American Physical Society Northwestern Section Annual Meeting (APS-NW) (11th : 2009)

Identifying, measuring, and teaching physics expertise Wieman, Carl May 15, 2009

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Cl i ck t o edi t  Mast er  subt i t l e st y l e  I dent i f yi ng,  measur i ng,  and  t eachi ng  physi cs  exper t i se Colorado physics & chem education research group: W. Adams, K. Perkins, K. Gray, L. Koch, J. Barbera, S. McKagan, N. Finkelstein, S. Pollock, R. Lemaster, S. Reid, C. Malley, M. Dubson... $$ NSF,  Hewlett) Car l  Wi eman Cl i ck t o edi t  Mast er  subt i t l e st y l e  t hi nk har d,  f i gur e out subj ect t el l  st udent s how t o under st and i t  gi ve pr obl em t o sol ve no Sci ence educat i on Model  1   ( I  used f or  many year s) done yes st udent s l azy or poor l y pr epar ed t el l  agai n Loude r  Model  1 ( f i gur e out  and t el l )  St r engt hs & Weaknesses Wor ks wel l  f or  basi c knowl edge,  pr epar ed br ai n: bad, avoi d good, seek Mor e compl ex l ear ni ng- -  changi ng br ai n, not  j ust  addi ng bi t s of  knowl edge. Fai l s f or  mor e compl ex knowl edge, l i ke becomi ng physi c i st Cl i ck t o edi t  Mast er  subt i t l e st y l e  Goal s.  What  st udent s wi l l  be abl e t o do. ( sol ve,  desi gn,  anal yze,  capaci t y t o l ear n, . . . ) Cr eat e act i v i t i es and f eedback t ar get i ng desi r ed exper t i se. Use,  and measur e r esul t s. Sci ence Educat i on Model  2-  l i ke do sci ence. done yes prior research prior research no goal s unr eal i s t i c wr ong t r eat ment why? modi f y Cl i ck t o edi t  Mast er  subt i t l e st y l e   Model  2- -  sci ent i f i c  appr oach What  has been l ear ned? 1.  I dent i f y i ng component s of  exper t i se, and how exper t i se devel oped. 2.  How t o measur e component s of  sci ence exper t i se. ( and what  t r adi t i onal  exams have been mi ssi ng) 3.  Component s of  ef f ect i ve t eachi ng and l ear ni ng.   or ? Expert competence = •factual knowledge •Organizational framework O effective retrieval and application  Exper t  compet ence r esear ch* •Ability to monitor own thinking and learning ("Do I understand this? How can I check?") New ways of  t hi nki ng- -   r equi r e MANY hour s of  i nt ense pr act i ce wi t h gui dance/ r ef l ect i on.   Change br ai n “ wi r i ng” * Cambr i dge Handbook on Exper t i se and Exper t Per f or mance pat t er ns,  associ at i ons, sci ent i f i c  concept s hi st or i ans,  sci ent i st s,  chess pl ayer s,  doct or s, . . . Measur i ng how wel l  exper t  t hi nki ng i s devel oped.  On aver age l ear n <30% of  concept s di d not  al r eady know. Lect ur er  qual i t y,  c l ass s i ze,  i nst i t ut i on, . . . doesn' t  mat t er ! Si mi l ar  dat a f or  concept ual  l ear ni ng i n ot her  cour ses. R. Hake, ”…A six-thousand-student survey…” AJP 66, 64-74 (‘98). •  For ce Concept  I nvent or y-  basi c concept s of  f or ce and mot i on 1st  semest er  physi cs Fraction of unknown basic concepts learned Average learned/course  16 traditional Lecture courses Measur i ng concept ual  mast er y Ask at  st ar t  and end of  semest er - - What  % l ear ned? ( 100’ s of  cour ses) i mpr oved met hods  Novice Physicist Content: isolated pieces of information to be memorized. Handed down by an authority. Unrelated to world. Problem solving: pattern matching to memorized  recipes.  Physicists also have unique “belief” systems Content: coherent structure of concepts. Describes nature, established by experiment. Prob. Solving:  Systematic concept- based strategies.  Widely applicable. * adapt ed f r om D. Hammer  Novice Expert i nt r o physi cs í   mor e novi ce   ref.s  Redish et al,   CU work--Adams, Perkins, MD, NF, SP, CW  Measuring student beliefs about science * adapt ed f r om D. Hammer pr e & post % shi f t ?5- 10% I nt r o Chemi st r y and bi ol ogy j ust  as bad! Sur vey i nst r ument s- - MPEX- - 1st  yr  physi cs,  CLASS- - physi cs,  chem,  bi o t est s ~40 statements, strongly agree to strongly disagree-- Understanding physics basically means being able to recall something you've read or been shown. I do not expect physics equations to help my understanding of the ideas; they are just for doing calculations.  Test  devel opment  pr ocess ( ~ 6 mont hs post - doc) 1.  I nt er vi ew f acul t y- -  est abl i sh l ear ni ng goal s. 2.  I nt er vi ew st udent s- -  under st and t hi nki ng on t opi c 2 pat t er ns emer ge wher e nonexper t  t hi nki ng & t r adi t i onal  exams mi ssi ng. •Way knowl edge i n subj ect  i s  or gani zed and appl i ed = “ Concept ual  mast er y” •Way exper t s appr oach l ear ni ng and pr obl em sol v i ng Cr eat e t est s,  val i dat e and r ef i ne wi t h i nt er vi ews and st at i st i cal  anal ysi s  Val i dat ed Concept  I nvent or i es f ol l owi ng t hi s pr ocess FCI  and FMCE ( i nt r o mechani cs) BEMA ( i nt r o el ect r i c i t y and magnet i sm) QMCI  Quant um mechani cs concept  i nvent or y ( i nt r o quant um) 3r d year  quant um t est  i n devel opment CUSE ( 3r d year  el ect r i c i t y) Concept  i nvent or y t est s under  devel opment  or  i n ear l y use i n geol ogy,  chem,  bi ol ogy,  physi ol ogy,  . . . “ At t i t udi nal ”  sur veys f or  Physi cs,  Chemi st r y,  Bi ol ogy, Ear t h Sci ences Cl i ck t o edi t  Mast er  subt i t l e st y l e   Model  2- -  sci ent i f i c  appr oach What  has been l ear ned? 1.  I dent i f y i ng component s of  exper t i se, and how exper t i se devel oped. 2.  How t o measur e component s of  sci ence exper t i se. ( and what  t r adi t i onal  exams have been mi ssi ng) ( 3.  Component s of  ef f ect i ve t eachi ng and l ear ni ng.   Component s of  ef f ect i ve t eachi ng/ l ear ni ng appl y t o al l  l evel s,  al l  set t i ngs ( i ncl udi ng conf er ence t al ks! ) 1.  Reduce unnecessar y demands on wor ki ng memor y 2.  Expl i c i t  aut hent i c model i ng and pr act i ce of  exper t t hi nki ng.  Ext ended & st r enuous  ( br ai n l i ke muscl e) 3.  Mot i vat i on 4.  Connect  wi t h and bui l d on pr i or  t hi nki ng    Mr  Ander son,  May I  be excused? My br ai n i s f ul l . MUCH l ess t han i n t ypi cal  sci ence l ect ur e Li mi t s on wor ki ng memor y- - best  est abl i shed,  most  i gnor ed r esul t  f r om cogni t i ve sci ence Wor ki ng memor y capaci t y VERY LI MI TED! ( r emember  & pr ocess <7 di st i nct  new i t ems) < f r act i on r et ai ned t i ny   Reduci ng unnecessar y demands on wor ki ng memor y i mpr oves l ear ni ng. jargon, use figures, analogies, avoid digressions  Feat ur es of  ef f ect i ve act i v i t i es f or l ear ni ng. 1.  Reduce unnecessar y demands on wor ki ng memor y 2.  Expl i c i t  aut hent i c model i ng and pr act i ce of  exper t t hi nki ng.  Ext ended & st r enuous  ( br ai n l i ke muscl e) 3.  Mot i vat i on 4.  Connect  wi t h and bui l d on pr i or t hi nki ng    3.  Mot i vat i on- -  essent i al ( compl ex-  depends on pr evi ous exper i ences,  . . . ) a.  Rel evant / usef ul / i nt er est i ng t o l ear ner ( meani ngf ul  cont ext - -  connect  t o what  t hey know and val ue) Pr obl ems wher e val ue of  sol ut i on obvi ous. b.  Sense t hat  can mast er  subj ect  and how t o mast er c.  Sense of  per sonal  cont r ol / choi ce  Ef f ect i ve act i v i t i es f or  l ear ni ng. 1.  Reduce unnecessar y demands on wor ki ng memor y 2.  Expl i c i t  aut hent i c pr act i ce of  exper t  t hi nki ng.  Ext ended & st r enuous  ( br ai n l i ke muscl e) 3.  Mot i vat i on 4.  Connect  wi t h and bui l d on pr i or  t hi nki ng      F=ma l i s t eni ng t o l ect ur es not  t he r equi r ed “ st r enuous ment al  ef f or t ”  Pr act i c i ng exper t - l i ke t hi nk i ng- - Chal l engi ng but  doabl e t asks/ quest i ons Expl i c i t  f ocus on exper t - l i ke t hi nki ng • concept s and ment al  model s • r ecogni z i ng r el evant  & i r r el evant  i nf or mat i on • sel f - checki ng,  sense maki ng,  & r ef l ect i on Pr ovi de ef f ect i ve f eedback ( t i mel y and speci f i c)         “ cogni t i ve coach”   Exampl e f r om a cl ass- - pr act i ci ng exper t  t hi nki ng wi t h ef f ect i ve gui dance/ f eedback 1.  Assi gnment - - Read chapt er  on el ect r i c cur r ent .  Lear n basi c f act s and t er mi nol ogy.  Shor t  qui z t o check/ r ewar d. 2.  Cl ass bui l t  ar ound ser i es of  quest i ons.   (% ) A     B  C    D    E When swi t ch i s c l osed, bul b 2 wi l l a.  st ay same br i ght ness, b.  get  br i ght er c.  get  di mmer , d.  go out . 21 3 3.  I ndi v i dual  answer  wi t h c l i cker ( account abi l i t y ,  pr i med t o l ear n) 4.  Di scuss wi t h “ consensus gr oup” ,  r evot e.   ( pr of  l i s t en i n! ) 5.   Show r esponses.  El i c i t  st udent  r easoni ng.  Do “ exper i ment . ” - -  s i mul at i on.  Pr act i c i ng exper t - l i ke t hi nk i ng- - Chal l engi ng but  doabl e t asks/ quest i ons Expl i c i t  f ocus on exper t - l i ke t hi nki ng • concept s and ment al  model s • r ecogni z i ng r el evant  & i r r el evant  i nf or mat i on • sel f - checki ng,  sense maki ng,  & r ef l ect i on Pr ovi de ef f ect i ve f eedback ( t i mel y and speci f i c)         “ cogni t i ve coach”  Onl y a st ar t !   Fol l ow up wi t h homewor k pr obl ems t o do much mor e of  t he same!  10% af t er  15 mi nut es •  Fr act i on of  concept s mast er ed i n cour se                15- 25% •  Bel i ef s about  sci ence- -  what  i t  i s ,  how t o l ear n, si gni f i cant l y l ess ( 5- 10%)  l i ke sci ent i st Some Data:    >90 % af t er  2 days > 50- 70% wi t h r et ent i on        mor e l i ke sci ent i st Model  1 ( t el l i ng)  Model  2 t r adi t i onal  l ect ur e met hod      sci ent i f i c t eachi ng •  Ret ent i on of  i nf or mat i on f r om l ect ur e  Summar y: Sci ent i f i c  appr oach t o physi cs educat i on. Under st and and t each physi cs exper t i se. Good Ref s. : NAS Pr ess “ How peopl e l ear n” Redi sh,  “ Teachi ng Physi cs”   ( Phys.  Ed.  Res. ) Wi eman,   Change Magazi ne- Oct .  07  at  www. car negi ef oundat i on. or g/ change/ CLASS bel i ef  sur vey:   CLASS. col or ado. edu phet  s i mul at i ons:    phet . col or ado. edu cwsei . ubc. ca- -   r esour ces,     Gui de t o ef f ect i ve use of c l i cker s  n   Used/ per cei ved as expensi ve at t endance and t est i ng devi ce l i t t l e benef i t ,  st udent  r esent ment . cl i cker s* - -  Not  aut omat i cal l y hel pf ul - -      gi ve account abi l i t y ,  anonymi t y,  f ast  r esponse Used/ per cei ved t o enhance engagement ,  communi cat i on,  and l ear ni ng e  t r ansf or mat i ve •chal l engi ng quest i ons- -  concept s •st udent - st udent  di scussi on ( “ peer  i nst r uct i on” )  & r esponses ( l ear ni ng and f eedback) •f ol l ow up i nst r uct or  di scussi on-  t i mel y speci f i c  f eedback •mi ni mal  but  nonzer o gr ade i mpact * An i nst r uct or ' s gui de t o t he ef f ect i ve use of  per sonal r esponse syst ems ( " c l i cker s" )  i n t eachi ng- - www. cwsei . ubc. ca   Student beliefs about science and science problem solving important! • Bel i ef s im  cont ent  l ear ni ng • Bel i ef s - -  power f ul  f i l t er  -  choi ce of  maj or  & r et ent i on • Teachi ng pr act i ces   st udent s’  bel i ef s     t ypi cal  s i gni f i cant  decl i ne ( phys and I mpl i cat i ons f or  i nst r uct i on Avoi d decl i ne i f  expl i c i t l y  addr ess bel i ef s. Why i s t hi s wor t h l ear ni ng? How does i t  connect  t o r eal  wor l d? How connect s t o t hi ngs st udent  knows/ makes sense?   UBC CW Sci ence Educat i on I ni t i at i ve and U.  Col .  SEI f r om “ bl oodl et t i ng t o ant i bi ot i cs”  i n sci ence educat i on Changi ng educat i onal  cul t ur e i n maj or  r esear ch uni ver si t y sci ence depar t ment s necessar y f i r st  st ep f or  sci ence educat i on over al l •  Depar t ment al  l evel   sci ent i f i c appr oach t o t eachi ng,  al l  under gr ad cour ses = l ear ni ng goal s,  measur es,  t est ed best pr act i ces Di ssemi nat i on and dupl i cat i on. Al l  mat er i al s,  assessment  t ool s,  et c t o be avai l abl e on web   Data 2. Conceptual understanding in traditional course   el ect r i c i t y   Er i c Mazur  ( Har var d Uni v. ) End of  cour se. 70% can cal cul at e cur r ent s and vol t ages i n t hi s c i r cui t . onl y 40% cor r ect l y pr edi ct  change i n br i ght ness of  bul bs when swi t ch c l osed! 8 V 12 V 1 2 1 A B Cl i ck t o edi t  Mast er  subt i t l e st y l e  t i me  f r om begi nni ng of  cour se ( yr s) 0. 5 1. 0 1. 5 2. 0 te s t o f m a s te r y (s c o r e ) 2 0 4 0 6 0 El ect r i c i t y & Magnet i sm concept s  Consumer  behavi or c l ass ~1/ 2  ¼ yr  l at er ,  bel ow 0. 2 af t er  2 yr s 1. 5 yr s l at er  Hi ghl y I nt er act i ve educat i onal  s i mul at i ons- - phet . col or ado. edu   ~80 si mul at i ons physi cs & chem  FREE,  Run t hr ough r egul ar  br owser Bui l d- i n & t est  t hat  devel op exper t - l i ke t hi nki ng and l ear ni ng ( & f un) l aserbal l oons and sweat er         Char act er i st i cs of exper t  t ut or s*      ( Whi ch can be dupl i cat ed i n c l assr oom?) Mot i vat i on maj or  f ocus ( cont ext ,  pi que cur i osi t y, . . . ) Never  pr ai se per son- -  l i mi t ed pr ai se,  al l  f or  pr ocess Under st ands what  st udent s do and do not  know. U t i mel y,  speci f i c ,  i nt er act i ve f eedback Al most  never  t el l  s t udent s anyt hi ng- -  pose quest i ons. Most l y st udent s answer i ng quest i ons and expl ai ni ng. Aski ng r i ght  quest i ons so st udent s chal l enged but  can f i gur e out .   Syst emat i c pr ogr essi on. Let  st udent s make mi st akes,  t hen di scover  and f i x. Requi r e r ef l ect i on:  how sol ved,  expl ai n,  gener al i ze,  et c. * Lepper  and Wool ver t on pg 135 i n I mpr ovi ng Academi c Per f omance

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