British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium

Assessing groundwater discharge to streams with distributed temperature sensing technology Birkham, T.; Barbour, S. Lee; Goodbrand, A.; Tallon, L. K.; Szmigielski, J.; Klein, R. 2014

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ASSESSING GROUNDWATER DISCHARGE TO STREAMS WITH DISTRIBUTED TEMPERATURE SENSING TECHNOLOGY   T. Birkham1 S.L. Barbour2 A. Goodbrand1  L. Tallon3 J. Szmigielski3 R. Klein4  1O’Kane Consultants Inc., Cranbrook, BC. 2University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK. 3O’Kane Consultants Inc., Saskatoon, SK. Teck Resources Ltd., Sparwood, BC.  ABSTRACT Characterization of the interactions of groundwater with surface stream water is fundamental to understanding and managing stream water quality in natural and altered watersheds.  The spatial and temporal variability in the exchange of water and solutes across the streambed affects stream water quality evolution along the channel length, especially in coarse-grained alluvial sediments.  Identifying and delineating areas of groundwater discharge has the potential to inform water quality management strategies including the location and design of intake structures, groundwater cut-off systems, or permeable reactive barriers.  Distributed temperature sensing (DTS) is an emerging technology that has found wide application in stream hydrology.  A DTS system integrates a fibre-optic (FO) cable to measure continuous temperature profiles (manufacture reported accuracy of ±1 °C and resolution of ±0.01 °C) with spatial resolutions of 1 m or better over distances of up to several kilometres.  In September 2013, a DTS cable was installed in a predominantly coarse-textured stream channel at a coal mining operation in the Elk Valley of British Columbia.  The objective was to evaluate the utility of a FO DTS system in a location where identification of groundwater discharges to a stream was being studied as part of Teck Resources Limited (Teck) applied research and development program focused on managing water quality in mine watersheds.  This study was intended as a verification of methods for in-stream DTS installation and measurements with recommendations made for improved calibration procedures. Temperature was measured along a 160-m stretch of stream and streambed at 20 minute sampling intervals using a 5 minute signal integration time over six days.  In-stream DTS measurements were successful in delineating a localized area of lower temperature identified as a groundwater discharge zone.  The measurement of cooler groundwater discharge in the streambed relative to the stream was corroborated by the presence of well-established riparian vegetation and a streambank seep.     INTRODUCTION Characterization of the interactions of groundwater with surface stream water is fundamental to understanding and managing stream water quality in natural and altered watersheds.  The spatial and temporal variability in the exchange of water and solutes across the streambed affects stream water quality evolution along the channel length, especially in coarse-grained alluvial sediments.  Identifying and delineating areas of groundwater discharge has the potential to inform water quality management strategies including the location and design of intake structures, groundwater cut-off systems, or permeable reactive barriers.  Distributed temperature sensing (DTS) is an emerging technology that utilizes fibre optic (FO) cable to measure continuous temperature profiles with manufacturer stated temperature resolution as high as 0.01 °C over long distances of up to several thousands of metres.  Distributed temperature sensing has found wide application in stream hydrology and has strong potential for application in mine-affected watersheds.  Fibre optic DTS systems use a laser signal with temperature dependent backscatter properties along the length of the cable (Selker et al., 2006 a,b; Tyler et al., 2009).  The difference in Raman backscatter of the Stokes (temperature independent) and anti-Stokes (temperature dependent) wavelengths are used to determine the location of temperature measurements.   Three processes control streambed heat transfer: 1) advective heat transfer; 2) conductive heat transfer; and, 3) radiative heat transfer (Constantz, 2008).  Research has shown that patterns in streambed temperatures are dominantly controlled by advective heat fluxes from upwelling groundwater.  At most times of the year there is a significant difference between groundwater and stream temperatures, as stream temperatures are altered by daily and seasonal climatic conditions while groundwater temperatures remain relatively constant.  This difference in temperatures provides a conservative tracer to help identify and delineate areas of groundwater upwelling (Selker et al., 2006a), and has been used to quantify localized groundwater discharge using mixing models (e.g. Westhoff et al., 2007; Lauer et al., 2013).      The objective of this study was to evaluate the utility of a FO DTS system in a location where groundwater discharge to a stream was being studied.  The study was part of a Teck Resources Limited (Teck) applied research and development program focused on managing water quality in mine watersheds.      METHODS Study Area The study was conducted in a small watercourse called Line Creek (Figure 1; Photo 1), located within Teck’s Line Creek coal mine operations (11 U 659421 E 5533087 N) in the Elk Valley of British Columbia.  The climate is humid continental with a mean annual precipitation of 600 to 800 mm and a potential evapotranspiration of approximately 630 mm.  Line Creek emerges from a rock drain upstream of the study area and flows in a southwesterly direction.  Flow data measured at the LC_3 station (Figure 1) during 2013 indicated an annual mean daily discharge of 1.31 m3/s, peak flows of 6.14 m3/s during spring freshet and flows as low as 0.30 m3/s during winter.  West Line Creek (WLC) forms a tributary with Line Creek ~100 m upstream of LC_3.  At the time of the study, WLC was diverted through a culvert and into Line Creek south of historic settling ponds approximately 160 m downstream of the natural confluence.  A 160 m reach starting at approximately 460 m from the LC rock drain was selected for installing the DTS system (Figure 1).  The study reach has been influenced by mining operations resulting in steep banks and varying bank widths from 5 to 15 m along the length of the study reach.  The streambed gradient in the study reach is relatively flat.  The stream changes from a wider, braided channel with approximately 0.2 – 0.5 m water depth (at time of study) to a narrower channel (~0.6 – 0.8 m water depth) with more turbulent flows downstream.  The streambanks support mixed grass species with a few conifer species.  At ~105 m along the study reach, vegetation is located below the toe of the streambank.  A small seep was observed at this location (Photo 2).  The geology of the site can be described as fluvial and glacial alluvium underlain by marine shale bedrock (Jakub Szmigielski, personal communication).  The streambed is located in coarse-textured alluvium sediments and range from a mixture of pebbles and gravel with a greater percentage of cobbles and boulders further downstream in the study reach. Field Measurements Line Creek streamflow was measured at an established stream gauging station (LC_3; ~1430 m asl; 11 U 660090 E 5532022 N) approximately 170 m upstream of the study section (Figure 1).  Discharge from the WLC diversion culvert during the study period was estimated using the Manning’s n equation for a corrugated culvert (n = 0.0245) and depth of water.  WLC streamflow was also measured upstream of the diversion culvert through a monitored culvert.  Climate data consisting of net radiation (Net Radiation Kipp & Zonen model NR-LITE2 Net Radiometer), air temperature and relative humidity (Air Temperature and RH HC2-S3 Probe), wind speed (R.M. Young Model 05103AP-10 Wind Monitor) and rainfall (CS700 Tipping Bucket Rain Gauge) were collected from the closest weather station located 1.3 km away on the plateau of a waste rock deposit (LC_RME; 1800 m asl; 11 U 659421 E 5533087 N) north of the study reach.  The temperature of four possible sources of water to Line Creek (Figure 1) were measured using thermistors integrated in the water level pressure transducers and measured at 30 min intervals (Solinst Gold Levelogger) from: a) below the West Line Creek diversion culvert (T1); b) streambank groundwater standpipe (T2); c) Line Creek (T3); and, d) a deep groundwater standpipe screened between 22 – 25 m below ground surface (Jakub Szmigielski, personal communication).    DTS Installation A fibre-optic DTS network was installed to measure stream and streambed temperature patterns in response to aquifer-stream exchange fluxes.  An Sensornet Oryx (Sensornet, U.K.) field deployable DTS with manufacturer stated temperature resolution of 0.01°C and 1 m measurement resolution was installed downstream of the Line Creek rock drain (Figure 1).  The DTS system used a 320 m long BruSens 150 (Brugg, Switzerland) fibre-optic cable to measure the stream temperature over a six day period.   The cable was laid from the downstream to upstream end with the cable length reading 0 m at the DTS unit, 160 m at the reach end before looping back, and 320 m at the downstream reach starting point.  The first section (hereafter termed ‘bed temperature’), stretching downstream to upstream, was installed at an average depth of 5 cm within the streambed and about 0.5 m from the right-bank edge to directly measure streambed temperature.  The second section (hereafter termed ‘stream temperature’), looping back from upstream to downstream, was installed approximately 10 cm below the surface of the water column near the middle of the stream to measure stream temperature through the water column and reduce the influence of solar heating on the cable.  The cable was positioned in the most turbulent section of flow to measure a more composite stream temperature and was secured by rebar driven into the streambed approximately every 5 – 10 m depending on the morphology of the stream.  Rebar spacing was as close as 5 m in riffles or more turbulent sections, and as great as 10 m in pools.  The cable was attached to the rebar with plastic cable ties to avoid preferential heat conduction along the metal rebar.  Prior to stream installation, the cable was rolled out and positioned along the streambank to reduce any high tensile stress.  Temperature measurements from the initial 9 m and 14 m from the bed and stream downstream cable sections, respectively, were not considered since several meters were exposed directly to the atmosphere.  The initial 10 m from the upstream section was also excluded as a result of having several exposed wound cable coils (Photo 3).  The DTS system was powered using AC power from the electrical grid.  At the end of data collection, the cable was inspected along its length to check for any movement or areas where the cable may be above the water surface.   Calibration Procedure Single-ended or double-ended measurements can be collected with the DTS instrument.  Double-ended measurement was chosen for this study as this method only requires a temperature offset for calibration.  During calibration, the built-in DTS unit routines were used to quantify differential attenuation.   Calibration was conducted following the manufacturer’s specifications by placing a 45 m section of wound fiber-optic cable in a calibration bath comprised of a circular container of 1 m diameter and 0.4 m height filled with a water and ice slurry, and measuring four 10 minute integration data sets.  In an effort to maintain a constant temperature, the calibration bath was set up in an enclosed building during the procedure.  Post-processing of calibration data indicated that thermal stratification in the ice bath likely occurred due to limited mixing during the calibration period. A revised calibration technique is recommended that includes better mixing of the calibration bath and longer integration times.  In order to compensate for the issues encountered in the laboratory calibration bath procedure, a field calibration was conducted based on a spatial and temporal repeatability analysis of collected field DTS temperature measurements.  For spatial repeatability, or how well all the points at one time represent the   true value of a constant temperature system, the mean of all measurements from 140 m to 150 m (n = 12) at minimum temperature (i.e. no influence of solar heating; 07:00 hr) were calculated for the bed (5.10 ± 0.01 °C; ± one standard error, SE) and stream (5.11 ± 0.01 °C; ± SE).  For temporal repeatability, or how well the instrument measures a constant temperature at successive and consecutive times, temperatures in the early morning were assumed to be constant. The mean temperature at 150 m on the FO cable (closest to reference logger temperature T1) was determined from 04:00 hr to 07:00 hr (n = 10) for the bed (5.14 ± 0.01 °C; ± SE) and stream (5.16 ± 0.01 °C; ± SE).  This exercise provided confidence in the certainty of the DTS field measurements.  The resolution of temperature measurements depend on the DTS installation, integration time, and calibration method (Selker et al., 2006b; Tyler et al., 2009).  Although the standard error of 0.01°C from field data provided confidence in the precision of the DTS data, a more detailed assessment of the precision and accuracy of the DTS measurements could be completed by applying improved calibration procedures described above. Data analysis Preliminary DTS data analysis focused on determining anomalies in temperature along the study reach as outlined in Kraus et al. (2012).  The strength of the temperature anomaly (A) provided a measure of spatial variability in lower temperature areas via:  ܣሺݔ௜ሻ ൌ ܶሺݔ௜ሻ െ ܶሺݔపሻതതതതതതത (1)where xi is measurement locations along the cable.  Temporal variability of stream temperature measurements was indicated by their standard deviation:   ܵܦ	ܣሺݔ௜ሻ ൌ ඩ1݊෍ሺܶሺݔ௜ሻ െ ܶሺݔపሻതതതതതതതሻଶ௡௧ୀଵ (2)It is expected that the temperature of groundwater upwelling would be lower than in surface water during fall (i.e. warm daytime surface water temperatures) meaning negative temperature anomalies would be expected as a result of cooler groundwater inputs.  In addition, Krause et al. (2012) found that groundwater upwelling was associated with increased temporal variability meaning a greater standard deviation was associated with an area of lower temperature. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Hydrology and Meteorological Conditions Air temperatures measured at the meteorological station indicated a period of warming, then cooling, during the DTS study within an overall monthly cooling trend in September (Figure 2).  Diurnal air temperature varied with maximum day and night temperatures ranging from 14 to 2 °C during the study period.  A total of 15 mm of rain fell during the experiment (Figure 3).  Streamflow measured upstream of the study area installation generally increased from 0.55 to 0.58 m3/s (Figure 3).  Flow entering Line   Creek from the historic settling ponds through the diversion culvert made up ~5-10% of Line Creek streamflow during the study period (Photo 4).   DTS Dataset Stream temperature measurements measured over a six day period in September, 2013 show that FO DTS was successful in identifying areas of cooler water temperature.  The placement of the cable within the streambed sediments allowed for detection of localized cooling compared to the well-mixed stream temperature zone of the stream cable (Figure 4).  Bed and stream temperatures were measurably different in some locations, with maximum differences of 0.12 °C and 0.23 °C at 104 m during the night (07:00 hr) and day (15:00 hr), respectively (Figure 5 and 6).  The temperature differences measured at 104 m coincided with the location of vegetation on the streambank and an observed seep (Photo 5).  Site personnel confirmed that this section of stream does not ice over in the winter.  The area of distinctly cooler bed temperatures is more apparent in Figure 7, which compares minimum and maximum values standardized to the spatial mean along the study reach.  The input of the relatively cool WLC diversion flow between 130 and 140 m is apparent in the decreased stream and bed temperatures.  The diverted WLC inflow is assumed to be well mixed with the Line Creek flow shortly after entering Line Creek and to be independent of the cooling trend measured approximately 30 m downstream at 104 m.    Step-like changes occurred in the maximum day (15:00 hr) streambed temperatures from approximately 115 m to 95 m (Figure 6).  A warming trend from 115 m to 110 m changed to a cooling trend from 110 m to 104 m, followed by a warming trend from 104 m to 95 m.  The warming trend in streambed temperature from 115 m to 110 m was attributed to solar heating during the day, as this warming trend was not observed in the minimum (07:00 hr) streambed temperatures (Figure 5).  The cooling trend from 110 m to 104 m was attributed to upwelling of relatively cool groundwater.  This cooling trend was not likely the result of radiative or conductive heat loss given the short distance over which it occurred.  Additionally, the cooling trend was not likely the result of shading or differences in streambed cable depth as streambank vegetation, channel morphology, and water depth were similar in the areas of both cooling and warming.  The absence of the cooling trend from 110 to 104 m in the minimum nighttime streambed temperatures was attributed to the relative similarity of streambank groundwater and streambed temperatures at night compared to the late afternoon.  Similar step-like changes in streambed temperatures have been recorded in the literature and were associated with groundwater upwelling (e.g. Selker et al., 2006a).     Stream and bed temperatures gradually increased downstream of the identified seep likely due to energy input from solar radiation. The effect of solar heating on downstream temperatures may result in signal reduction of other upwelling areas (Lautz et al., 2013).  Standardized bed temperature values indicate small negative temperature anomalies at approximately 65 and 80 m (Figure 7), which may be other potential zones of groundwater discharge; however, a more detailed energy balance taking into account solar radiation (including shading effects), longwave radiation, streambed conduction, latent heat, and sensible heat would be required to confirm this.  In addition, installation of streambank piezometers to measure vertical hydraulic gradients and to sample groundwater for chemical analyses would be required to confidently support or refute this hypothesis.    Localized groundwater discharge to a stream has been estimated in the literature with a simple mixing model using temperature as a conservative tracer given the significant difference between groundwater and stream temperatures (e.g. Lauer et al., 2013).  Groundwater inflows dampen the diurnal cycles of stream temperature as perennial groundwater temperatures remain relatively stable (Constanz, 2008).  In September, differences between groundwater and stream water may be less distinct than would be expected during more pronounced diurnal surface water temperatures from June to August.  The opposite effect would occur during the winter, meaning that groundwater inflows would appear as areas of warmer temperature as surface temperatures are typically cooler.  During the experiment, temperature differences measured between groundwater from the nearby standpipe piezometer and from the stream ranged from 1.1 – 2.2°C.  However, less difference (0.1 – 1.1 °C) was measured at the groundwater-stream interface when water from the streambank (obtained from a groundwater standpipe installed at the assumed interface) was compared to the stream water temperatures.  DTS studies should be completed in late summer when the difference between streambank groundwater and stream temperatures is expected to be largest and more pronounced cooling trends in areas of groundwater upwelling would also be expected, resulting in improved ability to identify fluxes. CONCLUSIONS A DTS study was successful in determining the presence of a groundwater discharge zone into an alpine stream.  The measurement of cooler groundwater discharge in the stream bed relative to the stream was corroborated by the presence of well-established riparian vegetation, a streambank seep and observations that ice does not form  in that area in the winter.  This study was intended as a verification of methods for in-stream DTS installation and measurements.  The methods employed are recommended for DTS streamflow work with recommendations for improved calibration procedures that include longer integration time and better mixing of the calibration bath.  Late summer is also recommended for DTS studies when the difference between streambank groundwater and stream temperatures is expected to be largest and more pronounced cooling trends in areas of groundwater upwelling would be expected, resulting in improved ability to identify fluxes.    REFERENCES Constantz, J. (2008) Heat as a tracer to determine streambed water exchanges. Water Resour. Res. 44: W00D10. Lauer, F., H-G. Frede, and L. Breuer (2013). Uncertainty assessment of quantifying spatially concentrated groundwater discharge to small streams by distributed temperature sensing. Water Resour. Res. 49: 400-407. Kraus, S., T. Blume, and N.J. Cassidy (2012). Investigating patterns and controls of groundwater up-welling in a lowland river by combing fibre-optic distributed temperature sensing with observations of vertical hydraulic gradients. Hydrol. Earth System. Sci.16: 1775-1992.  Neilson, B.T., C.E. Hatch, H. Ban, and S.W. Tyler (2010). Solar radiative heating of fiber-optic cables used to monitor temperatures in water. Water Resour. Res. 46: W08540. Selker, J., N. Van de Giesen, M. Westhoff, W. Luxemburg, and M.B. Parlange (2006a). Fiber optics opens window on stream dynamics, Geophys. Res. Lett. 33: L24401.  Selker, J., L. Thevanaz, H. Huwald, A. Mallet, W.Luxemburg, N. Van de Giesen, M. Stejskal, J. Zeman, M. Westhoff, and M.B. Parlange (2006b). Distributed fiber-optic temperature sensing for hydrologic systems. Water Resour. Res. 42: W12202.  Szmigielski, Jakub. 2014. Personal communication.  M.Sc. Thesis Candidate. University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada.  Tyler, S.W., J.S. Selker, M.B. Hausner, C.E. Hatch, T.Torgersen, C.E. Thodal, and S. G. Schladow (2009). Enviromental temperature sensing using Raman spectra DTS fiber-optic methods. Water Resour. Res. 45: W00D23. Westhoff,M, H.H.G. Savenije, W.M. Luxemburg, G.S. Stelling, N.C. Van de Giesen, J.S. Selker, L. Pfister, and S. Uhlenbrook (2007). A distributed stream temperature model using high resolution temperature observations. Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. 11(4): 1469-1480.            Figure 1 Maps (Google Earth) of Teck Resources Ltd Line Creek Operations (A.) showing Line Creek study reach, DTS installation, as well as other field instrumentation (B.).  Regional groundwater flows in a southeasterly direction toward Line Creek from the West Line Creek dump area (Jakub Szmigielski, personal communication).  A. B.    Figure 2 Mean daily air temperature measured at meteorological station for September, 2013.  Grey bar indicates study period.    Figure 3 Daily mean discharge (Q) measured at LC_3 stream gauging station located upstream of the study reach and total daily rainfall measured at the meteorological station during September, 2013.  Grey bar indicates study period.   0.02.04.06.08.010.012.014.016.018.020.01-Sep2-Sep3-Sep4-Sep5-Sep6-Sep7-Sep8-Sep9-Sep10-Sep11-Sep12-Sep13-Sep14-Sep15-Sep16-Sep17-Sep18-Sep19-Sep20-Sep21-Sep22-Sep23-Sep24-Sep25-Sep26-Sep27-Sep28-Sep29-Sep30-SepAir Temperature (°C)20130510152025300.50.60.70.80.911-Sep2-Sep3-Sep4-Sep5-Sep6-Sep7-Sep8-Sep9-Sep10-Sep11-Sep12-Sep13-Sep14-Sep15-Sep16-Sep17-Sep18-Sep19-Sep20-Sep21-Sep22-Sep23-Sep24-Sep25-Sep26-Sep27-Sep28-Sep29-Sep30-SepRainfall (mm)Q (m³/s)2013   Figure 4 Stream and bed temperature (°C) measured at 1 m spatial resolution and 20 min sampling intervals over 24 hours along the length of the study reach starting September 19th 12:50 to September 24th 08:50, 2013.  Black arrows indicate direction of stream flow.    09/20  09/21  09/22  09/23  09/24  Distance (m)0204060801001201401604.0 °C4.5 °C5.0 °C5.5 °C6.0 °C6.5 °C7.0 °CStream Temperature 09/20  09/21  09/22  09/23  09/24  Distance (m)0204060801001201401604.0 °C 4.5 °C5.0 °C5.5 °C6.0 °C6.5 °C 7.0 °C Bed Temperature   Figure 5 Average minimum stream temperature over four days (September 20th to 23rd, 2013) measured with DTS in the water column (stream) and streambed.  Water temperature of groundwater (WLC 12_12 standpipe), streambank groundwater (standpipe), and the WLC diversion flowing into Line Creek were measured with dataloggers.  The left vertical grey bar is centered on a cooling trend in streambed temperature (moving in the downstream direction).  The right vertical grey bar marks the zone where diverted WLC flows into Line Creek.  The black arrow indicates direction of stream flow in Line Creek.     4.04.55.05.56.06.57.00 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160Mean Water Temperature (°C)Distance (m)GroundwaterStreambank Diverted FlowStreamBedNIGHT (07:00)   Figure 6 Average maximum stream temperature over four days (September 20th to 23rd, 2013) measured with DTS in the water column (stream) and streambed.  Water temperature of groundwater (WLC 12_12 standpipe), streambank groundwater (standpipe), and the WLC diversion flowing into Line Creek were measured with dataloggers.  The left vertical grey bar is centered on a cooling trend in streambed temperature (moving in the downstream direction).  The right vertical grey bar marks the zone where diverted WLC flows into Line Creek.  The black arrow indicates direction of stream flow in Line Creek.    4.04.55.05.56.06.57.00 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160Mean Water Temperature (°C)Distance (m)GroundwaterStreambankDiverted FlowStream BedDAY (15:00)    Figure 7 Temporal and spatial variability of DTS streambed temperatures for four days (September 20th to 23rd, 2013) during minimum (07:00 hr) and maximum (15:00 hr) periods showing mean (solid line) and standard deviation (dotted line).  Values were standardized by subtracting the spatial mean at each sampling date.  The black arrow indicates direction of streamflow.            -1.0-0.8-0.6-0.4-0.20.00.20.40.60.81.00 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160Standardized Streambed Temperature (°C)Distance (m)Standardized MeanStandard DeviationNight (07:00) Day (15:00)     Photo 1  Looking downstream at coarse-textured streambed and steep banks of Line Creek.  Photo 2  Location of streambank standpipe piezometer upstream of observed streambank seep and adjacent to the well-established riparian vegetation at the toe of the streambank.    Photo 3  Coils of DTS cable exposed to the atmosphere.         Photo 4  Flow entering Line Creek from the West Line Creek settling ponds through the diversion culvert.    Photo 5  Area of identified cooler groundwater discharge zone with the in-stream DTS measurements (~104 m).  The photo is centered at approximately 105 m.  Stream flow is from right to left.       

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