narrated the story of sage Parāśara and how he could overcome the obstacles to his penance due to the efficacy of Karavīra. Parāśara wished to have a son like Viṣṇu, as he would rearrange the Vedas and Purāṇas to preserve the heritage during the age of Kali (KM 7.14). He came along with his wife Satya-vatī and selected Panhāḷā (Pannagālaya) in the vicinity of Karavīra. Due to the intensity of Parāśara’s penance, Indra, feeling insecure, sent Rambhā the apsaras to disrupt Parāśara’s penance, along with a retinue of Kāmadeva and Vasanta. Kāma shot two arrows but they were in vain. He used the arrow which was used firstly for Śiva due to which Parāśara opened his eyes.  The entire episode of Rambhā, Kāmadeva and Vasanta bears striking simi-larity with that of Madanadahana in Kumārasambhava. It clearly indicates that the author of KM was influenced by Kālidāsa. But the spiritual efficacy of Kar-avīra was so great that he was not disturbed by the seductive advances of Ramb-hā. Just as the heavens were scorched by the penance of Parāśara, so were the lower realms. Nāgas attempted to disturb the penance of Parāśara, but were subdued by him using the Garuḍa-mantra. They freed the waters which they had blocked and filled the place with the river known as Pātāla-gaṅgā. The goddess Mahālakṣmī appeared before him and was ready to offer him a boon of a son equivalent to Viṣṇu. Parāśara was doubtful whether this Mahālakṣmī even had the capacity to bless him with the boon, as the task could not be complete with-out the blessings of Viṣṇu. Mahālakṣmī showed him Viṣṇu seated within her.   6The author of the KM is aware that Vyāsa was born to Satyavatī whose lover was Parāśara and not her husband (KM 16.2). Agastya narrated the story of Satyavatī receiving a curse from Parāśara for delaying her duties by watching a fish in sexual contact. Satyavatī was reborn as Matsyodarī and Vyāsa was born  mām eva viṣṇurūpāṃ vai tvaṃ jānīhi mahāmate | asti cet samśayam tarhi paśya viṣṇuṃ mayi 6sthitaṃ || 15.33.  NARSALAY 42out of her sexual contact with Parāśara. Thus, the story of Satyavatī and Parāśara in the Mbh, in which Vyāsa was born out of wedlock to Parāśara was a curse by the later according to KM.  The KM was composed in the medieval period, when the norms of mar-riage and procurement of progeny became very strict. Vyāsa, as a child of an un-lawful union had a bizarre kind of birth. The KM provided justification for the story and for the absurdity of Vyāsa’s birth by weaving a story of the curse of Parāśara himself and sanctifying the entire episode, which appeared in the Mbh. In the course of narration, there is a striking similarity between the narrative of Jamadagni and Reṇukā wherein the chastity of Reṇukā was endangered and she was delayed in providing her services to Jamadagni as she watched the amorous sport of gandharvas and their wives in a pond.  There are certain key points highlighted through the episode of Parāśara. The narrative is an example of how Vaisnavaization of the Śākta shrine has taken place. This is a case of appropriation. The Bhairavas and 64 yoginīs are men-tioned but are ignored and not given any importance. There is no mention of Śiva in this narrative. Mahālakṣmī does not emerge as a mother goddess but a consort goddess, the consort of Viṣṇu. The powerful, dominant mother having unlimited powers, superseding the entire plethora of gods and goddesses is re-placed by a consort, the powers of whom are doubted by Parāśara, the boon-seeker. Mahālakṣmī had to show that the powers of Viṣṇu are vested in her and that the desire of Parāśara to seek a boon for a son will be fulfilled by her. Viṣṇu had to personally appear before Parāśara to reassure him of the same. This indi-cates that this episode of the KM emerges as a Vaiṣṇava text eulogizing Mahālakṣmī as the consort of Viṣṇu.  Mahālakṣmī killing the demons (Chapters 33–34) The second episode is that of Mahālakṣmī killing the demons, which indicates a surviving Śākta strand of the KM summarized in two chapters. Gayāsura had two brothers, namely Lavaṇāsura who was kicked to death by Viṣṇu at a place called Viṣṇu-gayā, and Kolāsura who performed penance at Kolagiri or Kolāha-lagiri, after which Brahmā made his body adamantine, lustrous and unbreakable (KM 33.57–58). He wrested back his kingdom from demon Sukeśin, who usurped it during his absence, and ruled piously. In old age he crowned his el-dest son Karavīra and went to the forest for penance. Karavīra wanted to wreak havoc in revenge for the treacherous killing of his uncles by the gods (KM 33.115–116). In the battle that ensued between them, Rudra struck down Karavīra but  The ‘Sthala’ Analysis of the Karavīra Māhātmya  43was so pleased with his valour that he gave a boon to the dying hero that the bat-tlefield will be known as Karavīra after him ( KM 33.223–224). When Kolāsura heard of his son’s death, he was aggrieved (KM 34.2), but he knew that the gods were invincible due to Mahālakṣmī’s favour. He performed penance and request-ed Mahālakṣmī to bestow a boon that she will vacate the place for him for hun-dred years (KM 34.23–24). Unwillingly Mahālakṣmī did so and Kolāsura wrought havoc in this place. At the behest of the gods, Mahālakṣmī undertook a campaign against him. Rudra caused him to fall down and stood on his body, along with Viṣṇu and Brahmā, and Mahālakṣmī with her eighteen hands slew him. Kolā-sura asked for a boon that his body should become Gaya tīrtha and the place should be known as Kolāpura, and in memory of his killing a kūṣmāṇḍa fruit be split every year (KM 34. 128).  This episode is an indication of the Mother-Goddess nature of Mahālakṣmī, in which she is raised over and above the Trinity. It does not have much similarity with the Devi Māhātmya and gives sanction to the ritual of Kūṣmāṇḍa-bhedana. Just as in the Devi Māhātmya, the goddess kills demons like Mahiṣāsura, Śumba-Niśumba, Raktabīja, similarly in the KM the goddess kills Kolāsura. Here we come across the interrelationship between myth and the ritual. It is difficult to argue whether the myth emerged first or the ritual is prior to the myth. In either case, the ritual and the myth have come together in the KM, both sanctioning each other.  Tryambulī (Chapters 37–39) The third episode is of Tryambulī also known as Ṭembalāī in Marathi. In her pre-vious birth Tryambulī was Satyavratā, the chaste wife of sage Kauṇḍinya. While she was massaging the feet of her husband, she rose to give alms to a mendicant. The infuriated sage thoughtlessly cursed her to be a slave, but on knowing the correct reason he gave a boon that she will become the slave of Mahālakṣmī (KM 37.131–140). She was born of a childless brahmin called Bhārgava at Maṅgalaka. As per their vow to Mahālakṣmī, the parents dedicated her to the services of Mahālakṣmī (KM 37.146–147). Mahālakṣmī assigned her to guard the golden lo-tuses in Mallatīrtha, which she did all the time and hence was named Tryambulī.  Tryambulī had Maṇigrīva the yakṣa as her superior. Kāmākṣa, the 7son of Kolāsura, wanted to avenge the death of his father. As per the advice of Śukrācārya, he and his sister Raktā convinced and took the yogadaṇḍa from sage  yatastriṣvapi kāleṣu tvamambuṣu layaṃ gatā | ato nāmāstu te nityaṃ tryambulīti viniścitaṃ || 7KM 37.180.  NARSALAY 44Kapila and converted Mahālakṣmī and other gods into goats and sheep (KM 38.15–27). Tryambulī kicked Raktā to death. Later she took a form of an old woman, filled a basket with stones and cow dung cakes, and pretended to be un-able to lift it. When Kāmākṣa came to offer help she dashed the basket against him and caused him to fall on the ground. She grabbed the yogadaṇḍa and tram-pled him to death. By the power of yogadaṇḍa she restored the gods and god-desses including Mahālakṣmī to their original glory. However, for the kūṣmāṇḍa splitting, all the gods and goddesses forgot her (KM 38.209).  When Mahālakṣmī realized this, she went straight to the hillock and tried to convince her to come, but she refused. Mahālakṣmī gave her a boon that every year she will personally come to visit her and the kūṣmāṇḍa splitting ceremony will take place in front of her shrine on the fifth day of the bright half of Āśvina month, i.e. during the Lalitā Pañcamī day of autumnal Navarātri (KM 38.237).  In this episode we come to understand that the journey of the name Ṭem-blāī to Tryambulī is the Sanskritization of the name of this goddess. The fact that this goddess Mahālakṣmī will personally visit Tryambulī every year and the Kūṣmāṇḍa ceremony will be performed in front of the temple of the goddess indicates her acculturation. There is a possibility that she may be a minor local goddess or a yakṣiṇī, a tutelary goddess of the mountain. That is the reason why the goddess is the slave of Mahālakṣmī. Thus the identity of Tryambulī in the mainstream culture as an independent goddess was dissolved and she became one among the deities of the pantheon with Mahālakṣmī as the head. Another historical fact brought out through the narrative of Tryambulī is the practice of offering children to Mahālakṣmī, which is an indication of the devadāsī custom, which is no longer in vogue.  Conclusion The Karavīra Māhātmya is a predominantly Vaiṣṇava text, with some remnants of Śākta traditions in it. The myth of the śaktipīṭhas is conspicuous by its absence in the text. With the onslaught of Vaiṣṇava dharma spreading in and around Maharashtra through saints like Dnyāneśvara etc, the shrine pushed Śāktism to the background, and the Vaiṣṇava nature indicated by the name Mahālakṣmī came to the forefront. Thus an in-depth study of the KM will play a key role in understanding the religious change taking place in Maharashtra in the 13th–14th CE.   The ‘Sthala’ Analysis of the Karavīra Māhātmya  45Bibliography Dhere, R.C. 2009. Karavīranivāsinī Śrīmahālakṣmī (Marathi). Pune: Padmagandha Publications. Feldhaus, A. 2003. Connected Places: Region, Pilgrimage and Geographical Imagination in India. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Gaitonde, V.D.  1972. Śrīsahyādrikhaṇḍa  (Marathi, tr. from Sanskrit) Bombay: Katyayani Publications.  Khare, G.H. 1958. Mahārāṣṭrācī cār daivateṃ (Marathi). Pune: Bharat Itihas Sam-shodhak Mandal. Prabhudesai, P.K. 2005. Devīkośa (Marathi), Vol. I-IV. Pune: Anjali Publications. Sircar, D.C. 1998. The Śākta Pīṭhas. Delhi: Motilal Banarasidass. Tagare, G.V. 1980. Śrīkaravīramāhātmyaṃ. Kolhapur: Shivaji University.  THE 17TH WORLD SANSKRIT CONFERENCE, VANCOUVER, CANADA, JULY 9-13, 2018 Who Is the Viṣṇu 
of the Viṣṇu Purāṇa? Sucharita Adluri Cleveland State University Abstract Between the 12th to the 14th centuries, two commentaries on the Viṣṇu Purāṇa were composed by Viṣṇucitta (~12th CE) and Śrīdhara (13th–14th CE). Known as the Viṣṇucittīya and Ātmaprakāśa, they are interpretations from the perspec-tives of Viśiṣṭādvaita and Advaita Vedānta respectively. While the purāṇa weaves together Viṣṇu mythology of a creator god active in the world and worshipped in various forms with the upaniṣadic doctrine of the highest Self, this characteriza-tion undergoes various permutations in the hands of the two exegetes. In exam-ining their commentarial strategies, this paper broadens our understanding of the Viṣṇu Purāṇa as not simply a root text, but a textual tradition comprising commentaries and its function as a text of persuasion for larger theological con-texts, such as Vedānta. Introduction From the 12th century onward, the Viṣṇu Purāṇa (VP) becomes the focus of in-terpretation as several commentaries made it the preserve of specific Vedānta schools.  Two of the earliest extant commentaries on the VP are the Viṣṇucittīya 1(VC) by Viṣṇucitta (12th CE) and the Ātmaprakāśa (AP) by Śrīdhara (13th–14th CE), written from the Viśiṣṭādvaita and Advaita Vedānta perspectives respective-ly.  The VP consistently affirms Viṣṇu as the supreme being, however his nature 2and relationship to creation are contested issues as each exegete secures a dif-ferent conception of the deity exploiting the multivalency inherent in the purāṇa  The critical edition of the VP lists four commentaries by Ratnagarbha, Nṛhari, Viṣṇu 1Vallabhā and Gangādhara in addition to the two by Viṣṇucitta and Śrīdhara (1997: 16). Also known and Viṣṇucittīyavyākhyā and Śrīdharīya, respectively.2Purāṇa Studies: Proceedings of Purāṇa Section of the 17th World Sanskrit Conference, Vancouver, Canada, July 9-13 2018, edited by Raj Balkaran and McComas Taylor. pp. 47-78. DOI: 10.14288/1.0379613.  ADLURI 48itself. Commentaries on purāṇas were important in medieval South Asian reli-gion as exegetes employed them to draw correspondences between popular Vaiṣṇava religion and philosophical systems (darśana) such as Vedānta.  3Apart from one study on the influence of Rāmānuja, the synthesizer of Viśiṣṭādvaita, on the Viṣṇucittīya, both commentaries are little studied and this paper contributes to this gap in scholarship (Ranganayaki 1999). While it has been suggested that the VP itself espouses certain fundamental Advaita doc-trines, it was nonetheless a contested text as we do know that commentaries on it were written from other Vedānta perspectives as well (Mahadevan 1971). The goal of this paper is not to prove that the purāṇa expounds either of the Vedānta philosophies exclusively, rather it is to discern the commentarial strategies of each Vedāntin on specific verses of the purāṇa that elucidate the nature of Viṣṇu. Simply put, it asks, ‘Who is the Viṣṇu of the VP for the two commentators’?  In their interpretation of the VP, each commentator is constrained in his interpretation of the VP by adherence to a specific Vedānta tradition. Viṣṇucitta belongs to the Śrīvaiṣṇava tradition of South India that propounds Viśiṣṭādvaita Vedānta (unity-of-the-differenced). He was a pupil of Piḷḷāṉ, a direct disciple of Rāmānuja. Some hagiographic accounts portray Viṣṇucitta’s early training as taking place under Rāmānuja himself (Ranganayaki 1999: 68–79).  Viśiṣṭādvaita 4advocates Viṣṇu as the supreme Brahman who exists in a self-body relationship with creation. Though the divine essential nature is consciousness and bliss, through his various manifestations (vibhūti) he is accessible to individual selves bound up in creation. The right knowledge of Viṣṇu’s relationship to creation and actions (karma) in the form of devotion (bhakti) to him, are the way to achieve liberation.  Viṣṇu as the inner self is the inner ruler, controller and sup5 -port of all, but does not suffer the vicissitudes of saṃsāra. The term, inner ruler (antaryāmin) has different meanings in the Advaita and Viśiṣṭādvaita systems. In the latter case, Viṣṇu as the inner self of all existence, including individual selves means that he exists in a self-body relationship to the world. His causal nature is real, but is not affected by the defects of his ‘body’, that is, the world of matter  For more on the genre of purāṇas see Rocher 1986.3 The Guruparaṃpara Prabhāvam (3000 paṭi) considered authoritative by the Vaḍagalai 4tradition is composed by Trutiya Brahmatantra Svatantra Jeeyar Swami. It provides more information on this topic in its section on Ācārya Vaibhavam, p. 135ff. There is development within Śrīvaiṣṇavism, especially within the Teṉkalai tradition, of 5taking refuge in Viṣṇu as the only means to liberation as well. Who is the Viṣṇu of the Viṣṇu Purāṇa?   49and individual selves. When Śrīdhara invokes Viṣṇu as the inner self, the conno-tation is quite different.  Śrīdhara, popular for his commentary on the Bhāgavata Purāṇa, was a resident of a Śaṃkarite monastery near Puri and a disciple of Paramānanda (Gode 1949, Acharya 1965, Sheridan 1994).  In his benedictory verse on the com6 -mentary, he pays homage to the Advaita ācārya Citsukha (~13th CE) and claims to base it on this Vedāntin’s interpretation of the purāṇa.  As an Advaitin, the key 7teaching Śrīdhara advocates is that of non-dualism—as one ceases to identify one’s self with what it is not, one ultimately intuits one’s own self as Brahman. Realization of the self through knowledge of scripture, is the only way to escape saṃsāra. Where does Viṣṇu fit in? How does Śrīdhara navigate the theistic sec-tions of the VP? He equivocates between two views of Viṣṇu whom he envisions as Kṛṣṇa. On the one hand, he is a personal god (īśvara), and on the other hand, he is none other than one’s own inner self. This is quite different from what Viṣṇucitta means when he denotes Viṣṇu as the inner self. To facilitate such a reading, early on in his commentary, Śrīdhara intro-duces the distinction of pravṛtti and nivṛtti as specific contexts within which to understand the nature of Viṣṇu. These two distinct ideologies on the practice of dharma are evident in ancient Indian philosophical systems (Bailey 1985). The path of action and social engagement, following the dictates of dharma and rit-ual is the way of pravṛtti. The end result of such a living is a meritorious after-life either in the realm of the gods or in a better future birth. Contrasted to this was the path of nivṛtti or social withdrawal, which calls for the abandonment of soci-ety and the dictates of dharma. Pursuit of such a life with the study of scripture was to result in liberation from the cycle of saṃsāra. Negotiation between these two distinct paths is undertaken in various ways in both the epics and the purāṇas. In his commentary, Śrīdhara admits the significance of pravṛtti, with its attendant ritual and devotional aspects in one’s spiritual journey toward lib-erative realization, as it helps purify the mind. However, knowledge alone and the path of nivṛtti is the final means to release. His interpretations of Viṣṇu con-sistently push the aspirant to question and move beyond theistic, pravṛtti-orient- Much has been written on Śrīdhara’s commentary on the Bhāgavata Purāṇa. To begin 6with, S.K. De (1986), P. Sheridan (1994), and R. Gupta (2007). are helpful. He also claims that he has consulted other commentaries on the VP that are both 7concise and elaborate and has chosen to take the middle way: śrīvidvatsukhayogimukhya-racitavyākhyāṃ nirīkṣya sphuṭaṃ tanmārgeṇa subodhasaṃgrahavatīm ātmaprakāśābhidhām (Sharma 1995: 1).  ADLURI 50ed understandings of the deity. Though he does not utilize terms such as illusion (māyā), and ignorance (avidyā), in the sections discussed in this paper, we see that in his interpretation, he is nonetheless firmly rooted in Advaita Vedānta. The source material for this paper, to evaluate the nature of Viṣṇu as un-derstood by Viṣṇucitta and Śrīdhara, is comprised of their benedictory verses, their commentaries on the first chapter of the purāṇa, specifically 1.1.4 and 1.1.5, and the last verse 1.1.31. Of the three sections that this paper consists of, in the first, the invocatory verses of the two exegetes are evaluated (Ia, Ib). In addition, Śrīdhara utilizes a version of the VP that has some benedictory verses that are included at the beginning of the purāṇa, on which he comments. The critical edition of the VP notes that certain manuscripts include such verses prior to the first stanza of VP (1.1.1). These passages are found only in the version of the VP that Śrīdhara utilizes. Though these are not invocations by the exegete himself, because he comments on them, we need to consider this material (Ic). In the second section, the commentary on verses 1.1.4 and 1.1.5 is examined. The VP begins with a series of questions posed by Maitreya to Parāśara. In six verses, 1.1.4 to 1.1.10, the former enquires about world creation, its material cause, its re-creation after dissolution, the place where it emerged from and where it will recede to.  Of these seven verses, 1.1.4 and 1.1.5 attract the attention of the ex8 -egetes, and their commentary gives considerable information on how they envi-sion Viṣṇu (IIa-d).  Section I: Invoking Viṣṇu a. Viṣṇucittīya maṅgalaśloka b. Ātmaprakāśa maṅgalaśloka  c. Ātmaprakāśa introductory verses 
(part of the VP version utilized by Śrīdhara) Section II: Viṣṇu’s Causality a. Viṣṇucittīya on VP 1.1.4 b. Ātmaprakāśa on VP 1.1.4 c. Viṣṇucittīya on VP 1.1.5 d. Ātmaprakāśa on VP 1.1.5  These questions comprise the five components of purāṇas (purāṇa pañcalakṣaṇa) that is 8thought to be their subject matter. The five characteristics enumerated are 1) primary creation, 2) secondary creation or dissolution, 3) genealogies of gods and patriarchs, 4) periods of Manus, and 5) history. For more on this topic, see Rocher 1986: 24-30. Who is the Viṣṇu of the Viṣṇu Purāṇa?   51Section III: Viṣṇu’s Identity with the world a. Viṣṇucittīya on VP 1.1.31 b. Ātmaprakāśa on VP 1.1.31 In that last verse of chapter one, 1.1.31, Parāśara offers a summary answer to Maitreya’s questions and proclaims Viṣṇu as the source from which the world originates and into which it is absorbed at the time of dissolution. Each of the commentators reads this verse in a different way. This offers much on their views on the supreme deity. This material is considered in the last section of the paper (IIIa-b). Together, these three sections of the paper elucidate the connec-tion between Viṣṇu and Brahman on the one hand and Viṣṇu and the world on the other. Though both exegetes agree that Viṣṇu is Brahman who is the world, each qualifies this identity in a unique way. I. Invoking Viṣṇu: Supreme Deity, Absolute Consciousness  In their benedictory verses, Viṣṇucitta and Śrīdhara invoke Viṣṇu and Kṛṣṇa re-spectively. The former characterizes Viṣṇu as both the transcendent Brahman and the supreme deity in some of his specific manifestations who is the focus of ritual and devotion. The personal god who is the object of devotees’ ministra-tions is the same as the ultimate reality that is of the nature of consciousness and bliss untouched by saṃsāra (section Ia). Śrīdhara identifies Viṣṇu as Kṛṣṇa in his invocatory passages. Overall, he equivocates between descriptions of Kṛṣṇa as the non-dual absolute with the fewest of attributes such as the ‘witness of the mind’ and Kṛṣṇa as the Lord, the supreme deity who is the cause creation (section Ib). The last section examines Śrīdhara’s commentary on certain bene-dictory verses that are part of the VP version he utilises (Ic). Though they are not his own compositions, since he comments on them extensively, we need to con-sider their significance as they offer much on his interpretation of Viṣṇu. Viṣṇucitta’s version of the VP does not include these introductory verses.  a. Viṣṇucittīya’s Benedictory Verses (maṅgalaśloka) Viṣṇucitta, in his first verse of benediction, invokes Viṣṇu as both transcendent and intimately involved with the world.  9 There are five invocatory verses listed prior to the beginning of the commentary. Of 9these, only the first two provide information on the nature of the deity. In addition, the last of the five verses is a benedictory verse by Viṣṇucitta’s disciple, Vātsya Varada, extolling his teacher’s erudition.  ADLURI 52Obeisance to him, to Puruṣottama, the essence  of consciousness alone 10who is devoid of changes due to existence and non-existence From whom this world was born, where it exists and where all this reaches in the end.  11He begins by referring to Viṣṇu as Puruṣottama. This is a common epithet for the deity, but has special significance for the commentator. The term Puruṣot-tama, meaning the ‘highest person’, is ‘both a divine name and a metaphysical definition of God’ (Carman 1986: 159). For the Śrīvaiṣṇavas, Puruṣottama is the primordial man (puruṣa) of the Puruṣa Sūkta and the Lord Nārāyaṇa, whose dismemberment results in creation (Carman 1986: 159). In the Bhagavad Gītā, Puruṣottama signifies the supreme being, Kṛṣṇa, who encompasses matter and individual selves and yet transcends them as their inner ruler. For Rāmānuja, one of the systematizers of this Vedānta tradition, the epithet Puruṣottama is the divine name of choice after Brahman, illustrating the supremacy (paratva) and transcendence of Viṣṇu (Carman 1986: 81, 159). It has been noted that Viṣṇucitta utilizes Rāmānuja’s writings frequently in his commentary on the VP and it is likely that this divine name has similar connotations for the commenta-tor as well (Ranganayaki 1999). Puruṣottama, then, as Viṣṇucitta notes in his benedictory verse, is ‘the essence of consciousness alone devoid of the changes due to existence and non-existence (individual selves and matter)’. Nonetheless, he is also the creator, sustainer and support of the world at all times even during dissolution, without suffering any modifications that are incumbent on a cause. How this is possible is addressed by the self-body analogy, discussed in the sub-sequent sections.  In the second benedictory verse, Viṣṇucitta portrays Viṣṇu as a personal god, the supreme deity: Obeisance, to the bestower of wishes to the worshipper and of the wise, to the one who rides Garuḍa.
 The word translated as essence is vapus, it can also mean ‘nature’, ‘body’, ‘figure’ and so 10on. yasmād idaṃ jagad ajāyata yatra tiṣṭhayante samastam idam astam upaiti yatra. tasmai namas 11sadasadādivikalpaśūnyacaitanyamātravapuṣe puruṣottamāya (Sharma 1995: 1). Who is the Viṣṇu of the Viṣṇu Purāṇa?   53To the horse-faced one (Hayagrīva),  one’s own self, the self of the 12world.  13Mythological details of Viṣṇu take center stage here, such as being aloft on Garuḍa, or as Hayagrīva, the horse-faced manifestation who recovers the lost Vedas. Viṣṇu riding the fierce bird Garuḍa is well-known in Vaiṣṇava traditions. In Śrīvaiṣṇavism for instance, Viṣṇu along with his divine vehicle and other ce-lestial attendants is extolled in descriptions of Viṣṇu’s heaven, Vaikuṇṭha. Yā-muna, the predecessor of Rāmānuja, in his Stotra Ratna, śloka 41, invokes the bird as a divine vehicle, a seat/throne, a friend, a banner and as possessing scars due to contact with the feet of a seated Viṣṇu (Nayar 1992: 104 fn 111). Hayagrīva is not a popular form of Viṣṇu, but he is revered in South India as the god of learning and knowledge, and his worship is a living tradition in the temple town of Tiruvahindrapuram, Tamil Nadu. In the epics and purāṇas, he is said to have rescued the Vedas stolen by a demon and also figures in the esoteric ritual texts of Pāñcarātra (Nayar 2004: 170-191). The mention of Garuḍa along with Hayagrīva in this verse is not as unusual as it might seem as this associa-tion is prevalent in Śrīvaiṣṇavism.  Contrary to this celestial description of 14Viṣṇu as Hayagrīva and riding on Garuḍa, Viṣṇucitta ends this verse by referring to the deity as the inner self of one’s own self and that of the world of matter. In the earlier passage, he first mentions the transcendent aspect of Viṣṇu as Pu-ruṣottama and then his close connection to the world as its cause. Here, in the second verse, he begins with a description of the personal god and then ends with the transcendent aspect of Viṣṇu as ‘one’s own self and the self of all’. Though Viṣṇucitta vacillates between Viṣṇu as the supreme deity and personal god and as the transcendent Brahman, the two are identical for him.  For more on the development of the tradition of worship of Hayagrīva, see Nayar 2004.12 vidheś ca vidhuṣām iṣṭadāyine tārkṣyāyine. namas turaṅgatuṇḍāya svātmane jagadātmane 13(Sharma 1995: 1). Though a successor of Viṣṇucitta, Vedānta Deśika (14th C), has an elaborate legend as14 -sociated with this temple and his ability to ultimately become a literary master. This was made possible by the Garuḍa mantra and his initiation into Hayagrīva worship (Hopkins 2002: 62-63).  ADLURI 54b. Ātmaprakāśa’s Benedictory Verses (maṅgalaśloka) In his first benedictory verse, Śrīdhara invokes Viṣṇu as Kṛṣṇa   15Obeisance to him who is the form of existence, consciousness and bliss, to Kṛṣṇa, who is unwearied in action,
who is known through Vedānta, to the guru, to the witness of the mind (buddhi).   16While the name Kṛṣṇa might conjure up the deity who was the hero of the Mahābhārata, the charioteer and teacher of Arjuna, the commentator’s charac-terization points the reader away from such a context. He defines Kṛṣṇa as hav-ing the form of existence, consciousness and bliss: sat, cit, and ānanda. In Advai-ta, though Brahman cannot be conveyed through conventional language, certain definitions of Brahman such as sadcidānanda are considered to come close. These terms are not properties of Brahman, they are referred to as an essential defini-tion (svarūpalakṣaṇa) of Brahman. Sadcidānanda defines Brahman by negating it from what it is not (Murti 1983: 83). Thus, ‘[s]at excludes asat (non-being); Cit (will or intelligence) excludes matter (jaḍa); Ānanda (bliss) excludes duḥkha (pain)’ (Murti 1983: 83). What this means in the case of Śrīdhara is that, in as much as we can use language to define the non-dual Absolute, sadcidānanda is associated with the fewest superimpositions or attributions. So, Kṛṣṇa as the embodiment of Brahman’s essential nature known through scripture, i.e. Vedān-ta, points to the non-dual self, beyond all language and conventional experience.  For Śrīdhara, this Kṛṣṇa is also a guru. In benedictory verses, usually in addition to a deity of choice, the preceptors of one’s tradition and lineage are also invoked. By identifying Kṛṣṇa as the guru, Śrīdhara follows a well-known Advaita tradition of considering Nārāyaṇa as the founder of the tradition. In this context, Nārāyana is the ‘most subtle personalized form of brahman, the Inner Controller and witness’ (Hirst 2005: 58). Once again for Śrīdhara, Kṛṣṇa as the founder of Advaita Vedānta is Brahman bereft of all superimpositions except the sole adjunct of wisdom (Hirst 2005: 58). Śrīdhara also envisions Kṛṣṇa as the ‘witness of the mind’. In his maṅ-galaśloka of Naiṣkarmayasiddhi, Sureśvara (~9th CE) also pays obeisance to Hari, the witness of the mind, destroyer of darkness, from whom the world, consist- There are four verses that comprise the maṅgalaślokas. Of these only the first two con15 -vey information on the nature of Viṣṇu. This verse is not found in the Parimal edition, but is found in the Nag Publishers edition. sadcidānandarūpāya kṛṣṇāyākliṣṭakāriṇe. namo vedāntavedyāya gurave buddhisākṣiṇe.16 Who is the Viṣṇu of the Viṣṇu Purāṇa?   55ing of ether, air, wind, fire, and water, comes forth just as a garland appears as a snake (Alston 1971: 2).  In later Advaita, Citsukha (~13th CE) in his Tattva-17pradīpikā explains the relationship between Brahman and the witness-con-sciousness, i.e., the witness of the mind as ‘the pure Brahman which has become all the inner selves [and] is known to be the witness-consciousness according to differences in finite individual beings’ (Gupta 1995: 119). Kṛṣṇa as the witness of the mind is a way to ‘point to the inactivity of the self and correct the idea that it could be the agent in [an] act of empirical cognition’ (Alston 1971: 138–139). The ineffable self is inactive and is a non-agent. Śrīdhara envisions Kṛṣṇa as the wit-ness of the mind, the seer behind the seeing, the true self, the non-dual absolute.  For the Advaitin, Kṛṣṇa is also the one who is unwearied in action—ak-liṣṭakārin. That is, the cause (kārin) which is unassociated with any defects (ak-liṣṭa). He is beyond the deficiencies of existence such as passion, anger, desire and so on, in that he is not affected by them as he is not in contact with them. Here, Kṛṣṇa can be understood as the Lord, the creator and the cause of cre-ation, who is untouched by it. What we see in this verse is a continuum of envi-sioning Kṛṣṇa as the non-dual Absolute, in as much as this is possible, to Kṛṣṇa as the cause of the world. Suthren Hirst has discussed such a model in her study on Śaṃkara (Suthren Hirst 2005: 124–129). Thus, Śrīdhara does not speak of two Kṛṣṇas—only one with different attributions, ranging from the gross, such as Lord over the creation of which he is the cause, to the subtle, such as witness of the mind.   18Śrīdhara, in his second verse, pays homage to his deity of choice (iṣṭadeva-ta) and other divinities important to the sacred city of Kāśi I bow to Bindu Mādhava, the form of Supreme Bliss, to the goddess of speech,
to the Lord of the universe, to Gaṅgā, and to the seer, the foremost Parāśara.  (2) 19 khānilāgnyabdharitryantaṃ srakphaṇīvodgataṃ yataḥ. dhvāntacchide namas tasmai haraye 17buddhisākṣiṇe. I do not utilize the terms such as higher brahman and lower brahman or saguṇa 18brahman and nirguṇa brahman as Śrīdhara himself does not. He only introduces the pravṛtti-nivṛtti framework and so that is the only distinction that is addressed here. See Lott 1980 and Mahadevan 1968 for more on those distinctions. śrībindumādhavaṃ vande paramānandavigraham. vācam viśveśvaraṃ gaṅgāṃ parāśara19 -mukhān munīn (Upreti 2011: 1).  ADLURI 56Bindu Mādhava is a regional form of Viṣṇu as Kṛṣṇa, whose temple is located in Kāśi (Eck 1982: 206-207). One of the myths surrounding this temple manifesta-tion is that Viṣṇu granted the sage Agni Bindu a boon to remain in Kāśi as the mūrti in this temple. Śrīdhara balances the theistic tenor of the verse, by refer-ring to this form of Kṛṣṇa as the form of Supreme Bliss (ānanda) that we have already come across as a definition of Brahman. While paying obeisance to Kṛṣṇa as a personal god, Bindu Mādhava, the commentator points beyond this created world, over which the deity is Lord but also transcends it, as one’s own inner self, alluding to a proper Advaitin understanding. Śrīdhara also invokes Viśveśvara the form of Śiva important in Kāśi, the river Ganges, the goddess of speech and the sage Parāśara, the narrator of the VP.  In these two maṅgalaślokas, then, two understandings of Kṛṣṇa are con-veyed. These can be seen as two poles of a continuum—on the one hand, Kṛṣṇa as the absolute with a minimum of attributions such as sat, cit, ānanda or as the witness of the mind, as the embodiment of supreme bliss etc. On the other hand, Viṣṇu as Bindu Mādhava, a specific form of Kṛṣṇa, is more relatable in the context of name and form.  For Viṣṇucitta, Viṣṇu is the transcendent Brahman 20and the personal Lord accessible to his devotees and intimately involved in the world though its creation, maintenance and dissolution. For Śrīdhara, Viṣṇu as Kṛṣṇa is also Brahman as the non-dual absolute beyond name and form realized ultimately as one’s self within. However, until such a time as that, there are de-grees to which Kṛṣṇa can be associated with various attributions relevant in the conventional world. So, the answer ‘yes’, to the question as to the identity of Kṛṣṇa and Brahman for Śrīdhara will have to be qualified.  c. Ātmaprakāśa (commentary on additional ślokas that 
are part of Śrīdhara’s version of the purāṇa) We begin by considering Śrīdhara’s comments on two passages that are part of the version of the purāṇa he utilizes. His commentary on them is extensive and conveys much information on how he envisions Viṣṇu. Of the four verses, two are relevant to our discussion as the others address the importance of purāṇas and sage Parāśara. Prior to his commentary on these verses, Śrīdhara by way of introduction states that:  For more on the concept of name and form, nāmarūpa in Advaita, see Hacker 1995: 2057-100 and Suthren Hirst 2005: 89-115. Who is the Viṣṇu of the Viṣṇu Purāṇa?   57The questions by Maitreya to Parāśara, in the first adhyāya of the first aṃśa of the text, on the goal of pravṛtti, are found in twenty-two (chap-ters) of the purāṇa.  21By referring to the first book of the VP with twenty-two chapters as concerned with the goal of pravṛtti (pravṛttyartha), Śrīdhara offers the reader an interpretive framework within which to read the entire purāṇa. The distinction of pravṛtti and nivṛtti imposes an Advaitic orientation. Pravṛtti is the realm of actions (karma), ritual and duality, which does not lead to brahman/self-realization and liberation. This path only perpetuates rebirth in saṃsāra. The realization of Brahman is only accomplished by severing worldly attachments, through renunciation and the study of śruti, which is the path of nivṛtti.  But, if these chapters are concerned with pravṛtti that is to be transcended, why bother reading or commenting on them?  Śrīdhara says that purāṇas have 22the essential nature of being the breath or extirpation (niśvasita) of the Lord (īś-vara) and are rooted in Veda. Additionally, in the case of the VP, its lineage in the form of remembrance or recounting directly from the sage Vyāsa to Vaśiṣṭha to Parāśara makes its use and validity difficult to deny. After validating the authori-ty of the purāṇas, especially the VP he goes on to say that commentaries on purāṇas are useful as their sole purpose is to illuminate various objects by refut-ing their respective false appearances. Śrīdhara adds, though such accounts among many purāṇas may be rare, in this very purāṇa, pravrtti is proclaimed as best for the practice effecting the identity (aikātmya) of the supreme self, indi-vidual self and the world for those desirous of liberation (Upreti 2011: 1) The sig-nificance of purāṇas is recast to accommodate the Advaita exegetical practice of negation of superimposition and false appearance to gain the true understand-ing of reality. In the case of the VP at least, for those seeking liberation but who find themselves in the context of pravṛtti, the purāṇa helps one navigate the path of purifying the mind, which is essential for the path of knowledge and eventual realization. On the topic of the myriad narratives on origins of various beings and so on, Śrīdhara notes: And of the genealogies of Manus, gods, sages, creation and dissolution, therein, by negation (apavāda) of that, liberation is the teaching. The use  tantrāṃśe prathame 'dhyāye maitreyeṇa parāśare pravṛttyarthaṃ purāṇasya praśnā dvāvimśati 21kṛtāḥ (Upreti 2011:1). Suthren Hirst (2005) has shown that in the case of Śaṃkara, the importance of the 22context of pravṛtti is connected to the Advaita pedagogical method.  ADLURI 58of the examination of narratives of the land of Bhārata, the earth, and virtuous conduct, for liberation alone, immediately or ultimately ought to be seen.   23In this way, purāṇic narratives have the ability to remove various appearances to lead to the realization of the non-difference between the world, individual self and the supreme self. This is the standard Advaita method of superimposition (adhyāropa) and negation (apavāda): ‘[t]he Absolute cannot be denoted through speech and negation is the fundamental process which leads to viveka—discrim-ination of the true nature of the self ’ (Alston 1980: 136).  Thus, one may begin in 24this context but one moves towards the realization of one’s own self as Viṣṇu, either ‘immediately or ultimately’, and this is the overall goal of the purāṇa.  Following this introduction on the meaning of the purāṇa and its signifi-cance in liberation, Śrīdhara comments on the invocatory passages found prior to the beginning of the VP. Among these four verses, his commentary on the first two give us the most information on his conception of Viṣṇu. What we see as a general rule is that Śrīdhara, when the text allows for it, interprets Kṛṣṇa as a personal god but also frequently through negation and correction points to envi-sioning him as one’s own inner self. The first passage is from the famous Jitam Te Stotra that is part of the Ṛg Veda khila, but is also found in some Vaiṣṇava Pāñ-carātra texts. Victory to you, Puñḍarīkākṣa, obeisance to Viśvabhāvana, 
Obeisance to you Hṛṣīkeśa, Mahāpuruṣa, Pūrvajā.  25Śrīdhara glosses each of the epithets from this verse combining theistic conno-tations with more Advaitic interpretations. He offers four interpretations of the term ‘Puṇḍarīkākṣa’. First he says it can mean ‘he who reaches/he who pervades, the lotus called the heart’.  The Upaniṣads refer to the self within as the lotus 26within the heart. For instance, Chāndogya Upaniṣad 8.1.1 states ‘now, here in the fort of brahman there is a small lotus, a dwelling place, and within it, a small  tatra ca sargapratisargavaṃśamanvantaravaṃśānucaritānāṃ tad apavādena mukteś ca 23pratipādanam. sadācārabhūgolabharatopākhyānādinirūpaṇasya sākṣāt paramparāyā vā muktāv evopayogo dṛṣṭavyaḥ (Upreti 2011: 1). Suthren Hirst’s volume explores this in more detail (2005: 83–85). 24 jitaṃ te puṇḍarīkākṣa namas te viśvabhāvana. namas te 'stu hṛṣīkeśa mahāpuruṣa pūrvajā 25(Upreti 2011: 1). hṛdayākhyaṃ puṇḍarīkam aśnute vyāpnotīti tathā (Upreti 2011: 1).26 Who is the Viṣṇu of the Viṣṇu Purāṇa?   59space’ (Olivelle 1998: 273). Śrīdhara’s interpretation of Puṇḍarīkākṣa means one who ‘reaches’, that is, realizes one’s true self.  The second meaning of Puṇḍarīkākṣa, according to Śrīdhara is ‘he whose two eyes are like two lotuses’.  This is the most common understanding of the 27term as an epithet of the god, Viṣṇu. A third interpretation is that Puṇḍarīkākṣa can mean, ‘he by whom the eye was made into a lotus for the purpose of the worship of Śiva’.  This is a reference to the myth of Viṣṇu worshipping the Śiva 28Liṅga with lotuses. Discovering that he had one less than the thousand needed, he plucked out his eye as an offering. It is found in the Koṭirudra Saṃhitā of the Śiva Purāṇa (Shastri 2002: chapter 43). So, with the second and third interpretations, he opts for a theistic reading, envisioning Puṇḍarīkākṣa as the personal god, Viṣṇu. Whereas, with the first interpretation he focuses on Kṛṣṇa as the indwelling self. Śrīdhara ends with a fourth possibility citing part of a passage from the Udyoga Parvan of the Mahābhārata, which offers an etymology of Puṇḍarīkākṣa. The complete verse is the following: ‘He is called puṇḍarīka which means the abode that is supreme, high, eternal and akṣaya means indestructible. Because of that Janārddana strikes fear into the hearts of wicked beings’ (Sukthankar, 1933). Though the reference of this passage is to Kṛṣṇa, Janārddana, for the commenta-tor, Puṇḍarīkākṣa is one who has seen this indestructible abode, i.e., has intuit-ed the self. Puṇḍarīkākṣa is not so much the celestial deity Viṣṇu/Kṛṣṇa, but the indwelling Brahman in one’s heart that is finally recognized as duality is tran-scended.  His interpretation of viśvabhāvana is straightforward as one who ‘is the producer of all’. This reading that underscores divine causality is more in line with Kṛṣṇa as a personal god. Śrīdhara does not interpret hṛṣīkeśa as Kṛṣṇa, as for instance in Bhagavad Gītā 18.1 (Sadhale, 1936). He takes hṛṣīka to mean the senses and hṛṣīkeśa as ‘the lord of the senses’, and he is their lord ‘due to being the cause of the manifestation of them (Upreti 2011: 2). He cites Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad 4.4.18 for support: ‘the breathing behind breathing, the sight behind sight, the hearing behind the hearing, the thinking behind the thinking’ (Olivelle 1998: 125). Here the self is spoken of as that which is real behind the vital func-tions, animating them and so hṛṣīkeśa is ‘the sight behind the sight’, in other words, the seer behind the seeing, a reference to Brahman.   yadvā puṇḍarīke ivākṣiṇo yasyeti (Upreti 2011:1-2).27 śivārādhanārthaṃ puṇḍrīkīkṛtaṃ akṣī yeneti (Upreti 2011: 2).28  ADLURI 60Commenting on mahāpuruṣa, Śrīdhara first explains mahā as referring to something that is great ‘due to separation from individual self (jīva) and mahat (an evolute of prakṛti/matter)’. He then cites as support Muṇḍaka Upaniṣad 3.1. This upaniṣad refers to two birds on a tree, one partaking of its fruit and the oth-er does not do so, but looks on. Here, the latter bird is mahā due to the fact that, not partaking of the fruit, i.e., saṃsāra and its trappings, it has the nature of being eternally liberated (nityamuktasvabhāva). To explain puruṣa, he glosses it as ‘however, due to resting in the body, results personhood’ (Upreti 2011: 2) Overall, mahāpuruṣa is not Kṛṣṇa, a divine being, but a reference to the highest self that is embodied, but is different from the individual self, the material body and is a non-agent.  The Advaitin comments on pūrvajā as one who is prior to creation (Upreti 2011: 2). This is not however due to Viṣṇu being the cause. He starts from the premise that if the whole world is understood to arise from him then he is the cause. He goes on to say, ‘one’s self is indeed prior to creation, by the fact that creation manifests or by the fact that as cause, it is the indispensable antecedent of creation, from the dependence of the other (creation) on it (Upreti 2011: 2). Kṛṣṇa as pūrvajā is once again a reference to the self that is understood as the cause of creation not because he is, but because if the world is thought to arise/manifest, it must have a cause. He does not say that Brahman is the cause. Ac-cording to Advaita, Brahman is the cause in as much as it is the support on which the world is superimposed. In this sense, it is prior to creation and sup-ports creation.   Finally, Śrīdhara provides one last interpretation of all the terms taken together as epithets of Viṣṇu/Krsna. However, instead of relating them to par-ticular mythologies, narratives, or exploits of the deity, he reads them as the ‘five attributes’ of Viṣṇu mentioned in Book Five of the VP. In this section, the pious Yādava Akrura sent to accompany Kṛṣṇa and Balarāma to the court of Kaṃsa, on seeing Kṛṣṇa eulogizes him as beyond matter and existing in five forms. He hymns: ‘self of the elements, self of the senses, self of pradhāna (matter), the in-dividual self, the supreme Self, and in that manner you are the lord who exists in five forms’ (VP 5.18.50). According to Śrīdhara, puṇḍarīkākṣa means the self of elements, viśvabhāvana means the self of matter, hṛṣīkeśa means the self of the senses, mahāpuruṣa is the supreme Self and pūrvajā is called the individual self.  The interpretation of Viṣṇu’s divine names in this way moves the reader away from envisioning a personal god with form, to an investigation into cosmic elements that make up creation and to ultimately question the support of it all. All epithets of Viṣṇu are pointers to something that lies beyond the personal god  Who is the Viṣṇu of the Viṣṇu Purāṇa?   61and some can be useful for the purpose of meditation. Suthren Hirst notes that this method of ‘interiorization’ is found in Śaṃkara as well, where he ‘takes both cosmological and psychological explorations unstructured as well as structured and turns them into interiorizing techniques that progressively focus attention on the self and enable the pupil successively to discard misidentification with what is not the self ’ (Suthren Hirst 2005: 83). These attributes of Viṣṇu draw fo-cus to ‘the search for the self, which is within yet other than the cosmos, within yet other than the individual, the unseen seer’ (Suthren Hirst 2005: 127). Through an understanding of Viṣṇu as the self of these elements of existence, an aspirant can move beyond viewing him simply as the Lord over creation, pointing instead to one’s own self.   In the commentary on the second verse that begins Śrīdhara’s version of the purāṇa, he again equivocates between Viṣṇu as the self within that is to be realized and the deity as a creator, sustainer fulfilling the expectations accorded a personal deity.  The Lord, the Person, Brahman who is imperishable existence,
He has the quality to manifest as creation, existence, time, and dissolution.
Bringing forth the whole world of pradhāna, buddhi etc.
May he, Viṣṇu, gift to us wisdom, prosperity and liberation.   29Faced with a passage that unambiguously affirms the causal nature of Viṣṇu, he first notes that ‘in order to explain the function and connection of the limbs of pravṛtti for the hearer this second verse is stated’ (Upreti 2011: 2), meaning that the specifics of divine causality are provisional and for pedagogical purposes only. In no way are these instantiations to be taken as the end all. On the men-tion of Viṣṇu he says: He, the most celebrated Viṣṇu, has the disposition of pervasion, due to not being divisible in his essential nature by space and time. Or Viṣṇu means he who enters, one who has the disposition to enter as stated in scripture ‘having emitted it, he entered it’ (Taittirīya Upaniṣad 2.6).   30The understanding of Viṣṇu as the pervader from the verbal root viś, is a com-mon etymological meaning of the deity. Here Śrīdhara adds that this pervasion  sadakṣaraṃ brahma ya īśvaraḥ pumān guṇormisṛṣṭisthitikālasaṃlayaḥ. pradhānabuddhyādi29 -jagatprapañcasūḥ sa no 'stu viṣṇur matibhūtimuktidaḥ (Upreti 2011: 2). so 'tiprasiddho viṣṇur vyāpinaśīlo deśakālasvarūpato vyavacchedābhāvāt. viśater vā viṣṇuḥ 30praveśanaśīlaḥ, tat sṛṣṭvā tadevānupraviśad iti śruteḥ (Upreti 2011: 2).  ADLURI 62is due to his indivisible nature, that is beyond space and time. He also gives ‘per-vasion’ an Upaniṣadic connotation of ‘creating and entering’. In the Upaniṣad he cites, Brahman emits creation and then enters it. From this, results differentia-tion into the distinct and the indistinct, the resting and the never resting and so on.  But to counter the charge that as the cause, Viṣṇu is susceptible to change or modification he goes on to interpret ‘pervasion’ i.e., ‘entering’ as not associat-ed with taking form:  If the interpretation of the quality of entering of the word ‘Viṣṇu’ is obtaining of material form, this is refuted with the term Brahman, or fullness, this is the meaning. So then, if it is asked, in what manner does he pervade? This is stated with sat, uninterruptedly connected to everything. That is to say, due to the fact of appearing everywhere from phrases such as ‘this is sat, this is sat’, it is undestroyed. The use of the term ‘imperishable’ rejects modification.  31Pervasion means always existing and appearing everywhere due to the fact that Viṣṇu as Brahman is existence (sat). Sat, which is ‘the real [can]not be produced in the sense of ‘brought into manifestation’…[f]or any character of a real thing is constant’ (Alston 1971: 32). In Chāndogya Upaniṣad 6.1.4, clay is spoken of as a stand-in for sat. Though there are many modifications of clay they are in name only. Ultimately there is only clay. Just so, all that is thought of as modifications of sat are in fact only sat. Sat itself does not undergo production, manifestation and destruction. All modifications of sat are only apparent. Interpreting Viṣṇu in this way, means not envisioning him as the lord, īśvara, who projects creation, enters it and manifests in many forms.  While Śrīdhara interprets Viṣṇu as the indwelling self, where possible, he also allows for a theistic view when the text calls for it. He glosses ‘may he gift to us wisdom, prosperity and liberation’ as follows: ‘May he to us gift wisdom, prosperity, liberation’ means that by means of the power (bhūti) of understanding (mati), with preponderance of knowl-edge of reality (tattvajñānaudreka), may he bestow liberation (mukti). Or based on difference among aspirants; he gifts in this manner, under- viṣṇupadasya praveśanaśīlārthatve mūrtatvaṃ prāptaṃ nirākaroti brahmeti pūrṇam ity 31arthaḥ. tadapi kuta ity ata āha satsarvānusyūtam. idaṃ sad idaṃ sad iti sarvatra pratīyamānatvād anuṣṭam iti yāvat. akṣaram iti vikāraṃ nirākaroti (Upreti 2011: 2). Who is the Viṣṇu of the Viṣṇu Purāṇa?   63standing, which means highest wisdom; prosperity means wealth/sov-ereignty and liberation.   32He interprets matibhūti in the compound matibhūtimuktida together, rendering it as ‘may he gift liberation (mukti) by the power (bhūti) of mati or understanding.’ Here, he takes bhūti in the sense of ‘birth’, ‘production’. He also offers an alter-nate interpretation that is based on the aspirations of the worshipper. Viṣṇu gifts liberation, prosperity, or highest wisdom. Here, Viṣṇu as the creator and controller of his creation is highlighted. Śrīdhara’s interpretation of other terms such as pumān and īśvara in the passage envisions Viṣṇu as a personal god: Pumān, ‘person’ means the unchangeable (kūṭastha).  In what manner? 33He is the bestower of death and so on, this is stated with the ‘Lord’, who has the ability (samartha) to do, not to do, or to do differently. Even so, in what manner does he remain unchanged? This is stated with quality. The qualities sattva, rajas, tamas, the appearance of them is produced from agitation.   34Kūṭastha in Advaita is a reference to the highest self, the unchangeable. But he takes unchangeable to mean Viṣṇu as the dispenser of death as a personal god, the Lord. He also has the capability to do whatever he pleases according to his will. Pressed by an objector, he defines the unchanging nature of Viṣṇu as a re-sult of qualities of matter such as sattva, rajas and tamas, and not the divine es-sential nature. Viṣṇu is kuṭastha because he has power over his creation as he be-stows death, but is unaffected by modifications, which take place in qualities of matter such as sattva etc.   Lastly, in his interpretation of the term ‘he has the quality to manifest as creation, maintenance, time and dissolution’, he expressly indicates the Advaita doctrine of creation as a superimposition due to nescience:  matibhūtimuktido 'stu matibhūtyā tattvajñānodrekeṇa muktidaḥ. yadvā adhikāribhedāt matim 32uttamāṃ buddhiṃ bhūtim aiśvaryaṃ muktiñ ca dadātīti tathā (Upreti 2011: 2). This term can also mean ‘immoveable and ‘supreme soul’. Here ‘unchangeable’ is a 33better interpretation as the discussion is on modification and change. pumān kuṭasthaḥ kutas tarhi marttyādipradattamata āha īśvaraḥ kartum akartum anyathā 34kartuṃ samarthaḥ. kadāpi kuta ity atāha guṇeti guṇāḥ sattvarajastamāṃsi teṣām ūrmayaḥ kṣobhajanitāḥ (Upreti 2011: 2).  ADLURI 64In the phrase, ‘creation, maintenance, time, dissolution’, ‘time’ means dissolution. Among them (creation, maintenance, time, dissolution), saṃlaya (dissolution) means he on whom is the superimposition (ad-hyāsa), the connection. By the fact that he is the substratum (adhiṣṭhāṇa) of all, he is Lord is not contradictory, this is the meaning.  35First, Śrīdhara interprets the word ‘time’ in the compound ‘creation-existence-time’ as ‘dissolution’. Then he takes saṃlaya not as dissolution, but in the sense of ‘settling down’, ‘alighting’, and so, the entire compound he interprets as ‘he on whom is the superimposition of creation, existence, and dissolution by manifes-tation of qualities’, instead of ‘he has the quality to manifest as creation, main-tenance, time, and dissolution.’ He finishes by stating that being the substratum (adhiṣṭhāṇa) for the superimposition (adhyāsa) of creation, he is the Lord. In Ad-vaita, Brahman as cause is understood as the ‘unmodified ground (adhiṣṭhāṇa) of the appearance’ (Murti 1983: 72). While Śrīdhara invokes Viṣṇu as the personal deity, a ruler over creation and Lord, he also mentions this is a provisional reali-ty. What we see in Śrīdhara’s commentary on these two passages is in line with the framework of pravṛtti and nivṛtti he establishes in his introduction to his commentary on these verses. He utilizes interpretations that align Viṣṇu more with the personal god, the realm of pravṛtti, but also where possible mentions the provisional nature of this view with Advaitic concepts such as negation (apavāda), superimposition (adhyāsa) and its substratum (adhiṣṭhāna).  In summary, in their respective benedictory verses, both Viṣṇucitta and Śrīdhara invoke Viṣṇu. However, there is a stark difference in who Viṣṇu is for each commentator. Viṣṇucitta invokes Viṣṇu as Puruṣottama, identifying the god with Brahman, the creator, transcendent beyond all vicissitudes of saṃsāra. Yet, he is immanent as one’s own self and the self of the world, accessible also through his many manifestations such as Hayagrīva. The popular theistic di-mension of Viṣṇu is also underscored by reference to his vehicle, Garuḍa, as mentioned in mythological accounts and iconographic depictions of the deity (Ia). Viṣṇucitta asserts both the fundamental involvement of Viṣṇu in creation and also his transcendence, but does not explain how this is possible. He does this through the self–body analogy, as we see in his commentary on subsequent verses.  Śrīdhara invokes Viṣṇu as Kṛṣṇa, more specifically as a regional form of the deity from Kāśī, Bindu Mādhava. However, this Kṛṣṇa is identified as sad- sṛṣṭisthitikālāḥ kālaḥ saṃhāraḥ teṣāṃ saṃlayaḥ saṃśleṣo 'dhyāso yasmin sa tathā 35sarvādhiṣṭhāṇatvena īśvaratvaṃ avyāhatam ity arthaḥ  (Upreti 2011: 2-3).  Who is the Viṣṇu of the Viṣṇu Purāṇa?   65cidānanda, as the witness of the mind, as the guru who is the source of all Advaita teaching (Ib). Śrīdhara in his commentary on the additional verses at the begin-ning of the purāṇa, which are absent in his predecessor’s version, is quite explic-it about the non-dual framework within which he envisions Viṣṇu/Kṛṣṇa as Brahman. He does this by introducing concepts such as false appearances due to superimposition (adhyāsa) and their negation (apavāda). The distinction between the paths of pravṛtti and nivṛtti also works in conjunction with these concepts, as he extols the significance of the former even though only the latter leads to liber-ation. In the analysis of all the divine epithets of Viṣṇu, Śrīdhara makes an effort to go beyond the pravṛtti-oriented contexts of personal theism that are impor-tant in that they point to the reality beyond (Ic). Both exegetes agree that Viṣṇu/Kṛṣṇa is none other than Brahman. However, in what way Viṣṇu is Brahman or how it is that Viṣṇu is Brahman is thus far only addressed by Śrīdhara (Ic). Viṣṇucitta has not done so, but conveys this in his commentary on VP 1.1.4 and 1.1.5 (IIa, IIc). II. Viṣṇu’s Causality: Aspect of Essential Nature, Substratum of Superimposition Having examined the invocations at the beginning of the purāṇa of both ex-egetes, we turn now to their interpretation of passages 1.1.4 and 1.1.5, which ad-dress Viṣṇu’s causal nature. In Chapter One of the VP, which sets the narrative context for the rest of the VP, Maitreya approaches Parāśara for instruction. The thirty-one passages of this first chapter state the questions that perturb Maitreya as to nature of the world and the way Parāśara has come to hear of the VP, whose contents are the answers to the former’s queries. Apart from passages 1.1.4 to 1.1.10, which are Maitreya’s questions and the last passage 1.1.31, that is a summary answer to all of Maitreya’s questions, the rest of the chapter is not rele-vant to the topic of Viṣṇu’s nature. Even among several passages that comprise Maitreya’s questions, only 1.1.4 and 1.1.5 are commented on by the commenta-tors. In the next four sections the commentary of Viṣṇucitta and Śrīdhara on 1.1.4 and 1.1.5 is considered (II a-d). a. Viṣṇucittīya on VP 1.1.4 Having bowed to Parāśara and paying him appropriate homage, Maitreya begins by requesting of Parāśara the following:   ADLURI 66I wish to hear from you, O knower of dharma, how the world was, 
how the world is and how the world will be, O pious one. (VP 1.1.4)  36Quoting Rāmānuja, Viṣṇucitta states that what is asked in verses 1.1.4 to 1.1.10 concerns the ‘specific aspect of the essential nature of Brahman (brahmasvarū-paviśeṣa), the kinds of differences in his manifestation (vibhūtibhedaprakāra), and the specifics of the fruits in the form of worship of him (tatāradhanasvarūpa-phalaviśeṣa)’.  The questions of VP 1.1.4–1.1.5, which we consider here, concern 37the special characteristic or aspect of the essential nature of Brahman.  As sup38 -port Viṣṇucitta cites Taittirīya Upaniṣad 3.1.1: Because the essential nature of Brahman is understood by scripture such as ‘that from which these beings are born, on which, once born they live, and into which they pass upon death—seek to perceive that! That is Brahman’,  that very topic (causality) is questioned here. It is stated by 39Rāmānuja (bhāṣyakāra) that this is a question on the specifics of the es-sential nature of Brahman…. In this respect, because what is asked is about creation and dissolution, from looking at the answer (VP 1.1.31), the question of existence, maintenance and the agent of maintenance and dissolution also is intended.  40Not only do Maitreya’s queries of world creation and so on address the essential nature of Brahman, these questions on causality are in fact important for libera-tion. The Upaniṣad, according to Viṣṇucitta, specifically, states Viṣṇu’s causality as an important topic to be inquired into and Parāśara’s response in VP 1.1.31, is about essential knowledge of Brahman and is not mere cosmology. The contrast with Śrīdhara’s interpretation, which we address next, is that the questions of Maitreya in fact concern divine causality, which is a brahmasvarūpaviśeṣa, a spe- so 'ham icchāmi dharmajña śrotuṃ tvatto yathā jagat. babhūva bhūyaś ca yathā mahābhāga 36bhaviṣyati (VP 1.1.4). atra bhagavatā bhāṣyakāreṇa brahmasvarūpaviśeṣatadvibhūtibhedaprakārās tadārādhana-37svarūpaphalaviśeṣāś ca pṛṣṭā iti (Sharma 1995: 2) For more on the concept of brahmasvarūpaviśeṣa in Viśiṣṭādvaita, see Adluri 2014: 31-38).38 Taittirīya Upaniṣad 3.1.1, translation from Olivelle 1998: 309.39 brahmasvarūpasya yato vā imāni ityādivākyasiddhatvāt tadviśeṣevātra praṣṭavya iti 40bhāṣyakāreṇa brahmasvarūpaviśeṣapraśna ity uktam … atra utpattilayayoḥ pṛṣṭatvāt sthitipraśno 'py abhipretaḥ sthitisaṃyamakarteti prativacanadarśanāt (Sharma 1995: 2). Who is the Viṣṇu of the Viṣṇu Purāṇa?   67cific aspect of Brahman’s essential nature and this very cause manifests in dif-ferent forms to be accessible for worship and this very topic is important for lib-eration. Considering divine causality as a brahmasvarūpaviśeṣa, is a direct re-sponse to the Advaita view of divine causality as provisionally true. Moreover, this very Brahman, who is the cause, is Viṣṇu in his many manifestations acces-sible for worship to his devotees. Thus, ritual and worship that are considered as comprising the context of pravṛtti, and which are of secondary importance for liberation in Advaita, are here defined as directly necessary for freedom from the cycle of birth and rebirth. b. Ātmaprakāśa on VP 1.1.4 Whereas, Viṣṇucitta concludes that causality is an essential nature of Brahman, Śrīdhara simply states that Maitreya’s questions on how the world was and how it will be again, concern the mode of production/creation (janmaprakāra).  While 41he admits that the topic of discussion is causality, his sparse comments on this verse underscore his perspective that world causation or dissolution are not top-ics of much importance. His prior commentary, as we saw, was extensive, and the reader needs to keep in mind those comments while reading the commen-tary on this verse as well (Ic). There Śrīdhara defines causality as a topic that is relevant in the context of pravṛtti only and is indirectly important as a means to purify the mind. His claim that Viṣṇu is the substratum of superimposition of the world, which is a result of nescience, is vastly different from Viṣṇucitta for whom causality as brahmasvarūpaviśeṣa is knowledge that is directly important for liberation. c. Viṣṇucittīya on VP 1.1.5 Among Maitreya’s questions which span verses 1.1.4 to 1.1.10, the only other verse where Viṣṇucitta offers a substantial commentary is VP 1.1.5. Here, he intro-duces the paradigm of the self-body as the relationship that exists between Brahman and the world. This allows him to maintain Brahman/Viṣṇu himself as the cause without undergoing modification and to admit causality as an aspect of Brahman’s essential nature. Maitreya questions Parāśara: What is the world made of, O Brahman, from where is this world of the movable and the immovable, 
 pūrvaṃ yathā babhūva punaś ca yathā bhaviṣyatīti jagato janmaprakārapraśnaḥ (Upreti 2011: 4).41  ADLURI 68Where and in what way was it resting and where will it go at dissolution?(VP 1.1.5)  42Commenting on this verse, Viṣṇucitta first makes sure to establish intra-textual connectivity in that these questions of Maitreya’s culminate in the last verse of this chapter, VP 1.1.31, with Parāśara’s response that ‘(Viṣṇu) he is the world’. Second, to circumvent issues arising from the question of modification the cause might undergo, he writes that Viṣṇu’s identity with the world is akin to the self-body connection  Because with the question ‘from where’ what is asked is about the in-strumental cause, by ‘what is the world made of ’ and so on, how creation acquires the status of an object and what the world is comprised of is asked. For this the answer is ‘he is the world’ (1.1.31). Here, the sameness of the nature by means of the form of the inner self, that is, by being the self of it, is the intended condition, but not (sameness in nature) due to identity with the object. Because the answer to the question ‘what is the world made of ’ is ‘he is the world’, the connection is one of coordinate predication (sāmānādhikaraṇya).   43In Viśiṣṭādvaita Vedānta, Brahman is understood to exist as the inner self of matter and of individual selves. They exist as his modes (prakāra). Just as the body is considered a mode of the individual self, so also matter and individual selves themselves are ensouled by Brahman. As Rāmānuja notes,  [t]herefore all words naming these objects…first signify the objects they name in ordinary parlance, then through these objects, the finite selves dwelling in them, and finally these words extend in their significance to denote the supreme self (paramātman) who is their Inner Controller (an-taryāmin). Thus, all terms do indeed denote the entire composite being (saṃghāta)…this entire created universe (prapañca) of intelligent and ma-terial entities has Being (sat) as its material cause, its instrumental cause  yanmayaṃ ca jagad brahman yataś caitac carācaram. līnam āsīd yathā yatra layam eṣyati yatra 42ca (VP 1.1.5). yataś caitat carācaram iti nimittopādānayoḥ pṛṣṭavāt yanmayam ity anena sṛṣṭyādikarmabhūtaṃ 43jagat kimātmakam iti pṛṣṭam. tasya cottaraṃ jagac ca sa iti, idaṃ tādātmyam antaryāmirūpeṇa ātmatayā'vasthānakṛtaṃ na tu vastvaikyakṛtam. yanmayam iti praśnasyottaratvāt jagac ca sa iti sāmānādhikaraṇyasya (Sharma 1995: 2-3). Who is the Viṣṇu of the Viṣṇu Purāṇa?   69and its support (ādhāra); it is controlled (niyāmya) by Being and is the śeṣa [subordinate] of Being (Carman 1974: 124).  This is the principle of coordinate predication (sāmānādhikaraṇya) where ‘the name of a body can properly be applied to the self ensouling that body, and the name of an attribute or mode belongs to its underlying substance’ (Carman 1974: 125). To the question what is the world made of, the answer can be Brahman is the world due to the principle of coordinate predication in that an attribute or mode of a substance can be used to denote the substance. As a mode of Brah-man, the world can be identified with Brahman, but it is not identity due to sim-ilarity of substance, rather identity due to Brahman being its inner self.   Viṣṇucitta then goes on to explain that the taddhita suffix mayaṭ in Maitreya’s question ‘yan mayam’, ‘what is it made of ’ has the meaning of pleni-tude, constituted by Viṣṇu as the self of the world.   44Hence, the goal of plenitude (prācurya) alone is the entirety (of meaning). From that, the answer to the question ‘what is the world made of ’ is that ‘he is the world’ and is the relationship of sāmānādhikaraṇya; the basis of the relationship of the self–body connection.  45Viṣṇu is the material and instrumental cause without bearing substantial like-ness to the world and from this, ‘the connection of self-body alone is the princi-ple sense of sāmānādhikaraṇya’.  Viṣṇucitta argues that the Advaita view of 46Brahman’s connection to the world would not make sense. That is, if Brahman is nirviśeṣajñānamātra, as Advaitins argue, then Parāśara’s answer ‘Viṣṇu is the world’ to Maitreya’s question of ‘what is the world made of ’ would not make sense.  d. Ātmaprakāśa on VP 1.1.5 Śrīdhara’s comments on 1.1.5 in comparison to Viṣṇucitta are once again sparse. He simply notes that Maitreya’s question what is the world made of, yanmayam, is a question concerning the material cause (upādāna kāraṇa). ‘From where’, yataś  He rejects two other possible meanings of the ‘mayaṭ’ suffix namely, vikāra, modifica44 -tion, and svārtha, in the sense of identity as in prāṇamaya, or made of. ataḥ prācuryartha eva kṛtsnaṃ jagadātmakatayā tat pracuram eva tasmād yanmayam ity asya 45prativacanaṃ jagac ca sa iti sāmānādhikaraṇyaṃ śarīrātmabhāvanibandhanam (Sharma 1995: 3). tasmād ātmaśarīrabhāva evedaṃ sāmānādhikaraṇyaṃ mukhyam (Sharma 1995: 3).46  ADLURI 70ca, is a question about the instrumental cause or agent (nimitta). Where it was resting, yatra līnam āsīd, is a question about the ground or support (ādhāra) of dissolution.  Having mentioned earlier that Maitreya’s questions concern the 47goal of pravṛtti, he does not specifically mention the world as appearance or a superimposition on Brahman, but rather simply parses the VP passage as it re-lates to Maitreya’s question. Once again the reader is to construe his Advaita stance from his earlier comments (Ic). In summary, Viṣṇucitta’s comments on VP 1.1.4 and 1.1.5 make four points that are of significance for the topic of Viṣṇu’s causality. First, he claims that causality is a specific aspect of the essential nature of Brahman (brahmasvarū-paviśeṣa). This serves to reinforce the Viśiṣṭādvaita view that the world which manifests is Viṣṇu. Second, this Viṣṇu who is the world also manifests in myriad forms which are accessible for worship. Third, the topic of causality is not mere cosmological specifics, but rather an important and relevant knowledge for one desiring liberation. Fourth, the connection between Viṣṇu and the world is one of self–body. This means that as the inner self of the world he can be identified as the world.  Though Śrīdhara does not provide such detail in his comments on VP 1.1.4 and 1.1.5, he has done this type of exegesis already in his comments on some of the benedictory passages (Ic). He combines theistic and Advaitic interpretations in his discussion of Viṣṇu as Brahman. For instance, we saw that in his interpre-tation of the divine epithets he moves the reader away from envisioning a per-sonal god with form and to focus on the reality that lies beyond. Through the dis-tinction of pravṛtti and nivṛtti he can admit the theistic context but also deems this as provisional truth. Viṣṇu then is not simply a personal god to be wor-shipped, but is one’s inner self devoid of all adjuncts, that is to be meditated on. Creation manifests from Viṣṇu, but ultimately it is to be understood as a false appearance—a superimposition on Brahman due to ignorance. What becomes clear in the commentaries of these two exegetes is that Viṣṇu is Brahman and is the cause of creation, but what this means is quite different for each.   yanmayam ity upādānapraśno yataś ceti nimittapraśno līnam āsīd yatreti layādhārapraśnaḥ 47(Upreti 2011: 4). Who is the Viṣṇu of the Viṣṇu Purāṇa?   71III. Viṣṇu’s Identity with the World: Self to Body, Accidental Characteristic In the discussion on the benedictory verses (Ia and Ib), the commentary on invo-catory passages that are part of the purāṇa version utilized by Śrīdhara (Ic), and the commentary on VP 1.1.4 and 1.1.5 (IIa–d), the identity of Viṣṇu and his rela-tion to Brahman and the world was the focus of the discussion. The main goal was to discern how Viṣṇu is Brahman and the nature of the world in relation to that. In the commentary on 1.1.31, both commentators grapple with the identity between Viṣṇu and the world that is set up by the purāṇa. Both Viṣṇucitta and Śrīdhara, agree with the VP that Viṣṇu is the world. However, for the former that identity manifests as a self–body relationship and for the latter the identity is a result of the world as an accidental characteristic of Viṣṇu. a. Viṣṇucittīya on VP 1.1.31 We have already come across VP 1.1.31, Parāśara’s answer to Maitreya’s queries as the commentators have referred to it in their comments on earlier passages of this chapter such as 1.1.4 and 1.1.5. Now we examine the commentators’ inter-pretation of this last passage of VP 1.1. The world originates from Viṣṇu and it exists there itself. He is the 
cause of preservation and dissolution of that world and he is the world. (VP 1.1.31)  48The purāṇa in this particular verse admits a close connection between Viṣṇu and the world as it identifies the two when it claims that ‘he is the world’. Viṣṇu is the source of everything as creation evolves from him and recedes into him. The concept of Brahman as the material and instrumental cause is accepted by all Vedāntins. However, the nature of the connection is open to interpretation. Each commentator reads this passage from a Viśiṣṭādvaita or Advaita perspective en-visioning Viṣṇu’s relationship to the world in quite different terms. Though both agree that Viṣṇu is the cause of creation, Viṣṇucitta understands the identity as due to the world being the body of Viṣṇu who is its self. Whereas for Śrīdhara such an identity is due to the view that the world is an accidental characteristic (upalakṣaṇa) of Brahman.  Viṣṇucitta comments that the meaning of Maiterya’s questions to Parāśara, in the first chapter of Book One, beginning with ‘I wish to know’ (1.1.4)  viṣṇoḥ sakāśād udbhūtaṃ jagat tatraiva ca sthitam. sthitisaṃyamakartāsau jagato 'sya jagac ca 48saḥ (VP 1.1.31).  ADLURI 72concern the specifics on the thing that is the cause of the world (jagatkāraṇavas-tuviśeṣa) and along with that the specifics of the manner of its connection to the world (jagatsambandhaprakāraviśeṣa). Verse 1.1.31 is then a summary answer to those questions on the manifestation of matter (pradhāna) as is stated in more detail in the ensuing chapters of the purāṇa. As he has stated earlier, if the thing (vastu) is the cause of the world (jagatkāraṇa), then by the analogy of the self–body characterized as a relationship of controller–controlled (niyantṛ–niyanta) is the manner of connection (sambandhaprākara). Viṣṇu as controller or Lord, is an important aspect of his essential nature according to Viṣṇucitta. He goes on to say that if the world is thought of as an adjunct (upādhi) or that it is a result of ignorance that is imagined (avidyāparikalpita), the relation-ship of controller–controlled would not be possible. Only with the manner of connection between Viṣṇu and world as controller–controlled can liberation be maintained as a legitimate goal of man (puruṣārtha). Only when the connection between them is of the nature of the subordinate–principle (śeṣa–śeṣin)—that is jīva as śeṣa and the lord as śeṣin—is Vedānta soteriology viable. Indeed, the ful-fillment of worship and service (kaiṃkarya) to Viṣṇu of such an essential nature alone, as the ruler over his creation, is the goal of liberation. With these introductory remarks that set up the overall framework for his interpretation, Viṣṇucitta comments more specifically on viṣṇoḥ sakāśāt udb-hutam of 1.1.31: Here the answer (1.1.31) is to the question on the specifics of the cause of the world. Sākṣāt means appearance, visible appearance, knowledge. The meaning is: together with the visible appearance in the form of inten-tion (saṃkalparūpaprakāśasahita) stated in scripture such as—‘he thought let me create many’ (Aitareya Upaniṣad 1.10) and ‘he alone has expanded into many’ (Chāndogya Upaniṣad 6.2.1-3). Or else the word sakāśāt means ‘himself ’ as in from, ‘the ācārya himself ’ (ācāryasakāśāt).  49The ablative ‘sakāśāt’ from the word ‘sakāśa’ means ‘from’ or ‘from the presence of ’ and in VP 1.1.31, viṣṇoḥ sakāśāt udbhūtaṃ jagat, can mean the world originates from ‘Viṣṇu himself ’. It can also mean ‘present’ or ‘visible appearance’ and Viṣṇucitta reads it this way here when he references the Upaniṣad passages, where appearance has the form of intention/will (saṃkalpa). He goes on to say  atra jagatkāraṇaviśeṣapraśnasyottaraṃ viṣṇoḥ sakāṣād iti. sakāśāt kāśaḥ prakāśo jñānam. sa 49aikṣata lokānnu sṛjeyā iti tadaikṣata bahusyām’ ityādy uktasaṃkalparūpaprakāśasahitād ity arthaḥ. atha vā sakāśāśabdaḥ svarūpavacanaḥ ācāryasya sakāśād ityadivat (Sharma 1995: 6). Who is the Viṣṇu of the Viṣṇu Purāṇa?   73that the saṃkalpa of Viṣṇu is of the form of remembrance of the order of creation from previous epochs (pūrvasargakramasmṛtirūpasaṃkalpa). This is similar to Rāmānuja’s description of world production, ‘…the Blessed One, the supreme Person remembers the previous configuration of the world, and having resolved ‘Let me be many’ he diversifies’ into the plurality of creation (Lipner 1986: 8).  Three points to be noted in Viṣṇucitta’s commentary on this purāṇic verse are that, first, the jagatkāraṇavastu, the thing that is the cause of the world is Viṣṇu. Second, the jagatsambandhaprakāra, the manner of connection or the mode of connection of Viṣṇu to the world, is a manifestation of the self–body relationship characterized as one between controller and the controlled. Third, the discussion of Viṣṇu’s saṃkalpa and his remembrance of the past order of cre-ation as he wills creation into being indicates immediacy and intimate involve-ment in world causation. Causality is not an accidental attribute, but is an aspect of the essential nature of Viṣṇu. As the self of creation that is his body, he does not undergo modification, but remains the fundamental cause, material and instrumental, as he impels the unmanifest into manifest existence.  b. Ātmaprakāśa on VP 1.1.31 Śrīdhara agrees with Viṣṇucitta that VP 1.1.31 is a summary answer to the ques-tions posed by Maitreya earlier in Chapter One, but with an exception. He says: In brief, then, by way of answer to the questions (of Maitreya), 
the goal of the purāṇa is stated with the verse VP 1.1.31.   50Viṣṇucitta has noted that this verse is the answer to Maiterya’s questions on world causality and he argues that knowing this is important for liberation (Ic). Śrīdhara does not admit that the questions posed by Maitreya are in regard to the world cause, specifically, but rather recasts VP 1.1.31 as the answer to the overall goal of the purāṇa, which for him is liberation (see Section I a). For the Advaitin, knowledge of creation and world causality is important only in the context of pravṛtti and in fact the first twenty-two chapters of the first book of the purāṇa Śrīdhara sees as concerning this preliminary path (Ic). Its function is to purify the mind only, but it does not directly bring about liberation as is the case for Viṣṇucitta (Ic). So, though he goes on to discuss Viṣṇu’s causal nature, he undercuts its importance significantly. On viṣṇoḥ sakāśād udbhūtam, he notes:  saṃkṣepatas tāvat praśnottaratayā purāṇārtham āha viṣṇor iti ślokena viṣṇor iti (Upreti 2011: 6).50  ADLURI 74That is to say, sakāśāt means appearance, visible appearance, seeing. From association with that, the world arises from Viṣṇu.   51He seems to be implying that by the fact that one sees the world, one begins to posit an origin for it and from association with that, that is seeing the world, Viṣṇu as its cause is understood. For Śrīdhara, once one is aware of existence in the mundane world, then questions as to its causality etc. become relevant and he finds support for this in scripture. This is established by śruti—‘he thought (aikṣata) ‘let me create the world’’ (Aitareya Upaniṣad 1.1) and ‘he desired (akāmyata), ‘let me become many’’ (Taittirīya Upaniṣad 2.6). The power of reflection (citśakti) and power of desire (icchāśakti) are synonyms, where seeing (īkṣaṇa) has the nature of reflection. In this way the world arises. This is the answer to the question ‘how the world was’ (1.1.4), and there itself (in Viṣṇu) it re-mains at the time of dissolution. This is the answer to the question of the substratum (ādhāra) of dissolution and from the word ‘and’, it is said that even existence of the world is there itself. That alone is the agent of world maintenance and dissolution and of creation, but as an accidental characteristic (upalakṣaṇa).   52By means of Viṣṇu’s power of desire or reflection, the world is brought into exis-tence. The verbal root īkṣ ‘to see’ from which the word aikṣata is derived in the Upaniṣad passage is interpreted as reflection/thought which is the same as the power of desire. That is, through his śakti, Viṣṇu creates. While there may be some similarities to Viṣṇucitta, Śrīdhara essentially devalues the topic of divine causality and the importance of knowledge of it for liberation. Padmapāda in his Pañcapādika (II.5) notes that an upalakṣaṇa, indicative or accidental characteristic, ‘stands outside only of Brahman and yet denotes Brahman by indirect characterization and not by the description (of its nature)’ (Venkataramiah 1948: 261, 263). As an illustration, Murti notes that ‘[a] crow perching on the house-top does serve as a mark to single out a particular house from among several others without forming a permanent fixture therein.  sakāśāt kāśaḥ prakāśa īkṣaṇam iti yāvat tatsahitād viṣṇor jagad udbhūtam (Upreti 2011:6).51 sāikṣata lokānnu sṛjeya iti so 'kāmayata bahusyāṃ prajāyeya ityādi śrutisiddham. cicchakti 52icchāśaktiparyāyaṃ yad īkṣaṇaṃ locanātmakaṃ tena prakāreṇa jagad udbhūtam anena yathā babhuvety asya praśnasyottaram. tatraiva ca sthitaṃ pralayakāleti layādhārapraśnasyottaram. caśabdāj jagataḥ sthitir api tatraivety uktam. asya jagataḥ sthitisaṃyamayor asāv eva kartā janmano 'py upalakṣaṇam (Upreti 2011: 6). Who is the Viṣṇu of the Viṣṇu Purāṇa?   75Likewise, the world may be ‘indicative’ of Brahman ‘without being constitutive of it.’’  Following his Advaita predecessors, Śrīdhara envisions the deity as Brah53 -man in quite a different sense than Viṣṇucitta. Beginning his comment on VP 1.1.31 as concerning the overall goal of liberation rather than as about Viṣṇu’s causality, he follows this up with the fact that origin and cause of the world are important only from the context of pravṛtti. He concludes by defining causality as an accidental characteristic. Though both commentators speak of Viṣṇu’s fundamental relationship to the world through his materiality and instrumen-tality, as one of identity, the nature of the connection (saṃbandha) between them is envisioned differently. For Viṣṇucitta causality is an essential nature of Viṣṇu and Visnu is the world through the self–body analogy. For Śrīdhara, causality is a topic that is relevant at the level of pravṛtti only and its knowledge does not di-rectly bring about liberation. For him Viṣṇu is also the world, but causality is not an essential nature of Brahman and the world is an accidental attribute of it. Conclusion The three sections of this paper examine the ways in which Viṣṇu is invoked and introduced as Brahman and his relationship to creation. Viṣṇucitta’s and Śrīd-hara’s interpretations on this purāṇa paint two different portraits of the deity. One of the reasons this is so is the ontological frameworks imposed by the com-mentators in their reading of the purāṇa. The main goal of Viṣṇucitta, writing from the Viśiṣṭādvaita perspective, is to identify the personal deity Viṣṇu as the Brahman of the Upaniṣads. That is, he sees Viṣṇu as the creator, the supreme deity, the sovereign ruler over his creation, but also the unchangeable, im-mutable absolute Brahman. To accommodate this, the strategy he employs is to define causality as an aspect of the essential nature of Brahman, brahmasvarū-paviśeṣa. Utilizing the paradigm of the self–body characterized as one of the controller and the controlled, Viṣṇucitta integrates the theistic vision of Viṣṇu with the language of Upaniṣads and Vedānta. Viṣṇu is Brahman, identical to the world that exists as his body.   For Śrīdhara, causality is an accidental characteristic (upalakṣaṇa) of Brahman and is unrelated to its essential nature. The strategy he utilizes to ac-commodate Viṣṇu as the non-dual Absolute and as the Supreme Deity in a theis-tic sense is by introducing the distinction of pravṛtti and nivṛtti in the introduc-tion to his commentary. Pravṛtti and its constituent ideology of ritual and wor- For more on this, see Murti 1983: 72-87.53  ADLURI 76ship can be useful indirectly for the aspirant when the goal is liberation, but not as an end in itself. In his interpretation of the sections of the purāṇa discussed in this paper on creation and Viṣṇu’s relationship to it, he concurs with the theis-tic aspects of the text, but when possible interprets Viṣṇu as pointing to the non-dual Absolute. The supreme deity Viṣṇu as Brahman is ultimately none other than one’s own inner self. The understanding that Viṣṇu is the cause of creation and the specifics of his relationship to it, which comprise the path of pravṛtti, are ultimately to be transcended when one comes to realize that the world is simply an accidental attribute of Brahman.  Bibliography Acharya, P.P. 1965. A short note on Śrīdhara Svāmin and Baladeva Vidyābhuṣaṇa. Orissa Historical Research Journal 13(1): 1-9.  Adluri, S. 2014. Textual Authority in Classical Indian Thought: Rāmānuja and the Viṣṇu Purāṇa. Oxon: Routledge Publishers.  Alston, A.J. 1980. Śaṃkara on the Absolute. London: Shanti Sadan. Alston, A.J. 1971. 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Austin Dalhousie University Abstract Kṛṣṇa’s son Pradyumna appears first as a significant figure in the Harivaṃśa (ca 3rd century CE), and remains over the following centuries an important charac-ter in the Sanskrit renderings of Kṛṣṇa’s life. In his signature narrative, Pradyumna is abducted as a young child and comes quickly to sexual maturity. He acquires magical powers (māyā) from his foster mother and wife Māyāvatī, slays the demon Śambara, and is finally revealed to be Kāmadeva, the God of Love and Desire, reborn. This episode is included in the Kṛṣṇacaritas preserved in the ʻKārṣṇaʼ or Kṛṣṇa-centric Purāṇas: the Viṣṇu (ca 5th century CE), Bhāgava-ta (ca 9th century CE) and Brahmavaivarta (ca 15th century CE). Across these sources, developments in the larger culture of Kṛṣṇa bhakti effected subtle shifts in the understanding of Pradyumna’s relationship to his famous father. This pa-per argues that three facets of Pradyumna’s identity—as Kāmadeva, as māyin or controller of illusory powers, and as a replica or double of his father Kṛṣṇa—took on mounting significance in the context of the evolving Kṛṣṇa devotional culture which came increasingly to valorise the role of desire and affective response to a beautiful and entrancing deity. Introduction Over the past several years, a single figure of Hindu mythology has monopolized my research energies and demanded my attention, namely Pradyumna, the first-born son of Kṛṣṇa and his wife Rukmiṇī. This has yielded a full monograph study (Austin 2019b) which addresses a number of related questions touching on the theology of the avatāra and its intersection with human genealogical con-Purāṇa Studies: Proceedings of Purāṇa Section of the 17th World Sanskrit Conference, Vancouver, Canada, July 9-13 2018, edited by Raj Balkaran and McComas Taylor. pp. 79-95. DOI: 10.14288/1.0379613.   AUSTIN 80cerns, on sexuality, masculinity and the gendering of violence in the South Asian context, and on the role of aesthetic and literary conventions in the construction of Hindu mythic figures. Naturally I cannot revisit all of these issues here. In-stead I would like to examine the handling of the basic Pradyumna myth in the ʻKārṣṇaʼ or Kṛṣṇa-centric Vaiṣṇava Purāṇas in order to isolate and articulate one of the larger scale patterns that we see in the evolving mythology of Pradyumna in Sanskrit literature. This is a trend toward a total identification of Pradyumna with Kāmadeva, the God of Love and Desire, whereby an early mythic associa-tion becomes increasingly significant and invested with meaning in the context of the evolving Kṛṣṇa bhakti movement. I will argue that particularly for the au-thors of the Bhāgavata Purāṇa, the episode of Pradyumna’s birth and maturation served as a means to restate important truths about Pradyumna’s father: Kṛṣṇa is the ultimate inspirer of kāma, controller of māyā, and the object of women’s desire, and the perpetuation of these functions in the person of the son can be read as a kind of commentary on the nature of the father. After laying out briefly the account of Pradyumna’s abduction as we find it in the oldest source, the Harivaṃśa (hereafter HV), and the closely related Viṣṇu Purāṇa (ViP), I turn to the Bhāgavata Purāṇa (BhP) in order to trace subtle but im-portant shifts in the configuration of the episode. Here I shall be concerned with the finer points of detail in the Purāṇas’ presentation of Pradyumna’s sexual maturation. I argue that, particularly in the BhP, three facets of Pradyumna’s mythic profile interact and resonate together meaningfully in ways they had not in the HV and ViP, namely his identity (a) as Kāmadeva or the God of Desire, (b) as māyin or controller of illusory powers, and (c) as a ‘chip off the old block’ or double of Kṛṣṇa. I articulate why it is that these three features of Pradyumna’s character appear to take on a richer significance in the BhP than they had in the HV and ViP, and this requires an understanding of certain developments in the devotional, soteriological and aesthetic culture of the larger Kṛṣṇa bhakti move-ment over the 5th to 10th centuries CE. A brief and concluding look at how the Pradyumna episode is handled in the relatively late Brahmavaivarta Purāṇa (BVVP) will then help to punctuate and underscore these trends as they play out in the context of a theology emphasizing the divine feminine as none of the ear-lier ʻKārṣṇaʼ Purāṇas do.  Kṛṣṇa’s son Pradyumna as Kāma and Māyin in the ʻKārṣṇaʼ Purāṇas   81The Pradyumna Abduction Scene in the HV (99) and ViP (5.27) The narrative episode of Pradyumna’s birth, abduction and maturation origi-nates in the HV, the 2nd or 3rd century CE (Couture 1991: 72–77, Couture 2015: 67–87) supplement to the Mahābhārata (MBh). The HV provides us with the first continuous biography of Kṛṣṇa, although it omits episodes already related in the MBh such as the slaying of Śiśupāla (MBh 2.33–42) or the death of Kṛṣṇa and his fellows Vṛṣṇis in the infamous club battle (MBh 16.4.15–5.20). The birth of Pradyumna—Kṛṣṇa’s first son by his chief wife Rukmiṇī—is related at HV 99 and, very briefly, unfolds as follows: as soon as he is born, Pradyumna is abduct-ed by a demon named Śambara. Śambara gives the child to his wife Māyāvatī to raise as her own son. Unaware of his true identity, the boy grows to young man-hood, at which time Māyāvatī, impassioned by his beauty, reveals to him that she is not his true mother. She makes amorous advances towards him. He is initially shocked by this unmotherly behavior, but quickly accepts her as a sexual partner as well as the empowering māyā of her namesake, which she passes over to him. Pradyumna summons and slays—with his newly acquired māyā—his false father Śambara, and returns to his true home in Dvārakā with his new wife. There, his extraordinary resemblance to Kṛṣṇa astounds everyone, particularly Rukmiṇī who sees him as another Janārdana (vijñāto ‘si mayā cihnair vinā cakraṃ janār-danaḥ, HV 99.38cd). The all-knowing Kṛṣṇa appears, welcomes the lad home again and explains to all that Pradyumna is in fact the rebirth of Kāmadeva (manmathe tu gate nāśaṃ gate cānaṅgatāṃ purā ... HV 99), referring presumably to the myth of Śiva’s incineration.  He also explains that Māyāvatī, who had in fact 1been deploying a māyic body in her physical contact with Śambara, is none other than Rati reborn.  2The first question I wish to pose concerning this scene is whether Pradyumna and Māyāvatī have any awareness of their deeper identities as Kāma and Rati. It is important to note that Kṛṣṇa’s explanations come after the fact. His comments are a final explanatory gloss, and he seems (perhaps understand-ably) concerned to establish that the apparently incestuous Pradyumna-Māyāvatī relationship is in fact legitimate, and that Māyāvatī is a virgin who had used a māyic form to delude Śambara. This raises the question of Māyāvatī’s self-awareness as Rati. While the māyārūpa body seems to indicate a design on her  See for example Doniger 1981 [1973], 141-171 and Benton 2006, 39-65.1 māyārūpeṇa taṃ daityaṃ mohayaty asakṛc chubhā || na caiṣā tasya kaumāre vaśe tiṣṭhati 2śobhanā | ātmamāyāmayaṃ rūpaṃ kṛtvā śambaram āviśat || HV 99.46cd-47.   AUSTIN 82part to preserve herself for her true husband, little else in the episode suggests that she has any awareness of what is unfolding. She is not said to recognize the baby boy brought to her as her former husband, nor does she consciously engi-neer the union as a reunion, but rather is said to have her faculties disturbed by desire (kāmena vyathitendriyā, HV 99.16). The appeal she makes to convince her son to become her husband makes reference only to biology and not to any di-vine or supernatural identity; she does not reveal herself to be Rati seeking re-union with Kāma, but only explains to the boy that she is not his true mother. Māyāvatī has a hard sell to make to the young Pradyumna, who indeed is out-raged at first, unable to believe his mother’s behaviour.  One can hardly imagine 3that she knows the deeper mythic identities, but neglects to mention them. Thus—at least this is my reading of the affair—Kṛṣṇa’s final comments about Māyā-vatī’s virginity-preserving māyārūpa do not quite amount to proof that she fully understands herself to be Rati reborn prior to Kṛṣṇa’s revelation.  Pradyumna meanwhile betrays no awareness of his Kāma identity. He barely speaks in the episode and his sexual appeal works on Māyāvatī in a fairly raw and artless way. As a kind of two-stage ugly-duckling figure, Pradyumna has first to learn that he is a Vṛṣṇi and not an Asura, and subsequently that he is not only Kṛṣṇa’s son but is the God of Desire reborn. Moreover, no connection is drawn between the māyā power received from his mother-wife and his identity as Kāma. Neither do the authors seem to have any concern to pursue the impli-cations of the fact that he is both the handsome Manmatha reborn and a near carbon-copy of his father. In other words these three facets of his character—Kāma, controller of māyā and double of his father—sit side by side rather incon-sequentially in the terse HV account. As the story passes to the ViP and thence to the BhP, this changes in intriguing ways. The brief HV 99 account of Pradyumna’s abduction and maturation (49 verses) carries forward in South Asian literary and religious culture over the next millennium, finding re-expression in Jain materials and Purāṇic literature. A second and far more elaborate Pradyumna narrative involving a romance with a demon princess named Prabhāvatī also emerges, and this is taken up in kāvya compositions in both Sanskrit (e.g. Austin 2019a) and vernacular (e.g. Rao and Shulman 2006). But my concern here is with the handling of the HV 99 abduc- mātṛbhāvaṃ parityajya kim evaṃ vartase ’nyathā || aho duṣṭasvabhāvāsi strītvena calamānasā 3| yā putrabhāvam utsṛjya mayi kāmāt pravartase || HV 99.11cd-12. Kṛṣṇa’s son Pradyumna as Kāma and Māyin in the ʻKārṣṇaʼ Purāṇas   83tion scene in the ViP (ca 5th century CE), BhP (ca 9th/10th century CE),  and the 4BVVP (15th or 16th century; Rocher 1986: 163). For the most part these three ʻKārṣṇaʼ Purāṇas each draft their Kṛṣṇa biographies on the basis of the preceding one: the ViP models itself upon the HV, the BhP upon the ViP, and the BVVP loosely on the BhP.   5The ViP, which barely post-dates the HV, does not radically alter the episode in substance. Its chief innovation is to render more complex the route by which Pradyumna comes to Māyāvatī. Here, Śambara’s motives are more explic-itly hostile: recognizing the baby as a future foe (mamaiṣa hanteti, ViP 5.27.2), the demon seizes the boy and throws him into the ocean where he is promptly swal-lowed by a fish (ViP 5.27.4). The fish is caught and brought to the kitchen of Śambara. Māyāvatī, who is in charge of the household (sarvagṛheśvarī, ViP 5.27.7) and overseer of the cooks, sees the baby boy in the belly of the fish once it is cut open. Nārada appears in order to explain to her that the boy is Viṣṇu’s son, ab-ducted by Śambara—but he says nothing about Kāmadeva, despite the fact that later it will be he and not Kṛṣṇa who explains the Kāma-Rati identities. Again when Pradyumna grows to adolescence, Māyāvatī is powerfully drawn to him, overtaken by desire for him (bālyād evātirāgeṇa rūpātiśayamohitā, ViP 5.27.11). Much as in the HV, her transmission of māyā to him seems to be a reflex of her blind passion.  Here again she does not appear to be truly conscious of her iden6 -tity as Rati. The episode then unfolds very closely in step with HV 99—Pradyum-na acquires māyā from her, defeats Śambara and returns with his new wife to Dvārakā where his resemblance to Kṛṣṇa is remarked upon. The Kāma-Rati identities are explained after the fact (now by Nārada), including the same as-surance that Māyāvatī had deployed a māyā body with her demon husband. But  In accepting this dating for the Bhāgavata, I follow Hardy 1983 (particularly 526 and 4637–646) and not the revisionist hypothesis of Hudson (1995) that seeks to push the text's date of composition back prior to 770 CE, the date of the completion of the Vaikuṇṭha Perumāl Temple in Kāñcīpuram. Much less do I follow Bryant, who seeks to push this date back even further (‘the Gupta period as the latest probable date’, Bryant, 2002: 69) and reverse Hardy's hypothesis of a Southern and Tamil-influenced context of composition. On the matter of this chain of derivation or modeling, see Ingalls, 1968: 383–384; Hardy, 51983: 497–509; Podzeit, 1992: 59; Couture, 1992: 138 note 47; Brockington, 1998: 338 note 66; Matchett, 2001: 109; Couture, 2018: 44. māyāvatī dadau cāsmai māyāḥ sarvā mahātmane | pradyumnāyānurāgāndhā tan 6nyastahṛdayekṣaṇā || ViP 5.27.13.   AUSTIN 84now Nārada says that, ‘when Manmatha perished, [she] devot[ed] herself utterly to his rebirth’ (manmathe tu gate nāśaṃ tadudbhavaparāyaṇā, ViP 5.27.28). The sense that Māyāvatī is consciously engineering this reunion is becoming clearer, but again her behavior at times suggests rather a woman deluded by passion and not fully aware of her mythic identity. Nārada’s comment can perhaps be under-stood to refer to Rati’s resolve at the time of her husband’s incineration by Śiva, which did not necessarily carry over consciously into her subsequent birth as Māyāvatī.  In ViP 5.27, then, the authors do introduce a new theme—what we might call the ‘Śakuntalā’s (or Duḥṣyanta’s) ring-and-fish motif—and so we see they are not simply transposing the HV material in a static way or shying away from cre-ative developments. The sense of Māyāvatī’s self-awareness is a little sharper than the HV, without becoming fully and transparently an awareness of her for-mer identity. And as before, Pradyumna’s handling of māyā, his identity as Kāma, and his resemblance to his father each remain as they did in the HV inert with respect to the other. All of this changes in the BhP rendering.  Pradyumna’s Abduction in the Bhāgavata Purāṇa (BhP 10.52)  In the gap separating the ViP (5th century CE) and the BhP (9th or 10th century CE), a number of important changes in the theological, devotional and aesthetic contexts necessitated a shift in the meaning and significance of Pradyumna’s character. From the beginning of the BhP account, Pradyumna’s Kāma identity is set more conspicuously in the foreground, even while Kṛṣṇa’s paternity is stressed. Kāma is said to be a ‘portion of Vāsudeva’ (kāmas tu vāsudevāṃśo, BhP 10.52.1) who sought to generate a new body for himself after Śiva’s fiery reaction to his presence. He was thus ‘created anew by the virile power of Kṛṣṇa’ and was ‘in no respect inferior to his father’.  From the very beginning of the account we 7see that the authors wish us to understand that Kṛṣṇa’s own sexuality is impli-cated in, and proven abundantly by, his fathering of the God of Desire who in a sense is his equal and double. The abduction and fish incident play out as in the ViP, but now it is said that Māyāvatī is Rati awaiting the restoration of her hus-band.  She immediately recognizes the baby boy as Kāma when he is discovered 8in the fish (kāmadevaṃ śiśuṃ buddhvā, BhP 10.52.8). And so when the boy reaches  kṛṣṇavīryasamudbhavaḥ ... sarvato ’navamaḥ pituḥ, BhP sā ca kāmasya vai patnī ratir nāma yaśasvinī | patyur nirdagdhadehasya dehotpattiṃ pratīkṣatī 8|| BhP 10.52.7. Kṛṣṇa’s son Pradyumna as Kāma and Māyin in the ʻKārṣṇaʼ Purāṇas   85adolescence and draws Māyāvatī’s lustful gaze, she finally explains to him not only that he is the son of Kṛṣṇa but that she is Rati and he is Kāmadeva (BhP 10.52.12). Again, she does not avail herself of this persuasive argument in the HV and ViP. Only now in the BhP is she truly assigned full cognizance of the deeper identities. She knows the boy is her long lost husband Kāma, and thus when em-powering Pradyumna with māyā as a means of defeating Śambara, she tells the lad to ‘slay this one ... by means of [your] māyās such as Mohana and so on’ (māyābhir mohanādibhiḥ, BhP 10.52.14), and she then gives Pradyumna a mahāmāyā able to defeat all other māyās. The ensuing battle is explicitly a war of illusory weapons and counter-weapons. As in the previous sources, when Pradyumna returned to Dvārakā he inspired amazement on account of his strik-ing resemblance to his father. The harem women in fact initially take him to be Kṛṣṇa (kṛṣṇaṃ matvā striyo, BhP 10.52.28). A vasantatilakā verse excluded from the critical edition takes up this perspective of the harem women and caps the episode with an observation that finally spells out explicitly the deeper signifi-cance in the triangle of identities between father, son, and the God of Desire: It is no wonder at all that even his own mothers immediately adored him,
their affections secretly aroused within them and feeling towards him as towards their own husband due to his resemblance to his father. What then of other women, when Kāma Smara, the spitting image of the abode of Ramā, is before their eyes?   9yaṃ vai muhuḥ pitṛsarūpanijeśabhāvās 
tanmātaro yad abhajan raharūḍhabhāvāḥ |
citraṃ na tat khalu ramāspadabimbabimbe 
kāme smare 'kṣaviṣaye kim utānyanāryaḥ || CE 10.52.38 *179 I suggest that the BhP’s subtle but important modifications of the ViP sce-nario reflect and can be understood in the light of some of the most important developments in the Kṛṣṇa bhakti environment of the 5th–10th century CE period. Again, the way I have chosen to frame this is by identifying three facets of Pradyumna’s profile—his identity as Kāma, as māyin, and as the double of his father—which the HV authors establish, but do not coordinate in any significant way. To be sure, these features do have a particular function within the context of the HV, and I explore this in my larger study (Austin 2019b) and elsewhere  On the matter of this chain of derivation or modeling, see Ingalls, 1968: 383-384; Hardy, 91983: 497-509; Podzeit, 1992: 59; Couture, 1992: 138 note 47; Brockington, 1998: 338 note 66; Matchett, 2001: 109; Couture, 2018: 44.   AUSTIN 86(Austin 2018). But here the issue is how and why the three character facets are more fruitfully permitted to cross-fertilize and inform each other in the BhP context. In a very basic sense, the idea that Kṛṣṇa’s son was Kāmadeva reborn and a controller of māyā cannot have had the same meaning to the authors of the HV and ViP as it did to the authors of the Bhāgavata. This becomes clearer when we consider some of the key theological, devotional and aesthetic changes un-folding in the period separating the ViP from the BhP. If today we understand bhakti to mean an emotionally charged devotion, or even passion, for god, it is not because the term has always carried this mean-ing. Devotion to Kṛṣṇa is not invested with eroticism, embodied sensuality, or significantly expressed as a passionate aesthetic response to the god’s beauty in the earlier MBh, Bhagavad Gītā, HV or ViP. This sense of bhakti does not emerge truly until the BhP, where particularly the intense and erotic virahabhakti exem-plified by the pining Gopīs of Vṛndāvana represents the end point of centuries of development in poetics, aesthetics, and theology roughly across the 3rd–9th cen-tury CE period. Hacker (1959) and Hardy (1983; see also Schreiner 1983: 281-282; Schreiner 2013: 596) have documented the emergence of this affective and ecstat-ic mode of devotion out of what seems initially to have been a more intellectual, yogic or cerebral bhakti sensibility.  Hardy identifies particularly the 6th–10th 10century CE Tamil Āḻvārs, who worshiped Viṣṇu-Kṛṣṇa as Māyōṉ (ʻThe Dark Oneʼ), as key shapers of the Southern devotional tradition from which the BhP emerged, and whose poetry, he demonstrates, directly informs the BhP. Conse-quently, while Kṛṣṇa of course had always been described as handsome in earlier texts, the BhP stresses as never before the aesthetic, embodied and sensual re-sponse of the devotee to the beauty and charm of the Lord. Consequently, kāma becomes in the BhP not an obstacle to salvation, as it is in renunciant soteriolo-gies, but a means thereto.   11Closely tied to this is the changing meaning of māyā, which similarly comes to have a meaning in the BhP that inherits significantly from the Tamil corpus. Māyā is ‘perhaps the most important single term that describes the modality of how the Āḻvārs experience Māyōṉ’ (Hardy 1983: 284–285). For the  I cannot take up here in an adequate way the enormous issue of bhakti and its evolu10 -tion, more broadly understood, in Hindu tradition. For important developments, however, see Prentiss 1999, Francis and Schmid 2014, Francis and Schmid 2016, and Couture 2017. On this point see Vaudeville 1962 and more broadly Macy 1975. Coleman (2002, 2010 11and 2014) treats this issue from a very different angle: see below. Kṛṣṇa’s son Pradyumna as Kāma and Māyin in the ʻKārṣṇaʼ Purāṇas   87Tamil poets, to relish Kṛṣṇa’s beauty is to contemplate the great mystery and paradox of his captivating and charming forms (Hardy 1983: 285–286). Māyōṉ is in truth beyond human sensual perception, and yet we can approach this tran-scendent absolute through the ultimately unreal display of his charming trans-formations here in this world. While the BhP uses the term māyā in the sense of trick or magical subterfuge, as well as in the Vedāntic sense of deluding force that ensnares the soul in saṃsāra, it deploys it in a third and more positive sense, particularly when personified as yogamāyā (Bryant 2003: xxvi–xxix). Kṛṣṇa’s yo-gamāyā is that illusory power which conceals what would otherwise be an un-bridgeable gap between the transcendent absolute, beyond all form and name, and the embodied and profoundly limited human senses and emotions. Through yogamāyā, Kṛṣṇa manifests in ultimately unreal, but tangible and adorable form so as to draw the devotee to himself in salvific play. In complex ways, then, the BhP with its Āḻvār heritage builds a theology and soteriology that redefines the role and meaning of desire, beauty, sensuality and illusory representations, making them instrumental as never before in the devotee’s relationship with the Divine. Kāma and māyā are not problems in this theology, but a fundamental part of what makes the deity accessible to the bhakta/ā.  Keeping in mind such important developments as these, I return to the BhP Pradyumna account and the matter of Māyāvatī’s self-awareness as Rati. As we saw, it was not until the BhP that Māyāvatī becomes fully conscious of her true identity as Rati engineering a reunion with Kāma. She seeks to empower him specifically as the God of Desire, revealing this deeper identity to him prior to his encounter with Śambara. Māyā in other words awakens and inspires Kāma as she seeks to unite with him. This is a point raised briefly by Catharine Benton in her study of Kāmadeva, which treats the Pradyumna abduction scenario (Ben-ton 2006: 65–74). While tending to collapse the sources and so ascribe to the HV what really belongs only to the BhP, she has quite rightly sketched out some of the most fundamental dynamics here: Desire and illusion are purposefully intertwined in the structure and fabric of the story as it is told in the earlier variants, so that this min-gling becomes the core element. In one variant, out of her own desire to be reunited with Kāma (Desire), Māyāvatī (Illusion) manipulates the demon’s desire for her and deludes him into marrying her illusory form…. In all variants of the tale, desire is properly united with illusion in the end. (Benton 2006: 72)    AUSTIN 88Benton points in the right direction here, although it is my purpose to articulate precisely how what is proper for the BhP—i.e. a bhakti rationale wherein kāma and māyā do inform each other intimately—is not in fact proper to the HV, as Benton suggests. Only now in the BhP is it proper and especially meaningful for māyā and kāma to inform each other in a positive and constructive way. Most important here is the fact that, when empowering Pradyumna against Śambara, Māyāvatī prompts him to slay the demon ‘māyābhir mohanādibhiḥ’ (BhP 10.52.14). Māyāvatī-Rati is prompting Pradyumna–Kāmadeva to reclaim his own intrinsic māyic powers in the form of the five powerful arrows—Mohana and the other four. Pradyumna’s awakening to his identity as the God of Desire thus now en-tails his reclamation of the māyic and entrancing powers of his five celebrated weapons. Pradyumna’s identity as Kāmadeva and his assumption of control over māyā sat side by side somewhat passively in the earlier sources, but come to cross-fertilize significantly in the Bhāgavata, where the two principles are as never before mutually implicated and cooperate in an affective-aesthetic soteri-ology quite distinct from that of the HV or ViP. The BhP authors contemplate here the image of a personified māyā and kāma uniting; the result is an awakened and self-conscious God of Desire, empowered by the reclamation of his signa-ture bundle of five bāṇas. This much concerns the deepening significance of Pradyumna as both Kāma and māyin. But this Kāmadeva is also the son and double of Kṛṣṇa. Neither the HV nor the ViP are invested in a theology of Kṛṣṇa that significantly stresses his sexual appeal or the passionate and affective response to his beauty. The for-mula ‘like father, like son’ is therefore deployed in all sources, but is, I argue, only read in both directions in the BhP, for there Kṛṣṇa’s relationship to kāma takes on an entirely new level of meaning. Kṛṣṇa’s fathering of Pradyumna amounts to the creation of the God of Desire by his ‘virile power’ (kṛṣṇavīryasamudbhavaḥ, BhP 10.52.2), and again the result is a man in every respect his equal (sarvato ‘navamaḥ pituḥ, BhP 10.52.2). We are directed by the authors to understand the implications of Kṛṣṇa’s fathering of Pradyumna: this is a god of extraordinary sexual vigour and power. This again is clearest at the end of the episode, when the returned Pradyumna is beheld by the many women of the antaḥpura or women’s quarters in Dvārakā, who, although his step-mothers, look upon him desirously as a form of their attractive husband.  I argue that Kṛṣṇa’s fathering of the God of Desire means something alto-gether new in the BhP. To draw a final point of emphasis on this matter I refer briefly to some important observations of Tracy Coleman’s concerning the fa-mous rāsa-līlā (BhP 10.29–33) wherein Kṛṣṇa frolics with the Gopīs of Vṛndāvana.  Kṛṣṇa’s son Pradyumna as Kāma and Māyin in the ʻKārṣṇaʼ Purāṇas   89In three closely related pieces (2002, 2010, 2014), Coleman challenges common understandings of Kṛṣṇa’s beauty in the Bhāgavata, particularly in the rāsa-līlā scene. It is often said that in this episode, erotic bhakti is liberating for women, who leave conventional morality and identities behind and unite with god through their passion and desire. As such the BhP is characterized as socially progressive.  But Coleman has pointed out that the Gopīs are not liberated from 12their conventional domestic identities, and that the virahabhakti or devotion-in-separation they adopt for Kṛṣṇa once the tryst is over in fact perpetuates and re-inscribes conventional strīdharma identities and expectations for the women of the cow-herding camp (Coleman, 2010). More importantly, Coleman stresses the emotional gap separating the cool and detached Kṛṣṇa from the amorous Gopīs. She points out that in the original HV scene, Kṛṣṇa reciprocates the Gopīs’ pas-sion and is fully emotionally engaged with them; the BhP by contrast repeatedly stresses Kṛṣṇa’s aloofness: he inspires kāma, provokes it and manipulates others with it, but is wholly above it—he is said to be āptakāma or fully satisfied already of all desire, engaging the Gopīs in a state of yogic neutrality (e.g. BhP 10.29.38; 30.36). This asymmetry is, as Coleman demonstrates, repeatedly stressed in the BhP and serves as a model of affective bhakti tied to a decidedly conservative so-cial agenda, and not a democratizing or subversive one as is commonly claimed. The BhP is therefore invested in a model of male beauty that is unidirectional, instrumental and gendered in a very conservative way: Kṛṣṇa is the author, de-ployer and provoker of kāma, but never its victim. He does not seek, but is sought out by women (Coleman 2010: 392–403). He inspires passion, but is above passion; he does not truly participate in the emotional, affective and erotic expe-rience of the Gopīs any more than he is fooled by his own māyic creations. In this Bhāgavata context, where Kṛṣṇa is the beautiful object of an impas-sioned feminine gaze, the equation Pradyumna = Kāmadeva = Kṛṣṇa clearly takes on a new level of meaning. Significantly, Pradyumna is never said to be drawn to Māyāvatī; he does not experience desire for her. What may appear to be a parity or partnership between Rati and Kāmadeva might well be another ex-ample of a tendency among women in the BhP when they catch sight of one of those handsome Vṛṣṇi men: Kāmadeva inspires love and Rati’s activity―she ap-proaches and initiates the relationship with him―but he does not truly recipro-cate. Like father, like son, and again I suspect that for the BhP authors, this tale about the son was in large measure understood and valued as a powerful com- Coleman (2010: 385) identifies particularly Bryant (2003: liv-lv) and Huberman (1998: 12175) as exemplars of this view.   AUSTIN 90mentary on the father: this most desirable of all possible men, Manmatha incar-nate, magnetically attracts māyā and assumes control over her. As kāma embod-ied, he can never fall prey to the passion he inspires in her or in others. Such is the beauty and virile creative power of Kṛṣṇa, who fathered this deity and double of himself. Pradyumna–Kāmadeva in the BVVP (Kṛṣṇajanmakhaṇḍa 112.1–32) A fourth and final ʻKārṣṇaʼ source—the BVVP—is worth consulting briefly, as its variations on the scene continue to play the three facets of Pradyumna’s persona off each other, even as it introduces a number of new features consistent with the work’s broader theological trends. The most striking innovation in the ac-count is the fact that the name of Pradyumna is finally lost altogether: only names of Kāma are used. The abduction and first years of the boy in Śambara’s home unfold as in the earlier renderings, but it is the goddess Sarasvatī, and not Kṛṣṇa or Nārada, who explains the Kāmadeva–Rati identities directly to the couple once Kāma comes of age. In fact she prompts them to consummate their reunion on the spot (BVVP KṛJK 112.16). The conflict with Śambara ignites when the cuckolded husband comes by chance upon the couple in flagrante delicto, and he sees Rati in her fit of sexual abandon (kāmena mūrcchitāṃ suratotsukām, BVVP KṛJK 112.20). Here the battle with Śambara is not occasioned by the revelation of the demon’s having abducted the baby, but by Kāma’s coming to the aid of Rati, whom Śambara attempts to kill after hurling his outrage upon the pair. In the ensuing fracas, the gods appear in order to prompt Smara or Kāma to remember (smara! smara) Durgā, the Great Māyā who destroys distress (mahāmāyāṃ durgāṃ durgatināśinīm, BVVP KṛJK 112. 28), and indeed it is she who renders useless the demon’s final assault upon the God of Desire. The more prominent role of the divine feminine, and the more vigorously physical reunion of the couple can be understood in the context of the Purāṇa’s heightened emphasis on the goddess and quasi-dualistic theology. In fact, the purpose of Kṛṣṇa’s descent to earth in the BVVP is to reunite with the goddess Rādhā, who had been cursed to a birth in Vṛndāvana (BVVP KṛJK 2.1-19). Unlike the cooler and more detached Kṛṣṇa of the BhP, Kṛṣṇa in the BVVP enjoys a reci-procal passion with Rādhā. In brief, this functions within a more dualistic Sāṃkhya mythology in which the feminine prakṛti binds the masculine puruṣa with māyā, although like Kṛṣṇa’s yogamāyā in the BhP, this māyā in fact functions to liberate the deluded soul (Brown 1974: 188-194). And so in the ʻPradyumnaʼ episode, the feminine divine—an aspect of prakṛti—is the active or stimulating  Kṛṣṇa’s son Pradyumna as Kāma and Māyin in the ʻKārṣṇaʼ Purāṇas   91factor, quite literally impelling the couple to a rapturous sexual union, the likes of which Kṛṣṇa himself engages in as well—with important cosmogonic implica-tions. Unlike the BhP, the male here responds passionately to the feminine pow-er and unites with her.  13Moreover in earlier sources, Pradyumna either receives māyic power di-rectly from Māyāvatī (HV, ViP) or is prompted by her to reclaim his own māyical-ly deluding arrows (BhP) as a weapon against his demon foe. In the BVVP this empowerment comes directly from a goddess explicitly characterized as Mahāmāyā (BVVP KṛJK 112.28), who in a sense takes over the role from Rati-Māyāvatī and announces more clearly than ever the true location and source of māyā in the divine feminine. We see in this source, then, that prakṛti and the goddesses who embody her powers impassion the masculine puruṣa, but as em-bodiments of māyā they are themselves the granters of liberation and power over illusion. In terms of the three facets of Pradyumna’s persona, then, I would ar-gue that Kāma’s assumption of māyic power and identity as Kṛṣṇa-double are now resonating together with yet greater significance amidst an operating the-ology that amplifies the role of a feminine divine more independently configured as prakṛti and source of māyā.  But by far the most significant feature of the BVVP ʻPradyumnaʼ episode is the fact that Pradyumna’s name is never once used, only names of Kāmadeva (kāmadeva, 8, 21; kāma, 10, 13, 27; manmatha 17, 19, 24, 28, 29; sundara 18; smara 28). Kṛṣṇa’s son is now the God of Love tout court. In other words, what began in the HV as almost an afterthought—the after-the-fact revelation that Kṛṣṇa’s son Pradyumna is Kāmadeva reborn—has now arrived at a totalizing identification leaving no trace of the original Vṛṣṇi clan figure, and the triad of bio-mythic identities (Kṛṣṇa = Pradyumna = Kāma) collapses into a pair (Kṛṣṇa = Kāma). The BVVP, as much as the BhP, is invested in a bhakti model premised on Kṛṣṇa’s ex-traordinary beauty and power to draw Rādhā to himself. And so in this, the total and absolute identification of Pradyumna with Kāma, we see the full realization of the theological impulse of the BhP to tie Kṛṣṇa to Kāmadeva through the medium of his son.  Conclusion In this short study of the HV and three ʻKārṣṇaʼ Purāṇas I have attempted to lay out in concentrated form an argument made elsewhere in much greater sub- śṛṅgāraṃ rāmayā sārdhaṃ kurvantaṃ kautukena, BVVP KṛJK 112.19.13   AUSTIN 92stance and detail (Austin 2019b). This concerns the changing meaning of Kṛṣṇa’s son Pradyumna roughly over the period of the 3rd to 15th century CE, and in par-ticular concerns three features of his identity which react together with increas-ing fruitfulness or significance over time: his identity as the God of Desire, his control over māyā, and his status as son and near-replica of Kṛṣṇa. From the HV to the ViP and thence to the BhP and BVVP, changes in the bhakti culture evolv-ing around Kṛṣṇa necessarily caused a subtle re-think of the received narrative of Pradyumna‘s abduction and sexual maturation. In the HV and ViP, neither his power over māyā, nor his close resemblance to his father were significantly coor-dinated with each other or with his identity as the rebirth of Manmatha. In the hands of the Bhāgavata authors however, these personality traits reacted in new ways and resonated with a Kṛṣṇa theology completely distinct from that of the HV and ViP: Kṛṣṇa, the divine lover and ultimate object of (particularly women’s) desire, who inspires but is never the victim of kāma, created Kāmadeva-Pradyumna, who is of course nearly indistinguishable from his father. The Pradyumna episode, I argue, can only have been seen by the Bhāgavata authors as a kind of commentary on Kṛṣṇa, helping to underscore what is so often ex-pressed elsewhere in that text: this is a god of surpassing charm and beauty, the master of kāma and māyā. This turning of the significance and role of Pradyum-na’s identity as Kāmadeva then reaches a logical end-point in the BVVP, where nothing remains of the name Pradyumna, and a totalizing Kṛṣṇa = Kāma equa-tion plays out in a theological environment where the divine feminine—the seat and source of māyā—plays an even greater role as an independent prompting agent to the divine masculine. In this way, the person of Pradyumna—lover, ma-gician, and scion of the avatāra—played an important role in the evolving under-standing of Kṛṣṇa, both reflecting and speaking back to a tradition that came to assign an increasingly positive soteriological function to māyā, kāma, and em-bodied desire.  Bibliography Austin, C.R., trans. 2019a. 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