American Physical Society Northwestern Section Annual Meeting (APS-NW) (11th : 2009)

The Dark Side of the Universe Van Waerbeke, Ludovic May 15, 2009

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The Dar k Si de of t he Uni ver se  L. Van Waer beke  APSNW may 15 t h 2009  PLANCK & HERSCHEL launched may 14th 2009  The Bi g- Bang model • Ωm  Primordial fluctuations: origin? Nature?  • Ω λ,w •Ων  Power spectrum: AnknS ATknT  •Ωγ  σ8/An, dns/dlnk  • Ωb • Ωk • η=nb/n γ  Age and expansion rate: t + h  Last scattering surface: zdec, tdec, ∆ zdec  End of dark age: flash Re-ionisation: τ , z τ Dark matter halos and baryon coupling: mass and light biasing properties b,r  SDSS  Gal ax y di s t r i but i on  Lar ge Sc al e St r uc t ur es  er st andi ng t he c ont ent of t he Uni ver se i s a bi t l i k ng t o under s t and what exi st s at t he sur f ace of Ear t h onl y f r om what you can “ see” out er space  EVI DENCE f or DARK MATTER  Cornelia Parker Cold Dark Matter: An Exploded View, 1991  Spi r al gal axi es r ot at i on cur ves  NGC3198  Dynamics of cluster of galaxies  Abel 1689  Dark matter in clusters was “discovered” in 1933 (Zwicky) based On dynamical arguments and always systematically confirmed with newer observations.  Gr avi t at i onal l ensi ng as a pr obe of dar k mat t er  t r ong gr av i t at i onal l ens i ng  Weak gr av i t at i onal l ens i ng  Mass versus stellar profile of early-type galaxies (from strong and weak lensing)  Gavazzi et a. 2007  Mass to light ratio as function of scale  Mat t er has been det ect ed by sever al i ndependent pr - dynami cal - gr avi t at i onal l ensi ng - Xr ay ( dy nami cal - cl ust er s of gal axi es) - Cos mi c mi cr owave backgr ound  Wi l ki nson Mi c r owav e Ani s ot r opy Pr obe  Map of t he phot on t emper at ur e l uct uat i ons “ r el eas ed” when t he Uni ver se was onl y 300000 y ear s ol d.  EVI DENCE f or DARK ENERGY …none yet, but cosmological constant, yes! “ f l ui ds ” pr esent i n t he Uni ver se:  • Mat t er ( bar yons and dar k mat t er ) Radi at i on ( phot ons, e. g. cosmi c mi cr owave backgr ou • Unk nown f l ui d? ( wi t h speci f i c equat i on of st at e) I deal gas equat i on of st at e: PV=nk BT  Unk nown f l ui d equat i on of st at e: P=wε The c os mol ogi cal const ant “ Λ” has w=- 1 A c os mol ogi c al const ant i s al l owed by G. R. Dar k ener gy i s a cosmol ogi cal const ant wi t h w not  Ef f ect of a c os mol ogi cal const ant on t he Uni ver se  Mat t er domi nat ed  Wi t h cosmol ogi cal const an  Cos mol ogi cal const ant  Combi nat i on of t he cosmi c mi cr owav e backgr ound and l ar ge s cal e st r uct ur e di st r i but i on  Mat t er  Super nov ae of t ype I a ar e “ st andar d candl es”  Super novae di mmi ng wi t h Reds hi f t consi st ent wi t h a c os mol ogi cal const ant .  Fr i edman 2009  Combi ned c ons t r ai nt s f r om al l cosmol ogi cal dat a  The c os mol ogi c al pi e   w~- 1  Fr om WMAP  Phy s i c al or i gi n of Dar k Mat t er … …not known, but…  The bul l et cl us t er : Br adac et al . 2006, Cl owe et al . 2006.  Dark Matter is Dissipationless/ pressureless Blue: dark matter Pink: hot gas (Xray)  What c oul d dar k mat t er be and not be… How c an we pr obe dar k mat t er ? mat t er c annot be made of dar k compact obj ect s br own dwar f s ) c onst r ai nt s f r om MACHO  mat t er c annot be bar yoni c anyway ( const r ai nt s f r om os ynt hes i s )  mat t er c annot be neut r i nos onl y ( st r ong mass const CMB and LSS)  mat t er c oul d be weakl y i nt er act i ng par t i cl es ( WI MP and i ndi r ec t det ect i on exper i ment s under way.  mat t er c oul d be no mat t er at al l , j ust modi f i ed gr ev er e obs er v at i onal const r ai nt s ar e comi ng…  Phy s i c al or i gi n of Dar k Ener gy …  f ar no evi denc e of devi at i on f r om cosmol ogi cal cons t he ampl i t ude of DE/ cosmol ogi cal const ant r emai ns of t he maj or i s s ues i n physi cs ( f i ne t uni ng) .  ΩΛQFT ~ 1 0 1 2 0 ΩΛcosmo  Standard matter  gµν  φ  Ex: Quintessence, Chaplyin gas, K-essence,….  gµν Standard matter  φ  Ex: scalar-tensor theories, f(R), Chameleon,… Obs: test of Poisson eq., variation Of constants  Standard Matter  gµν  Aµ Ex: photon-Axion mixing Obs: CMB T(z)  Standard matter  Gµν(i)  Ex: Brane-induced gravity, multiD Obs: strong field effects (BH, GW), Local tests of gravity  Uzan 2007  How t o pr obe dar k ener gy i f w i s di f f er ent f r om - 1? - DE equat i on of s t at e: hi gh pr ec i s i on obs er v at i on of i nt er medi at e r eds hi f t uni v er s e ( gal ax y phot omet r i c and s pec t r os c opi c s ur v ey s ) - > ac c es s t o s pac e and upc omi ng gr ound bas ed f ac i l i t i es Coper ni c i an r ev ol ut i on made pos s i bl e f r om ac c ur at e obs er v at i ons ( Ty c ho+Kepl er ) - Mor e t heor et i c al i nv es t i gat i ons ar e abs ol ut el y nec es s ar y : None of t he pr opos ed ex pl anat i ons r es ol v e t he c os mol ogi c al c ons t ant f i ne t uni ng pr obl em A wor r y i s : i s t her e enough obs er v at i onal c ons t r ai nt s av ai l abl e t o f ul l y c har ac t er i z e one or mor e of t he dar k ener gy model s ?  What s houl d y ou t ak e away f r om t hi s t al  Over t he pas t 100 year s, cosmol ogy has become a sol ence, bas ed on obs er vat i ons and f al si f i abl e assumpt  hi s l ead t o t he as t oundi ng concl usi on t hat 95% of t Uni v er s e i s unk nown dar k st uf f . Ther e i s undi sput e dence t hat s omet hi ng i s f undament al l y i ncompl et e i n Bi g Bang model .  smol ogy has al s o t ur ned i n a bi g sci ence wi t h t he n ex pens i v e, i nt er nat i onal pr oj ect s, whi ch i s exci t i c oul d al so be f r ust r at i ng.  


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