British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium

Using music to teach mine reclamation Veiga, Marcello M. (Marcello Mariz); Shandro, Janis; Scoble, M. J. 2007

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USING MUSIC TO TEACH MINE RECLAMATION  Marcello M. Veiga, PhD Janis Shandro, MSc Malcolm Scoble, PhD University of British Columbia Norman B. Keevil Institute of Mining Engineering 5th Floor, 6350 Stores Road Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4 ABSTRACT This paper describes a new approach in teaching mine reclamation to mining engineering students. It aims to develop a more effective way to foster a full understanding of reclamation issues and commitment to best practices amongst our mining industry's next generation of leaders. The paper describes motivational and attitudinal challenges experienced in teaching mine reclamation. A new relationship can be established between an instructor and a class using a musical or entertaining approach. This can very effectively start to build foundations for dealing with what for many students is a new paradigm of environmental stewardship and social responsibility. Survey responses from fifty students enrolled in a University of British Columbia course, Mining and the Environment (MINE 391), along with observations of educators involved in delivery of this course, indicate incorporation of music in this setting significantly enhanced the exploration of lecture topics and the learning environment. Student responses also indicate future use of music should be included as a teaching strategy, and overall, the incorporation of composing music in the classroom setting has been strongly recommended. This paper highlights specific musical teaching strategies used to assist in delivery of topics related to environmental and social impacts associated with mining reclamation. INTRODUCTION “Raised in a technologically sophisticated and stimulating environment and accustomed to instant gratification, the generation Y cohort brings distinct values and expectations for relationships with authority and the work place. This context will require particular attention now and in the coming years” (Naud, 2005). The faculty of the Norman B Keevil Institute of Mining Engineering at UBC have been working towards the integration of environmental stewardship and social responsibility into the undergraduate degree. Many graduate students are attracted to research degrees with an outlook that focuses on environmental and social issues associated with the mining industry. Undergraduate students from high school, however, tend to be dominated by interests in conventional engineering design with an operational focus. These interests tend to be reinforced during their work terms spent in employment at mine operations during the degree. The culture at many mine sites also does not necessarily promote recognition of the need for more sustainable approaches to mining. Some mining engineering students may often see environmental management and social responsibility as areas that are secondary topics, more appropriately delegated as the exclusive domains of environmental scientists, biologists, social scientists, etc. This paper relates to attempts to integrate key aspects of environmental management and mining communities into the mining  engineering curriculum. This is not typical of traditional technical papers presented at the B.C. Mine Reclamation Conference. It is somewhat lighthearted on the outside, but deeper within, it relates to a serious issue: accepting responsibilities for an ethical and responsive approach to a widening array of needs that require integration into designing and managing the mine life cycle. The change in culture of the mining industry has been gradual, and miners/mining companies are still paying a high price for environmental and social impacts resulting from past operations. In the last two years, UBC’s NBK Institute has introduced two new courses into the mining engineering curriculum that relate to reclamation and social/environmental issues: one on First Nations and mineral resources development, and the other on the impacts of metals on aquatic ecosystems and human health. Aspects of reclamation also feature as components in other traditional mine design and management courses. Surveys conducted by UBC mining students in Vancouver, B.C. suggest that less than 30% of the general public appreciates the role played by mining in society (unpublished data). Public perception has identified that the majority of mining companies do not use ethical procedures in their operations (Veiga et al., 2001). The increasing and recent identification of the need for a Social License to Operate (Nelsen, 2006) has been changing the way in which mining engineers see their role and responsibilities in industry. Mining today has become a much broader career where educators need to incorporate into their professional curriculum strong concepts of environmental management and social responsibility. Addressing the task of teaching these new attributes, despite their relevance to mining engineering, is difficult and in many cases may not even be appreciated by those University professors with a strong technocentric perspective of the profession. The need for behavioural change has arisen very quickly, and the mining sector has had a very short time to adapt to the new paradigm of sustainable mining. Companies that still insist on applying outdated and inflexible approaches to deal with the public, regarding only the legal and not the ethical side of their actions, are paying a high price as this has in some cases resulted in conflicts with communities and the termination of projects. Errors of judgment by mining companies in dealing with communities (Veiga et al., 2001) could be attributed to the lack of experience and training of the many individuals representing the mining industry in dealing with the public. Additionally, such issues in the “engineering community” have often tended to be classified as “soft science” or “secondary knowledge” for engineers, thereby compounding the problem. Even during industry work terms, mining students have little contact with policy issues, public consultation, community relations, social and environmental effects of mine-closure and other activities that show the breadth of attributes necessary to a modern mining engineer. Students will often be relegated to operating computer systems, surveying or other routine work. That is entirely appropriate for junior students as they become acclimatized with the mine operations themselves. However, students need to be exposed to the reality of the problems faced daily by the company when dealing with society and particularly the local communities. Sustainability (social-economic-environmental aspects) must not become an abstract word in the student dictionary. This is natural, since companies cannot afford to naively immerse students into complex problems of a socio-economic-political nature. This does not bring the reality of the industry to such apprentices, and they miss the opportunity to discover the full professional relevance of the social and environmental challenges in mining. We are seeking to avoid such statements as “Who cares about mine-closure, I will be moving to another mine.” We need to bring ethics and social  responsibility onto the table. Such statements demonstrate the attitude of an immature and naïve student who had recently emerged from a stormy two years of theory and formulae in Physics, Chemistry and Mathematics. The risk is that the significance of responsibilities such as reclamation, for instance, becomes marginalized if viewed purely as a technical task of re-vegetation that is simply accomplished by outsourcing to an alternate professional. It becomes associated with costs but not with benefits. This lack of vision of the significance of reclamation, not only environmental but social (for involved communities) as well, does little to help the cause to bring mining to a higher level of respect in society. How can social and environmental issues become more relevant in the students’ eyes? How can their attention be attracted to something so obvious for senior mining engineers? How can these issues be introduced and addressed in a traditional academic environment? Why not use a universal language medium with a passionate appeal such as music? "Music is a moral law. It gives soul to the universe, wings to the mind, flight to the imagination, a charm to sadness, gaiety and life to everything. It is the essence of order and lends to all that is good and just and beautiful.” Plato’s words encompass two important messages for those using music as an educational tool: the imagination and happiness. These are two significant attributes for educators to embrace, since classrooms typically limit the imagination of the student, and are not usually perceived to be “happy” places. Music in the university classroom has been traditionally limited to music faculties, although recently the formation of a drum circle has been introduced as an effective teaching tool with graduate students in the Human Resource Management Master’s Program at the University of Limerick (Moore and Ryan, 2006). Mining Engineering courses are traditionally presented to students in the traditional lecture format. Interestingly, it has been observed that miners learn best by examples (Veiga et al., 2006). The traditional classroom setting may not be most appropriate for the delivery and retention of course material. This learning by experience is clearly evident when 2nd year students, novices on subjects related to mining, return from their first work term in the field. The students typically return with heightened selfconfidence and commitment. A year later, as 3rd years, freshly returning from their next work term, they may often be observed to adopt a very assertive and confident attitude to their peers and professors in terms of accumulated real-world experience. The risk is that they restrict their vision to a base of knowledge related to their short-term experience and often hold little respect for what still can be gained from “blackboard knowledge”. In general, it has been observed that the theoretical nature of classrooms is usually little appreciated by mining engineering students. When combined with a potential lack of understanding and respect for the “soft sciences”, seeking the most effective process and environment to teach social and environmental aspects of mining becomes challenging. It was hypothesized that involving the students in something enjoyable and familiar to them, such as music, would make the task of learning more attractive. This paper describes how music has been incorporated into the delivery of Mining and the Environment (MINE 391), an undergraduate course within the Norman B. Keevil Institute of Mining Engineering at the University of British Columbia. The main focus of the course is related to social and environmental issues associated with mine reclamation. Each major course theme has been transformed into specific parodies of well-known musical hits and presented to the students in an interactive way. Guitar playing is  a common accompaniment, and students and instructors participate in vocal delivery. This paper also presents the results of a survey distributed to MINE 391 students related to the overall effectiveness of using music as a teaching strategy. IF YOU CANNOT RECLAIM, DO NOT MINE This is the first message passed to the mining students. The song was devised based on Stevie Wonder’s hit “I Just Called to Say I Love You” with the intention to show to students that mine-closure and reclamation are not secondary subjects in the mining business and they must be present at the beginning of the mining plan. This parody makes reference to an irresponsible miner who believes, as in the past, that nobody will see the impacts caused by his gold operation in a remote site. The lyrics are written in the first person, where the protagonist can be one of the students who criticizes an irresponsible miner by stating that he/she does not care about the environmental consequences of mining activities and only values the gold produced. The method used by this miner is ancient and inappropriate but still used by artisanal gold miners, for example gold amalgamation. The student invites the miner to attend the Mining and the Environment (MINE 391) class to be educated about the impacts that mining can cause to the environment. The student also informs the miner that the public perception of the Mining Industry suggests lack of ethical standards (it’s a “bordello”) and the industry is populated by a squad of greedy miners. The term “mining is a game” was actually extracted from a Brazilian artisanal gold miner and used as a way to show him (the miner) that mining must be seen as a serious business, not as an adventure. Unfortunately, most artisanal miners still use gold mining as a way to survive cycles of economic depression and is prevalent in developing countries (Veiga and Baker, 2004). The song also explores the student perception observed at the beginning of the Mining and the Environment course that “miners cannot be environmentalists”. As the term “environmentalism” became incorporated by radical eco-centric groups into their speeches, the students equivocally do not believe that they can mine and simultaneously care for the environment. The final message passed to the irresponsible gold miner is that if a mining plan is not in place to close and reclaim the mine, then the right decision is to forget this business, because nowadays society has the means to go after the violators. The lyrics of this parody are shown as follows: “I Just Called to Say Don’t Mine It” (Music: “I Just Called to Say I Love You” by Stevie Wonder) One day you said, you found some gold Up in the North and the site was far and cold You said you’ll be a millionaire In this remote site no inspector will be there You’ll make a pit, holes everywhere Waste in the river and you said nobody cares You’ll be so rich, so will your family Nobody will see where you’ll dump your mercury You just called to say you’ll mine it You just called to say that you don’t care  You just called to say you’ll mine the gold And you said that with nobody you’re gonna share I didn’t celebrate, I was quite surprised A little later you will pay a higher price I don’t believe you’re gonna tell Environmentalists they all should go to hell Mining is not a game, or a bordello Mining must change; I have learned this with Marcello I can help you you’re not alone To mine responsibly watch MINE 391 I just called to say don’t mine it I just called to say how much I care If you mine and don’t reclaim it I guarantee your life will be a nightmare NATURAL RECLAMATION IS NOT THE SOLUTION This parody follows a similar theme as the previous, claiming irresponsible mining is unacceptable. The argument that “natural reclamation” is efficient is challenged. The song is conducted by a student as the main personality who feels betrayed by his colleague who does not care about environmental issues in mining and thinks he/she can walk away leaving an abandoned mining site. This is presented to the students within the context of the Britannia Mine and other abandoned sites visible to the North American public. The lyrics refer to the typical legal, but not ethical, attitude: if a mining or environmental inspector cannot see the impacts, then miners can do whatever they want. The protagonist promotes voluntary initiatives as a way to improve the image of mining. “How Deep Is Your Mine” (Music: “How Deep is Your Love” by the Bee Gees) I saw your creek with a bloody color Your tailing dam is a show of horror And the moment that you spot an inspector there You wanna run to my arms again And you come to me with a lame excuse That Nature will work and the grass will grow It's not for me you need to show How deep is your mine, how deep is your mine, how deep I really mean to learn Cause you’re working with a bunch of fools Mucking around They wanna mine and walk away And now you ask for me to stay I believed in you  You said you’d take just a little gold You were delighted when you found the richest vein I don’t know why you don’t want to reclaim And you might be thinking that nobody will see But you know deep inside what a mess it will be It’s not for me you need to show How deep is your mine, how deep is your mine, how deep.... ACID RAIN ALSO COMES FROM OTHER LOCATIONS This parody introduces to students a more technical subject when the course approaches the acid rain problems generated by SO2 and NOx emissions. The song describes that the pH of the rain is slightly acid (due to dissolved carbonic acid) and becomes much more acid due to SO2 emissions especially from Mining and Non-ferrous Smelting that represents 34% of the SO2 emissions in Canada (Environment Canada, 2007). As mining students have strong aversion to Chemistry, the song attenuates this by demonstrating that the chemistry content in this course is more applied to real facts than in other courses where the memorization of formulas is common. The reaction of SO2 in clouds is stressed in the song, highlighting that acid rain can go very far. The parody indirectly refers to the Canadian commitment to reduce SO2 emissions to 3.2 million tonnes by the year 2000, a goal that was met in 1993. However, the United States (U.S.) targets a reduction of SO2 emissions by 14.8 million tonnes—more than six times greater than Canada's 2.4 million tonnes—to 8.2 million by 2010. This target seems to be difficult to meet, in spite of the emissions decrease by 38.9% from 1980 to 2003. Canada cannot win the fight against acid rain on its own. A reduction of acidic emissions from both Canada and the U.S. will stop acid rain (Environment Canada, 2007). As it is estimated that in some regions of Eastern Canada, between 30% and 90% of smog originates from the US (Environment Canada, 2007), this political problem is jocosely explored in this song through the figures of U.S. President George Bush and U.S. Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice. The song also mentions the high levels of emissions of SO2 originating from China due to the coal-power plants. In 2005, China emitted over 25.5 million tonnes of SO2, an increase of 71% from the 1990 level, and of 27% from the 2000 level (IEA Clean Coal Centre, 2006). The parody is also personalized by a student and concludes with humor that acid rain is making the singer bald and calls for a collective effort to solve this problem. “Acid Rain” (Music: “Have You Ever Seen the Rain” by Creedence Clearwater Revival) Someone told me long ago, to take chemistry in this school I know, I’ve been crying for some time But now I see how it can apply, all the B.S. I memorized I know, this course has opened my eyes Yes now I know, the pH of the rain I bet you don’t know, it’s not seven or even ten It’s 5.6 in the rain or snow But if you burn sulfides to the sky, in a day so sunny and dry  I know, the gas can travel and find a storm SO2 reacts so fast, sulfuric acid it’s gonna last I know, acid rain is gonna form Yes now I know, what is causing acid rain U.S. burning coal and the gases blow so far This is coming down to Canada Mr. Bush listen to me, Ms. Rice may not agree, but… I know, you have to blame somebody else You say the acid is Chinese; I don’t care and ask you please I know, the acid is killing my fish Yes now I know, how the acid is going to clouds The rain in my head, it’s the reason I’m getting bald Somebody help, I am singing loud WHY ACID ROCK DRAINAGE OCCURS The essential four components required to generate acid rock drainage (ARD) (exposed sulfides, bacteria, air and water) are highlighted in this parody that is brought to the student who supposedly said that he (as a young man) does not care about understanding ARD. The lyrics used in this parody are backed by the rhythm of a popular song by Village People, “YMCA”, and constantly ask the student why ARD is generated. The main message behind this parody is that Fe3+ is catalyzed mainly by Thiobaccilus ferrooxidans and is the villain in sulfide oxidation reactions (Skousen, 1996). The precipitation at pH>3 generates Hydrous Ferric Oxides. The song demands immediate prevention of ARD when it occurs and describes some methods of primary control, such as dry covers. Tertiary control (collect and treat) is also mentioned by using limestone. The lyrics also claim for the young miner’s responsibility for the environment showing that there is an ethical commitment before the legal obligation. This stresses that one day the young miner will be old and will see his ethical behavior being compensated. The song ends with a typical sentence repeated by many irresponsible miners “the solution for pollution is dilution”. In other words, most global legislation considers only the concentration, not the amount of heavy metal released into the water, as the main parameter for rehabilitation. This is not a responsible way to approach mine environmental management where compliance with the law through dilution will not reduce the tonnage of contaminated effluent being released. “Why ARD?” (Music: “YMCA” by the Village People) Young man, I understand you feel down I said young man, see the acid on the ground I said young man, this is going to the town And the trout in the stream will die Young man, when you said you don’t mind I say young man, look the iron oxides I say young man, there’s no way you can hide  Everything is red and you can’t lie You’re gonna ask me ….why ARD? You’re gonna ask me ….why ARD? The sulfides are there, bacteria everywhere Full of water and lots of air You’re gonna ask me ….why ARD? You’re gonna ask me….why ARD? Thiobaccilus is free, iron 2 becomes 3 Sulfuric acid you’re gonna see Young man, you are feeling alone Call your work friends, before they are all gone Ask for a hand, you cannot just postpone And then fill the site with limestone Young man, you cannot kill the bugs I said young man, stop the water with plugs You can cover it, all sulfides from air And no more acid you will see there One day you will find out….why ARD? One day you will find out….why ARD? The metals will leak, the fish will be sick Please don’t think this is magic One day you will find out….why ARD? One day you will find out….why ARD? You should go back to school, take your friends with you And you will learn what you have to do Young man, I’m fed up with this story I said young man, I cannot see the glory Of just mine, and then run away You must know somebody will pay Young man, I’m sure that one day You’ll be an old man, and I’m sure you’ll be proud To say I made it, all the mines you reclaimed They are clean and then no one complained And then you’ll say that you know ….why ARD? And then you’ll say that you know ….why ARD? If you had known it before, you could have done more And the image of mining won’t be poor And then you’ll say that you know ….why ARD? And then you’ll say that you know ….why ARD? You will see the solution for all this pollution Cannot be just simple dilution  ALKALINE DRAINAGE IS COMPLICATED This is a very technical and complex parody. Alkaline Drainage is a phenomenon that is very challenging to mining engineers. Since Antimony, Arsenic, Cadmium, Mercury, Molybdenum, Selenium, and Zinc remain relatively soluble in alkaline conditions (Masscheleyn et al., 1991; Tromans et al., 1996; Price and Errington, 1998), this is an intriguing topic. The song concerns a student who became a mining engineer not believing that Alkaline Drainage is possible. Now he/she is in a Tertiary Control plant using lime to precipitate metals, and he believes that if these metals are not precipitating then he/she needs to add more lime. The irony of his/her act is that when the solution has high levels of Fe2+, an increase in pH (>3) and further oxidation will transform this iron species into Fe3+ and precipitate Hydrous Ferric Oxides (HFO) adsorbing these metals (Jurado et al., 2000). The co-precipitation of HFO with As and Sb is a well-known process. When the original solution does not have sufficient iron, then it is suggested to add further Fe3+ to complete the removal of metals (Kontopoulos, 1998). Co-precipitation of As(V) has a maximum efficiency at pH 4 to 5, while co-precipitation of As (II) reaches a maximum at pH 8 (Lovgren et al., 2004; Swash and Monhemius, 1998). The precipitation of Arsenic as calcium arsenite or arsenate is possible, but these compounds are less stable for disposal (Castro and Muñoz, 2000) than ferric arsenate (Nishimura et al., 2000) in oxidizing conditions (Magalhães, 2002). The singer tries to explain this phenomenon to the young engineer, saying that it was not the excess of lime that caused the precipitation of the metals, but rather HFO co-precipitation. The singer becomes frustrated and ends the song saying that the engineer is just wasting money adding more and more lime when the solution is to add iron to the drainage in order to favor more co-precipitation. This is definitely not a trivial situation; however it does make the student well aware of this phenomenon, and offers a solution the problem. “Alkaline Drainage” (Music: Time after Time by Cyndi Lauper) Moly, antimony, arsenic and mercury Rise up the pH and in solution you’re gonna see These metals don’t sink, they are left behind And you waste your lime, but you don’t mind … Some time I try to say it’s not just acid you have to blame I know it’s hard to understand but come to school, don’t be ashamed You may say you don’t believe, you want more lime To be more alkaline Don’t be silly and stop adding even more…lime after lime This won’t help; you are wasting; please don’t pour…lime after lime If you have more iron there in solution you can see Hydroxide is gonna form if you oxidize iron 2 to 3 Co-precipitation is gonna occur, you will think it’s lime But it’s iron sucking metals from this bloody slime I guess you think that you are smart you are in co-op at UBC In the summer lots of dough and you don’t trust, what the Profs can teach You say it’s easy to precipitate whatever you’ve seen  Even with urine I have tried to explain with this poor song….rhyme after rhyme You don’t listen I am afraid to bite my tongue….time after time You insist you can clean any ARD with …lime after lime But you are wasting your money I can see….dime after dime STUDENT PARTICIPATION AND REACTIONS The students are also asked to form groups of approximately six members and, as part of the course grading scheme, develop their own parody to perform at the end of the course. This is a large event, similar to a talent show, and takes place at the end of the semester. As the songs must contain the essence of the environmental or social topic, the students must condense their messages to deliver their viewpoints about the theme. This exercise has forced students to study the relevance of the topic in order to build their parody instead of memorizing facts, figures, and definitions. It has been reported by students that they spend more time researching their topic for the parodies than studying as they would for a quiz. The instructors have also observed an incredible talent and excitement during the presentation of the parody to their peers. It is a happy and yet effective way to bring students’ attention to themes they otherwise would not have considered. The parody is an optional event, and for those who do not wish to participate (typically less than 5%), they have the option to complete a quiz on Acid Rock Drainage. However, it is observed during the quiz that many students change their minds and find the “courage” to sing. “Reclaim” (Music: “Cocaine” by Eric Clapton) If you came to this course and you are feeling remorse…exclaim But don’t say you’ll forget ‘cause you think it’s all crap…refrain Please don’t be, please don’t be, please don’t be…so lame If it is bad what I say, in the songs that I play…complain But if you want sing along, I will play all the songs…again This will be, this will be, this will be…insane If you don’t want to bring, a parody to sing…no pain Your grade can increase if you write up a quiz…fair game But you will have, you will have, you will have….no fame I hope now you know where the metals will go…food chain You cannot walk away, if you mined you will stay…sustain You must need, you must need, you must need to…reclaim As a follow-up exercise, 45 students were asked to complete a short survey at the end of the semester, focused on how they viewed the incorporation of music as a teaching strategy for this course. Questions focused on, for example: did the use of music assist them in understanding the main themes of the course;  did the addition of music enhance the learning environment; would they encourage the continued use of music in this course; and finally what was their overall rating of the musical experience in the classroom setting. A very large percentage of students (93%) identified that music did in fact enhance the learning environment. They also strongly supported the continued use of music in this course (91%). The majority of students reported that the addition of music was appropriate for each topic area (91%), and their overall rating of the musical experience was excellent (91%). CONCLUSION AND FINAL REMARKS Third-year Mining students who attend the course Mining and the Environment (MINE 391) at the University of British Columbia have little prior knowledge of environmental and social issues pertaining to the topic of mine reclamation. For the most part, their educational and work experiences as students are “technically” focused. The delivery of this course involves the incorporation of interactive music for two main reasons: first, to increase the motivation to learn and understand social and environmental issues and best practices associated with the mining industry; and second, to make this course a memorable and enjoyable experience. As a further benefit, this approach develops the ability of students to communicate and improve their interpersonal skills. The addition of music in this course has relaxed the classroom environment and made classes a happy event to attend. Instructors and students have in the process developed an excellent rapport. Importantly, students have indicated that this initiative has created a far better understanding and respect for the complex social and environmental issues that relate to the mining industry. REFERENCES Castro, S.H. and P. Muñoz. 2000. Removal of Arsenic (III) in Solution by Co-precipitation of Calcium Arsenite and Calcium Hydroxide. In Waste Treatment and Environmental Impact in the Mining Industry. Ed. M. Sanchez, F. Vergara and S. Castro. University of Concepcion, Chile. pp.121–129. Environment Canada. 2007. Government of Canada Five-Year Progress Report Canada Wide Standards for Particulate Matter and Ozone. <>. IEA Clean Coal Centre. 2006. Trends in SO2 Emissions. <>. Jurado, K., C. Zambrano and C. Lama. 2000. On Line Control Optimization to Remove Arsenic from Weak Acid Effluents. In Waste Treatment and Environmental Impact in the Mining Industry. Ed. M. Sanchez, F. Vergara and S. Castro. University of Concepcion, Chile. pp.109–119. Kontopoulos, A. 1998. Acid Mine Drainage Control. In Effluent Treatment in the Mining Industry. Ed. S. Castro, F. Vergara and M. Sanchez. University of Concepcion, Chile. pp.57–118.  Lovgren, L., B. Ohlander, I. Neretnieks, L. Moreno, M. Malmstrom, P. Elander, M. Lindvall and B. Lindstrom. 2004. MiMi Mitigation of the Environmental Impact from Mining Waste – Performance and Assessment: Main Report. Ed. L.O. Hoglund and R. Herbert. MiMi Ed. Lulea, Sweden. 345 p. Magalhães, M.C.F. 2002. Arsenic. An environmental problem limited by solubility. Pure & Applied Chemistry. Vol. 74, No. 10. pp. 1843–1850 Masscheleyn, P.H. R.D. Delaune and W.H. Patrick. 1991. Arsenic and Selenium Chemistry as Affected by Sediment Redox Potential and pH. Journal of Environmental Quality. Vol. 20, No. 3. pp. 522–527. Moore, S. and A. Ryan. 2006. Learning to play the drum: an experimental exercise for management students. Innovations in Education and Teaching International. Vol. 43, No. 4. pp. 435–444. Naud, J-P. 2005. Generation Y: how to motivate and manage. Annual General Meeting, Canadian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Toronto, 2005. Nelsen, J. 2006. Social License to operate. International Journal of Mining, Reclamation, and Environment. Vol. 20, No. 3. pp. 161–162. Nishimura, T., R.G. Bobins and L.G. Twidwell. 2000. The Removal of Arsenic from Hydrometallurgical Process and Effluent Streams. In Waste Treatment and Environmental Impact in the Mining Industry. Ed M. Sanchez, F. Vergara and S. Castro. University of Concepcion, Chile. pp. 131–141. Price, W.A. and Errington, J.C. 1998. Guidelines For Metal Leaching and Acid Rock Drainage at Minesites in British Columbia. British Columbia, Canada. 86 p. <>. Skousen, J. 1996. Acid Mine Drainage. In Acid Mine Drainage Control and Treatment. 2nd Ed. Ed. J. Skousen and P. Ziemkiewicz. West Virginia University, USA. pp. 9–12. Tromans, D., J.A. Meech and M.M. Veiga. 1996. Natural Organics and the Environmental Stability of Mercury: Electrochemical Considerations. Journal of Electrochemical Society. Vol. 143, No. 6. pp. L123–126. Veiga, M.M. and R. Baker. 2004. Protocols for Environmental and Health Assessment of Mercury Released by Artisanal and Small-scale Gold Miners. GEF/UNDP/UNIDO Global Mercury Project. Vienna, Austria. ISBN 92-1-106429-5. 289 p. Veiga, M.M., S.M. Metcalf, R.F. Baker, B. Klein, G. Davis, A. Bamber, S. Siegel and P. Singo. 2006. Manual for training artisanal and small-scale gold miners. GEF/UNDP/UNIDO. Vienna, Austria. 144 p. Veiga, M.M., M. Scoble and L. McAllister. 2001. Mining with communities. Natural Resources Forum. Vol. 25, No. 3. pp. 191–202.  


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