British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium

High elevation exploration : yesterday, today and tomorrow Lant, Jim; Beranek, David 1992

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th  Proceedings of the 16 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Smithers, BC, 1992. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  HIGH ELEVATION EXPLORATION - YESTERDAY, TODAY AND TOMORROW  James Lant, Line Creek Resources Ltd. David Beranek, Line Creek Resources Ltd.  Line Creek Resources Ltd. P.O. Box 2003 Sparwood, British Columbia V0B 2G0  34  th  Proceedings of the 16 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Smithers, BC, 1992. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  HIGH ELEVATION EXPLORATION YESTERDAY, TODAY AND TOMORROW It's nice to be back at the Symposium sharing thoughts and seeing familiar faces - and thank God for name tags, my memory has not improved with age. I recognize the face but name? my mind draws a blank. I am certain by the end of the Symposium most faces and names will be in sync and the dialogue will be open and friendly and as easy as has been the case for the previous Symposia. And with that I will begin our talk - High Elevation Exploration Reclamation - Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow. I will do the Yesterday and Tomorrow part and Dave will review the Today section. (Dave always says you're never here you're always talking days of yesterday or tomorrow). With that theme I will begin. YESTERDAY Once upon a time in British Columbia and especially in the East Kootenay we had: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11)  Mine exploration, Mine developments planned, Norm Ringstad was a Fish Biologist with a cause, Ray Crook was Jake McDonald's drinking partner, Roger Berdusco's hair was naturally curly and black, Tony Milligan smoked two packages of cigarettes and still does, Bob Heart was serving his sentence in the salt mines of Saskatchewan for his environmental practices, I'm sure he escaped and still has 20 years to serve, Agrologists, Biologists and Foresters took care of environmental concerns not lawyers and special self interest groups, The stature of Art O'Bryan ensured compliance and still does, Reclamation research was active, in fact the faculty and students of the University of Victoria would move en mass to the Kootenays, And last but not least you would see John Errington in the field following up on his research.  In fact the research that we are going to talk about today, a portion of the vegetation plots were established by John and his summer students. In the late 70's and early 80's we started reclaiming exploration disturbances, some dating back to the early 1950's as well as the new trials. Some of the old disturbances were some "Real Disturbances": -  8,000 feet, across prime winter range, no off the shelf techniques, seed mixes were in the experimental stages.  A prime example of this is the exploration work done by Crows Nest Resources Ltd. (C.N.R.L.) in the Ewin Pass area in the late 1970's, early 1980's. Site Description The Ewin Pass area is located in the Central Block of Line Creek Resources Ltd.'s coal properties, approximately 30 kilometres north of Sparwood in southeastern British Columbia. Elevation ranges from 2300 metres to 2500 metres. The climate in the area is generally characterized by hot summers with dispersed rain shower activity and winters varying from mild to severe with varying amounts of snowfall.  35  th  Proceedings of the 16 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Smithers, BC, 1992. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  The terrain in the area is steep (+/- 25° to 35°) and is susceptible to solifluction. The surface material varies in composition from till to mixtures of fine and coarse materials to colluvium with much interstitial fine sand, silt and clay. The permeability of the surface material varies from moderate to low. Ewin Pass is an area of high habitat diversity and is a transitional zone between subalpine and alpine. The area supports many animals including elk, sheep, mule deer, moose, black and grizzly bears and several predator species. By far the most abundant species found in the area are elk and sheep. (Schuerholz, 1982) Background In 1980 Crows Nest Resources Ltd. was granted approval for a continuation of its coal exploration program in the Ewin Pass area. At the end of the 1980 season, the total disturbance of the area amounted to 8.75 hectares of which approximately 7.25 hectares was road disturbance and the remaining area split between drill sites, trenches and adit sites. As part of this exploration project, a revegetation program was initiated that involved (a) recontouring, seeding and fertilizing of areas susceptible to high erodability, and (b) seeding and fertilizing of all remaining roads, trenches and drill pads. The seed mix used in the reclamation program was one which combined various perennial species of hardy grass and legumes capable of growing at high elevation. Listed below in Table A is the high elevation seed mix used in the revegetation program. As indicated, the main component of the seed mix used was that of sainfoin (Onobrychis viciaefolia) a tall leafy herbaceous legume that has good hardiness and is easy to establish. It also has a good palatability and can exist on 35 centimetres of moisture per year. Other seeds in the mix have similar qualities. Table A High Elevation Seed Mix "*"  % by Weight  Sainfoin  50  Meadow Foxtail  10  Boreal Creeping Red Fescue  10  Alsike Clover  10  Hard Fescue  5  Sheep Fescue  5  Red Top  5  Timothy  5 100  The seed mix was determined through previous seeding experience in the Rocky Mounts, and through discussion with Mr. Roger Berdusco, Environmental Manager, Fording Coal Ltd. and Mr. Allan Lamb, Agronomist, Interior Reforestation Ltd. At the time, there were concerns with the use of agronomics for reclamation purposes on high elevation sites: (1) (2) (3) (4)  that agronomics would not establish under the severe growing conditions, that the agronomics that did establish would not be productive and would simply be junk food, and that they would not supply a suitable ground cover to be effective for erosion control, that the agronomics would over-run the native range and choke out the natives.  36  th  Proceedings of the 16 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Smithers, BC, 1992. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  It is these concerns that will be addressed in the following discussion paper. TODAY In 1982 the Ministry of Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources (M.E.M.P.R.) established and assessed 10 sample plots on the Ewin Ridge reclaim areas. In 1985 the plots were reassessed by Crows Nest Resources Ltd. (C.N.R.L.) personnel with the following objectives:  (1) (2) (3) (4)  to catalogue species present in 1982 and 1985 and summarize the results, to explain any trends that are found in the data, such as changes in percentage cover, changes in native diversity and changes in species composition over time, to identify major pioneer species, and to collect soil fertility information to test for possible correlations between cover and fertility.  Summarization of the results indicate that native volunteers increased in both number of species and percentage cover, while agronomics originally seeded decreased in number of species and percentage cover. No tree seedlings were found in any of the plots. Several native species reputed to be pioneers invaded the sites, increased, or held their own since. (Fitzpatrick, 1985) In 1988, Crows Nest Resources Ltd. contracted JMJ Holdings Inc. to reassess the plots on Ewin Ridge and to establish more permanent plots, in natural areas adjacent to the reclamation plots. By establishing the plots in adjacent natural areas, the following objective was achieved. To measure the vegetation, forage production and forage quality on permanent sample plots of reclaimed and natural areas on Ewin Ridge and to compare the data with previous year's data. JMJ Holdings Inc. was again used in 1990 to complete the same study. Results of the 1988 and 1990 studies will be the focus of the discussion paper with references to the 1982 and 1985 results. Methods Plot Location Established reclamation plots on Ewin Ridge were relocated with the assistance of air photos and an extensive ground search. Plot corners and plot centre were marked with wooden stakes in a 4 x 4 metre square around the original plot centres. Samples in natural areas on Ewin Ridge were located adjacent to the reclamation plots in an undisturbed area that had the same slope, aspect and terrain features as the reclamation plot. Four metre x four metre plot corners and plot centre were marked with wooden stakes. Vegetation Assessment The 4 x 4 metre plots were assessed for the following: percent vegetation cover by species, vegetation height by species (cm), percentage seed heads, species vigour percentage bare soil, wildlife utilization. Forage Production  Forage was sampled by clipping to within three centimetres of the ground surface over four .25 x .25 37  th  Proceedings of the 16 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Smithers, BC, 1992. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  centimetre squares located within the centres of each quadrant of the sample plot. These samples were air dried at 40° Celsius for 24 hours and weighed. This gave an estimate of forage production over one square metre. Forage Quality Eight forage samples representative of the major types of reclaimed and natural plots were subjected to Van Soest series feed analysis by Norwest Laboratories of Lethbridge, Alberta. The following attributes were reported on a percentage basis for each sample. -  dry weight crude protein ADIN acid detergent fibre calcium phosphorus salt potassium magnesium  (Ketcheson, 1988)  Results - Effect of Reclamation It is important to note that permanent sample sites in reclaimed areas represent a variety of alpine ecosystems and the response of these areas to seeding vary. They do, however, represent the heterogeneity of an alpine environment common to the Line Creek area. We will investigate the overall response of this heterogenous alpine environment to the seed mixes used for reclamation in the original study. Appendix A-l and A-2 present vegetation cover data from each reclaimed and adjacent natural plot. Cover of seeded species alone on both reclaimed sites 1 and 2 is reported in Table 1. Cover of seeded species is generally lower on site 2 plots. Cover of site 2 plots has levelled off over the past three observations at between 40 and 47%. Cover of site 1 plots has been steadily increasing over the past three periods of observation. Cover of all species growing on reclaimed sites together with the overall proportion of total cover due to seeded species is reported in Table 2. In 1990 total vegetation cover on site 1 is lower than it was in 1988, and is proportionally higher with seeded species than with native species. Table 3 presents the change in cover of some individual seeded agronomic species between 1982 and 1990. On site 1 meadow foxtail and creeping red fescue are the species with the highest cover. They have been maintaining a steady state over the past eight years. Alsike clover is increasing slightly. On site 2 timothy and creeping red fescue have the highest cover and have been in a steady state over the period of observation. The cover of meadow foxtail is dropping off with time, while alsike clover is increasing in cover. There is a steady invasion of reclaimed sites by native species. Appendix A-2 presents a summary of native species found on these sites. Species such as fireweed, shrubby penstemon, yarrow, wild strawberry, silky phacelia, rough fescue, smooth brome, subalpine daisy, pussytoes, silky locoweed, cushion buckwheat, spike trisetum, arctic sandwort and lichens appears, usually with low cover. In 1990 the ratio of seeded agronomic to native species is lower than in previous years of observation. (Ketcheson, 1991) 38  th  Proceedings of the 16 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Smithers, BC, 1992. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  Total percent cover of seeded agronomic species on Ewin Ridge reclaimed sites.  Table 1  1982  1985  1988  1990  Site 1  51  37  52  62  Site 2  28  47  40  47  Entire Area  40  42  46  55  Total percent cover of all species on reclaimed sites on Ewin Ridge  Table 2  1982  1985  1988  1990  Site 1  52  67  72  63  Site 2  47  71  51  53  Entire Area  50  69  62  58  80%  61%  74%  95%  Proportion of total cover from seeded species  Percent cover of some seeded agronomic species on reclaimed sites of Ewin Ridge.  Table 3 Site 1  1982  1985  1988  1990  Meadow Foxtail  11  5  16  15  Creeping Red Fescue  28  24  28  28  Timothy  8  5  4  5  Alsike Clover  +  +  2  2  Meadow Foxtail  5  9  5  3  Creeping Red Fescue  4  20  18  15  16  14  11  17  2  3  1  9  Site 2  Timothy Alsike Clover (Ketcheson, 1991) Forage Production  Forage production on reclaimed sites on Ewin Ridge has been measured in 1985, 1988 and 1990. Table 4 presents the mean production of forage for wildlife over the period of observation. Forage production differed greatly between individual plots within each site. The range of values is at least as high as the mean in all sites during every year of observation. Generally, forage production was lower in 1990 on both reclaimed sites. Variation in production within a sampling year can be partially attributed to differences in ecological characteristics of sampling sites that relate directly to the potential of that site to produce forage.  39  th  Proceedings of the 16 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Smithers, BC, 1992. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  Forage Quality Forage samples from reclaimed sites on Ewin Ridge were analyzed for forage quality in 1988 and 1990. Table 5 presents the results of that analysis. Means only are reported in this table. The quality of the forage appears to have increased between 1988 and 1990. Crude and available protein are higher in 1990 when compared to 1988, there is also less fibre, and more phosphorus. These results should be interpreted with caution, however, as the degree of variability within forage samples is not well known for this area. Utilization by Wildlife Utilization by ungulates was generally light on reclaimed sites. Individual species exhibited moderate use. Sainfoin and fireweed appeared to be preferred, while timothy and alsike clover were lightly grazed. (Ketcheson, 1991) Table 4  Mean forage production on reclaimed sites of Ewin Ridge. Grams/sq.m.  1985  1988  1990  Site 1 Mean  22.1  20.7  16.3  Range  21.3  33.2  20.6  6.9  12.1  7.5  Mean  26.3  25.6  9.8  Range  42.7  32.7  11.1  Standard deviation  16.4  12.0  4.4  Standard deviation Site 2  Forage quality of reclaimed sites on Ewin Ridge.  Table 5  % crude % available protein protein  % acid fibre  % calcium  % phosphorus  1988  7.60  6.57  37.00  0.89  0.22  1990  10.70  8.80  36.50  0.77  0.26  (Ketcheson, 1991) Natural Sites on Ewin Ridge Ewin Ridge is located in the Dry Southern Cordilleran Engelmann Spruce Subalpine Fir parkland (ESSFap) and the Dry Southern Cordilleran Alpine Tundra (ATf). (Utzig et.al. 1983) Forage production and quality on undisturbed natural sites immediately adjacent to reclaimed sites is reported in Tables 6 and 7. In 1988 forage production was lower on undisturbed sites adjacent to site 1 and site 2 reclamation plots.  40  th  Proceedings of the 16 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Smithers, BC, 1992. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  In 1990 production was still less on undisturbed site 1 areas. Site 2 undisturbed areas had higher forage production than reclaimed areas. Forage quality is generally poorer on undisturbed natural areas. The species composition of undisturbed sites adjacent to reclaimed sites is presented in Appendix A-2. There is very little invasion of native sites by agronomic species. Meadow foxtail and sainfoin appear in a single plot with very low cover. It is important to note that undisturbed natural sites immediately adjacent to reclaimed sites vary between north facing parkland, south facing rough fescue grasslands and south facing alpine ridge tops. Table 8 summarized the ecological classification of each undisturbed natural sample. Table 9 presents total vegetation cover and forage production of both natural and reclaimed areas organized by ecological unit. Even when sample plots are grouped by an ecological classification, forage production and vegetation still varies. (Ketcheson, 1991) Table 6  Forage production on natural undisturbed sites on Ewin Ridge. Grams/sq.m.  1988  1990  Site 1 Mean  15.1  7.0  Range  69.4  5.5  Standard deviation  27.2  4.0  Mean  11.9  18.9  Range  26.3  28.2  Standard deviation  9.4  11.0  Site 2  Forage quality of natural sites on Ewin Ridge.  Table 7  % crude % available protein protein  % acid fibre  % calcium  % phosphorus  1988  6.63  5.70  36.50  0.57  0.17  1990  7.60  5.20  44.10  0.83  0.26  (Ketcheson, 1991)  41  th  Proceedings of the 16 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Smithers, BC, 1992. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  Table 8  Natural plot groupings of undisturbed sites on Ewin Ridge. Biophysical habitat units. (Demarchi et.al. 1988)  Plot #  Biogeoclimatic Subzone  Habitat Type  Nl-1  ESSFcp  Alpine larch - woolly pussytoes northern exposure (AW)  Nl-2  ESSFcp  Whitebark pine - grouseberry parkland (WG)  Nl-3  ESSFcp  Whitebark pine - grouseberry parkland (WG)  N2-5  ESSFcp  Whitebark pine - grouseberry parkland (WG)  Nl-4  ESSFcp  Rough fescue - wood forget-me-not grassland south to southeast facing (RWr)  N2-1  ESSFcp  Rough fescue - wood forget-me-not grassland south to southeast facing (RWr)  N2-3  ATf  White mountain avens - alpine smelowksia south facing ridge tops  Nl-5b  ATf  White mountain avens - alpine smelowksia south face ridge tops  Nl-5a  ATf  White mountain avens - alpine smelowksia south facing ridge tops  N2-2  ATf  White mountain avens - alpine smelowksia south face ridge tops  (Ketcheson, 1991)  42  th  Proceedings of the 16 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Smithers, BC, 1992. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  Table 9  Vegetation cover and forage production on reclaimed and adjacent undisturbed areas of Ewin Ridge.  Reclaimed Areas Plot  Habitat Unit  Aspect  1988 For. G/Sq.M.  Slope  1988 Veg. % Cov.  1990 For. G/Sq.M.  1990 Veg. % Cov.  R2-3*  AT(WA)  NW  11  8  49  7  30  R1-5A  AT (WA)  NW  40  23  42  -  -  R1-5B  AT(WA)  NW  35  7  60  7  55  R2-2  AT (WA)  W  40  22  42  11  55  Rl-2  ESSFcp (WG)  WSW  15  33  87  28  90  Rl-3  ESSFcp (WG)  S  40  37  85  17  40  R2-5  ESSFcp (WG)  ENE  65  31  57  16  70  R2-1  ESSFcp (RWr)  SE  45  41  54  5  55  Rl-4  ESSFcp (RWr)  SE  65  21  87  14  65  Rl-1  ESSFcp (AW)  NNW  25  4  29  -  -  Adjacent Undisturbed Natural Areas Plot  *  Habitat Unit  Aspect  1988 For. G/Sq.M.  Slope  1988 Veg. % Cov.  1990 For. G/Sq.M.  1990 Veg. % Cov.  N2-3  AT (WA)  NW  15  2  48  19  40  Nl-5  AT (WA)  NW  30  3  56  10  75  Nl-1  AT (WA)  W  35  4  99  11  85  Nl-2  ESSFcp (WG)  WSW  15  0  99  11  35  Nl-3  ESSFcp (WG)  S  40  1  77  8  85  N2-5  ESSFcp (WG)  ENE  65  16  60  9  50  N2-1  ESSFcp (RWr)  SE  60  25  84  37  80  Nl-4  ESSFcp (RWr)  SE  65  2  40  6  55  Nl-1  ESSFcp (AW)  NNW  40  69  95  -  -  the first digit in the plot number refers to the site, i.e. R2-3 is reclaimed site 2 plot 3. (Ketcheson, 1991)  43  th  Proceedings of the 16 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Smithers, BC, 1992. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  Discussion As one looks at the results of the continuing study of "Reclamation Sample Plots on Ewin Ridge", it is difficult to come up with any scientific conclusions. High variability within the plots and/or variability in the results indicate that the study must continue before definite conclusions can be made. However, even if scientific conclusions cannot be obtained from the study, early results, previous studies and general observation do indicate the following: (a)  That agronomics do establish on high elevation sites quite effectively and will sustain growth.  (b)  That agronomics will provide similar ground cover as to the surround native vegetation.  (c)  That forage production on reclaimed areas tends to be higher than that of undisturbed sites.  (d)  That forage quality is as high in agronomics as in the native vegetation. However, the high calcium to phosphorous ratios may be of concern for wildlife forage.  (e)  That native invasion into reclaimed areas is taking place and over time, the disturbed site will return to its natural state.  (f)  Utilization of the agronomics by wildlife does occur especially in the winter months.  A reassessment of the plots is scheduled for 1992. TOMORROW As you know, anybody that tries to peer closely into the crystal ball usually ends up with a cut eye as a result of the broken glass, but today even at a distance some interesting yet disturbing happenings are being increasingly evident. Let me go back to my introduction - "Once upon a time": (1) (2) (3) (4)  there was exploration, there were many mines in the planning stage, there was reclamation research happening, Biologists, Foresters and Agronomists controlled environmental issues, not lawyers and special interest groups. Did we do a good job? In actual fact not as bad as is made out to be. Yes there are problems; technically O.K., publicly terrible. Only dirty pictures are shown and talked about, we never share our successes.  As you can see things have changed and are continuing to change and not for the betterment of the mining community. The big question is "what can I do"? Market wise not very much but on the home front there is a great deal that we can do and must do. 1.  We must stand up as professionals and work to regain our credibility with the public as managers of the environment. -  The company environmental personnel were the first to lose their credibility with the public. The consulting family was next. Now, lastly, the government environmental personnel have gone down the same road. Not all but generally true. 44  th  Proceedings of the 16 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Smithers, BC, 1992. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  2.  We must challenge technical biases and work to have fact come forth.  3.  If publics want more involvement in our business, we welcome it, as long as they are honest, up front and not there simply as obstructionists. We need to have our review processes ensure public accountability.  4.  Our professional associations must enforce our Professional Code of Ethics and severely reprimand deviations from the code.  5.  Last but not least we must conduct ourselves in an honest open truly "professional manner" and work very closely with the key publics and keep them informed. Hence, develop a trust relationship.  If not it will continue to deteriorate and we will expend our limited resources killing paper tigers until the point of "Once upon a time" in the total province of British Columbia (1) (2) (3) (4)  there was exploration, there were mines planned, there was reclamation research, there was a Reclamation Symposium.  But fear not tomorrow Tony Milligan will still smoke two packages of cigarettes per day.  45  th  Proceedings of the 16 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Smithers, BC, 1992. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  REFERENCES Fitzpatrick, J., 1985  An Assessment of Ewin Ridge M.E.M.P.R. Reclamation Plots, C.N.R.L., (unpublished)  Ketcheson, M.V., 1988  An Assessment of Permanent Reclamation Sample Plots on Crows Nest Resources Limited's Ewin Ridge Properties and Coal Plant Facility 1988, JMJ Holdings Ltd., (unpublished)  Ketcheson, M.V., 1991  An Assessment of Permanent Reclamation Sample Plots on Crows Nest Resources Limited's Ewin Ridge Properties and Coal Plant Facility 1990, JMJ Holdings Ltd., (unpublished)  Schuerholz, G., 1982  An Ecological Survey of the Ewin Sheep Population Based on a One Year Field Program Between December 1980 and December 1981, Taesco, (unpublished)  46  th  Proceedings of the 16 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Smithers, BC, 1992. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation APPENDIX A-1 SITE R1-1 EWIN RIDGE  RECLAIMED  PERCENT COVER  COMMON NAME  LATIN NAME  1982  1985  creeping red fescue  Festuca rubra  35  bluegrass meadow foxtail spiked woodrush Kentucky bluegrass sheep fescue moss spike trisetum timber oatgrass draba variably-leaved cinquefoil field chickweed fireweed pussytoes sedge alpine bluegrass artic sandwort Drummond's rock cress hard fescue Canada bluegrass Timothy red top Eriogonium willow sedge sedge small yellow comp wheatgrass garden sorrel yarrow sandwort (grasslike) sandwort (black capsules)  Poa grayana Alopecurus pratensis Luzula spicata Poa pratensis Festuca ovina van brevifolia Trisetum spicatum Danthonia intermedia Draba sp. Potentilla diversifolia Cerastium arvense Epilobium angustifolium Antennaria sp. Carex practicola Poa alpina Arenaria obtusiloba Arabis drummondii Festuca cinerea Poa compressa Phleum pratense Agrostis alba Eriogonium sp. Salix sp. Carex #1 Carex #2 Asteraceae Agropyron caninum Rumex acetosa Achillea millefolium Arenaria aculeata Arenaria rubella (?)  4  1988  1990  10  15  N/S  8 7 5 4 3 2 0.5  2 2  2 0.5 1  0.5  0.5  0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5  4 2 2 1 0.5  0.5  2  0.5 0.5  1 0.5 4 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5  Litter cover Total cover  3 45  13 48  7 30  Number of volunteer spp. Number of 1982 agronomic spp. Number of other agronomic species TOTAL NUMBER OF SPECIES  3 5 1 9  13 3 1 17  14 3 1 18  15.7  3.5  Biomass production g/sq metre  47  th  Proceedings of the 16 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Smithers, BC, 1992. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation APPENDIX A-1 SITE R1-2 EUIN RIDGE  RECLAIMED  PERCENT COVER  COMMON NAME  LATIN NAME  1982  1985  1988  1990  meadow foxtail creeping red fescue Timothy alsike clover sainfoin fireweed moss ragwort rock cress wheatgrass rough fescue hard fescue red top red willow-weed yarrow strawberry daisy-1ike vegetative  Alopecurus pratensis Festuca rubra Phleum pratense Trifolium hybridum Onobrychis viciaefolia Epilobium angustifolium  20 30 5 0.5 0.5  20 12 10 2 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5  45 20 10 8  45 20 15 3  2  0.5  1  2  Senecio sp. Oraba sp. Agropyron caninum Festuca scabrella Festuca cinerea Agrostis alba Epilobium latifoliun Achillea millefolium Fragaria virginiana Asteraceae  4 1 0.5 0.5 0.5  0.5  1  Litter cover Total cover  3 60  35 90  30 87  30 90  Number of volunteer spp. Number of 1982 agronomic spp. Number of other agronomic species TOTAL NUMBER OF SPECIES  3 7 0 10  6 5 0 11  3 4 0 7  0 4 0 7  29.2  41.3  Biomass production g/square metre  48  th  Proceedings of the 16 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Smithers, BC, 1992. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation APPENDIX A-1 SITE R1-3 EUIN RIDGE  RECLAIMED  PERCENT  COMMON NAME  LATIN NAME  creeping red fescue  Festuca rubra  25  meadow foxtail Timothy wheatgrass smooth brome fireweed yarrow tansy mustard silky phacelia hard fescue red top foxtail barley sheep fescue dockweed draba sulfur buckwheat yellow penstemon  Alopecurus pratensis Phleum pratense Agropyron caninum Bromus inermis Epilobium angustifoilum Achitlea mitlefoliun Descurainia richardsonii Phacelia sericea Festuca cinerea Agrostis alba Hordeum jubatum Festuca ovina var ovina Rumex acetosella Draba incerta Eriogonum umbellatum Penstemon confertus  25 7  1982  0.5 0.5  1985  COVER 1988  1990  30  15  5  20 2 1 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5  40 5 2 5 5 5  25  3 1 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5  2 4 2  2 60  3  1 1  Litter cover Total cover  5 60  30 80  30 85  20 40  Number of volunteer spp. Number of 1982 agronomic spp. Number of other agronomic species TOTAL NUMBER OF SPECIES  5 6 0 11  6 3 0 9  7 3 0 10  4 3 0 7  18.4  36.7  Biomass production g/square metre  49  16.7  th  Proceedings of the 16 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Smithers, BC, 1992. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation APPENDIX A-1 SITE R1-4 EWIN RIDGE  RECLAIMED  PERCENT COVER  COMMON NAME  LATIN NAME  1982  1985  1988  1990  creeping red fescue  Festuca rubra  25  30  30  45  timothy meadow foxtail alsike clover yarrow red top sainfoin native smooth brocne strawberry roundleaf alumroot firewed bluegrass silky phacelia unknown herb hard fescue white-leaved phacelia penstemon heart-leaved arnica wheatgrass Drummond's rockcress sticky willowherb Rough fescue  Phleum pratense 7 Alopecurus pratensis 5 Trifoliun hybridum 1 Achillea millefolium 0.5 Agrostis alba 1 Onobrychis viciaefolia 0.5 Bromus inermis var pumpellianus Fragaria virginiana 0.5 Heuchera cylindrica Epilobiun angustifolium 0.5 Poa grayana Phacelia sericea  10 3 2 2 2 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5  10 7 1 7 1 1 15 2 0.5 1  2 3 0.5 5 1 1 5 0.5 0.5  1  0.5  1  0.5 0.5  Festuca cinerea Phacelia hastate Penstemon sp. Arnica cordata Agropyron canium Arabis drummondii Epilobium glandulosum Festuca scabrella  2 1 1 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5  0.5  0.5  Litter cover Total cover  3 45  15 70  12 77  10 65  Number of volunteer spp. Number of 1982 agronomic spp. Number of other agronomic species TOTAL NUMBER OF SPECIES  9 7 0 16  8 6 0 14  8 5 0 13  7 5 0 14  32.6  21  13.55  Biomass production g/sq m.  50  th  Proceedings of the 16 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Smithers, BC, 1992. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation APPENDIX A-1 SITE R1-5 EWIN RIDGE  RECLAIMED  PERCENT COVER  COMMON NAME  LATIN NAME  creeping red fescue Kentucky bluegrass brome timothy lance-leaved stonecrop Jacob's ladder silky phacelia yarrow crested uheatgrass silky locoweed bluegrass spike trisetum Canada bluegrass diverse-leaved cinquefoil artic sandwort moss unknown herb unknown aster red top sainfoin sheep fescue eriogonum northern fairy candelabra cinquefoil spike trisetum Jacob's ladder lance-leaved stonecrop timothy yellow hedysarum smooth brome  Festuca rubra Poa pratensis Bromus sp. Phleum pratense Sedum lanceolatum Polemonium pulcherrimum Phacelia sericea Acillea millefolium Agropyron cristatum Oxytropus sericea Poa sp. Trisetum spicatum Poa compressa Potent ilia diversifolia Arenaria obtusiloba  R1-5A 1982  R1-5A 1985  R1-5A 1988  R1-5B 1985  25  35 8 12 5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5  35  45 15 3 5 0.5  1 20  2 0.5  5 0.5  0.5  0.5  0.5  5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5  0.5  0.5 Asteraceae Agrostis alba Onobrychis viciaefolia Festuca ovina var. ovina Eriogonum sp. Androsace Potent ilia sp. Trisetum spicatum Polemonium pulcherrinum Sedum lanceolatum Phleum pratense Hedysarum sulphurescens Bromus inermus  0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5  1  0.5 0.5 0.5  0.5  Litter cover Total cover  3 48  17 70  5 44  20 90  Number of volunteer spp. Number of 1982 agronomic spp. Number of other agronomic species TOTAL NUMBER OF SPECIES  5 5 1 11  7 2 2 11  6 2 2 10  9 2 2 13  25.4  23  11.3  Biomass production g/sq.m.  51  th  Proceedings of the 16 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Smithers, BC, 1992. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation APPENDIX A-1 SITE R2-1 EWIN RIDGE  RECLAIMED  COMMON NAME  LATIN NAME  PERCENT COVER 1982  1985  1988  1990  timothy  Phleum pratense  2  20  12  9  creeping red fescue meadow foxtail orchard grass silky phacelia white-leaved phacelia red top alsilce clover Canada bluegrass pubescent uheatgrass sainfoin Kentucky bluebrass spike trisetum fireweed penstemon golden draba oval-leaved eriogonum unknown herb yarrow hard fescue Califonia brome sedge cinquefoil willowherb white mountain-avens showy aster alpine bluegrass vegetative penstemon shrubby penstemon subalpine daisy wheatgrass  Festuca rubra Atopecuris pratensis Dactyl is glomerata Phacelia sericea Phacelia hastata Agrostis alba Trifolium hybridum Poa compressa Agropyron trichophorum Onobrychis viciaefolia Poa pratensis Trisetum spicatum Epilobium angustifolium Penstemon rydbergii Draba aurea Eriogonum ovalifolium  2  20 3 2 2 2 1 1 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5  15 0.5 1 0.5  5 0.5 2  0.5 1 0.5 0.5  0.5 0.5  Achillea millefolium Festuca cinerea Bromus carinatus Carex sp. PotentiI la sp. Epilobium alpinum Dryas octopetala Aster conspicuus Poa alpina Penstemon sp. Penstemon confertus Erigeron peregrinus Agropyron caninum  0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5  2 15  30  0.5  1  1 0.5  0.5 2  0.5 3 0.5 0.5 0.5  LITTER COVER TOTAL COVER  0.5 7  15 65  10 54  50  Number of volunteer spp. Number of 1982 agronomic spp. Number of other agronomic species TOTAL NUMBER OF SPECIES  9 8 0 17  8 7 3 18  8 6 0 14  4 5 0 9  46.6  41.3  5.34  BIOMASS PRODUCTION G/SQ.M.  52  th  Proceedings of the 16 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Smithers, BC, 1992. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation APPENDIX A-1 SITE R2-2  RECLAIMED  COMMON NAME  LATIN NAME  PERCENT COVER 1982  1985  1988  1990  creeping red fescue  Festuca rubra  3  20  20  20  timothy meadow foxtail bluegrass wheatgrass moss bluegrass silky phacelia Canada bluegrass fireueed silky locoueed diverse-leaved cinquefoil draba wood forget-me-not lance-leaved stonecrop spike uoodrush field chickweed red top hard fescue alsike colver sainfoin yarrow pussytoes Jacob's ladder snow cinqufoil subalpine daisy , . alpine bluegrass  Phleum pratense Alopecurus pratensis Poa sp. Agropyron caninum  10 4  10 7 6 5 4 4 2 2 1 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5  10 0.5 5 1  15 5  Poa grayana Phacelia sericea Poa compressa Epilobium angustifolfum Oxytropus sericea Potentilla diversifolia Draba ventosa Hyosotis sylvatica Sedum lanceolotum Luzula spicata Cerastium arvense Agrostis alba Festuca cinerea Trifolium hybridum Onobrychis viciaefolia Achillea millefolium Antennaria sp. Polemonium pulcherrinum Potentilla nivea Erigeron peregrinus Poa alpina  2  1 1 1 0.5 0.5 0.5  1 0.5  0.5 2  0.5 0.5 5  0.5  0.2 0.5  0.5  1 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5  0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5  LITTER COVER TOTAL COVER i '  0.5 28  22 73  12 42  10 55  Number of volunteer spp. Number of 1982 agronomic spp. Number of other agronomic species TOTAL NUMBER OF SPECIES  2 8 0 10  14 4 0 18  12 4 0 16  10 5 0 15  18.4  21.8  11.1  BIOMASS PRODUCTION G/SQ.M.  53  th  Proceedings of the 16 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Smithers, BC, 1992. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation APPENDIX A-1  SITE R2-3 EWIN RIDGE  RECLAIMED  PERCENT COVER  COMMON NAME  LATIN NAME  1982  1985  creeping red fescue  Fest rub  8  bluegrass timothy  Poa sp. Phieuro pratense  meadow foxtail  Alopecurus pratensis  moss  1988  1990  30  20  20  20  15 7  5 0.5  6  6  10  Rhacomitrium/Polytrichum  3  1  spike trisetum  Trisetum spicatum  2  artic sandwort  Arenaria obtusiloba  1  Canada bluegrass  Poa compressa  diverse-leaved cinqufoil lichen oval-leaved eriogonum  Potent ilia diversifolia 0.5 1 Eriogonum ovalifolium 0.5  0.5 0.5 0.5  silky phacelia yarrow alpine bluegrass red top  Phacelia sericea Achi Uea millefolium Poa alpina Agrostis alba  0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5  snow cinqufoil lance-leaved stonecrop  Potentilla nivea Sedun lanceolatum  0.5 0.5  sainfoin  Onybrychis viciaefolia  0.5  wood forget-me-not  Myosotis sylvatica  0.5  sheep fescue  alsike clover penstemon  penstemon  Festuca ovina var ovina  3  Trifolium hybridum  1  Penstemon sp.  Penstemon rydbergii  3  6  3  1  1 2  2  3  2  0.5  0.5 0.5 0.5  0.5  0.5  0.5  fireweed  Epilobium angustifolium  0.5  fairy candelabra sandwort  Androsace sp. Arenaria aculeata  0.5 0.5  vegetative locoweed  Astragalus sp.  0.5  lichen Care spp.  Cetraria sp.  0.5  0.5 0.5  LITTER COVER TOTAL COVER  2 39  20 60  8 49  5 30  Number of volunteer spp. Number of 1982 agronomic spp. Number of other agronomic species  9 6 0  13 5 0  8 3 0  8 3 0  TOTAL NUMBER OF SPECIES  15  18  11  11  3.9  8.6  6.5  BIOMASS PRODUCTION G/SQ.M.  54  th  Proceedings of the 16 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Smithers, BC, 1992. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation APPENDIX A-1 SITE R2-5 EUIN RIDGED  RECLAIMED  COMMON NAME  LATIN NAME  PERCENT COVER 1982  1985  1988  1990  timothy  Phi euro pratense  30  20  20  45  meadow foxtail creeping red fescue alsike clover moss red top fireweed yarrow Canada bluegrass bluegrass silky phacelia lance-leaved stonecrop hair bentgrass orchardgrass sainfoin white mountain avens hard fescue alpine willowherb white-leaved phacelia desert parsley few-seeded draba wild strawberry slender hawksbeard yellow penstemon fleabane sedge  Alopecurus pratensis Festuca rubra Trifolium hybridum Rhacocnitrium Agrostis alba Epilobium angustifolium Achillea millefoliun Poa compressa Poa interior Phacelia sericea Sedum lanceolatum Agrostis scrabra Dactyl is glomerata Onybrychis viciaefolia Dryas octopetela Festuca cinerea Epilobium atpinum Phacelia hastata Lomatium sp. Draba oligosperma Fragaria virginiana Crepis atrabarba Penstemon confertus Erigeron spp. Carex spp  5 4 3  20 10 10 10 2 2 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5  10 15 5 2  2 15 5  1 3 0.5  1 0.5  0.5 0.5 0.5  0.5 0.5  1 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5  LITTER COVER TOTAL COVER  4 43  25 85  15 57  20 70  Number of volunteer spp. Number of 1982 agronomic spp. Number of other agronomic species TOTAL NUMBER OF SPECIES  7 7 0 14  7 6 1 14  4 4 0 8  4 9 0 13  36.4  30.8  16.14  BIOMASS PRODUCTION G/SQ.M.  55  th  Proceedings of the 16 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Smithers, BC, 1992. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation APPENDIX A-2 EWIN RIDGE NATURAL VS. RECLAIMED PLOTS PLOT NAME 1-1  COMMON NAME  LOCATION downslope from reel 1-1 bearing 336 for 24.7 m. heather dominated snow pocket  LATIN NAME  NNU facing slope 25X  1988 1988 1990 1990 NAT. PLOT RECL.PLOT NAT. PLOT RECL.PLOT %COVER %COVER %COVER %COVER  4-angled mountain heather Cassiope tetragons bluegrass Poa grayana willow Salix sp. buckwheat Eriogonum sp. yellow mountain avens Dryas drummondii vegetative composite Asteraceae reticulate-leafed willow Salix reticulata spike trisetum Trisetum spicatum sheep fescue Festuca ovina Jacob's ladder Poleroonium pulcherrimum snow cinqufoil Potent!I la nivea vegetative sedge Carex sp.#1 acute-leafed sandwort Arennaria aculeata spike woodrush Luzula parviflora bare soil  20 20 20 15 5 5 3 2 1 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 10  0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 15 0 0 4 0.5 0 70  TOTAL COVER FORAGE G/SQ M  93.5 69.44  29 3.54  56  N/S  N/S  th  Proceedings of the 16 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Smithers, BC, 1992. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  APPENDIX A-2 EUIN RIDGE NATURAL VS. RECLAIMED PLOTS PLOT NAME 1-2  COMMON NAME  grouseberry subalpine fir locoweed Lyall's goldenueed engelmann spruce mountain bells whitebark pine bluegrass alpine larch fireweed wild strawberry umber pussytoes chickweed sedge rough fescue cinqufoil dryland goldenrod white mountain avens net-leaved willow sandwort sainfoin alsike clover meadow foxtail red fescue wheatgrass timothy red willowherb bare soil TOTAL COVER FORAGE G/SQ M  LOCATION upslope from reel 1-2 approx 30 m. Krumholtz forest  LATIN NAME  SW facing slope 15X  1988 1988 1990 1990 NAT. PLOT RECL.PLOT NAT.PLOT RECL.PLOT %COVER %COVER %COVER %COVER  Vaccinium scoparium Abies lasiocarpa Oxytropus sp. Haplopappus lyallii Picea engelmannii Stenanthium occidental is Pinus albicaulis Poa grayana Larix lyallii Epilobium angustifolium Fragaria virginiana Antennaria umbrinella Stellaria sp. Carex sp. Fescue scabrella Potent ilia sp. Solidago spathulata Druas octopetalc Salix nival is Arenaria capilaris Onybrychus viciaefolia Trifolium hybridum Alopecurus pratensis Festuca rubra Agropyron caninum Phleum pratense Epilobium latifolium  70 50 25 20 8 5 5 4 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0  12  1 0.5 2  1 7 2 2 2 0.5  0 99 0  57  13 87 32.54  65 35 11.35  3 45 20 2 15 0.5 15 85 27.7  th  Proceedings of the 16 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Smithers, BC, 1992. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation APPENDIX A-2 EWIN RIDGE NATURAL VS. PLOT NAME 1-3  RECLAIMED PLOTS LOCATION directly upslope from reel 1-3 25 m grassy alpine  COMMON NAME  LATIN NAME  timber oatgrass grouseberry moss low pussytoes round-leaved alumroot shrubby penstemon sedge common juniper yarrow fireweed rough fescue chickueed smooth brome meadow foxtail subalpine daisy red fescue sandwort larkspur bare soil  Danthonia intermedia Vaccinium scoparium Rhacomitrium sp. Antennaria dimorpha Heuchera cylindrica Penstemon confertus Carex sp. Juniperus communis Achillea millefolium Epilobium angustifolium Festuca scabrella Stellaria sp. Bromus inermis Alopecurus pratensis Erigeron peregrinus Festuca rubra Arenaria capilaris Delphinium spp.  TOTAL COVER FORAGE G/SQ M  S facing slope 40%  1988 1988 1990 1990 NAT. PLOT RECL.PLOT NAT.PLOT RECL.PLOT %COVER %COVER %COVER %COVER 20 20 10 10 5 4 2 2 1 1 1 1  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 5 0 0  20 20 18 15 10 5 3 2 2  1  2 4  2 25 1 5  10  15  2 0.5 15  77 1.12  85 36.7  85 8  58  60 40 16.7  th  Proceedings of the 16 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Smithers, BC, 1992. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  APPENDIX A-2 EWIM RIDGE NATURAL VS. RECLAIMED PLOTS PLOT NAME 1-4  LOCATION located 30 rn at a SE facing bearing of 210 from slope 65X reel 1-4 plot centre herb rich alpine  COMMON NAME  LATIN NAME  shrubby penstemon sulphur buckwheat pussytoes grouseberry sandwort whitebark pine wild strawberry rough fescue meadow foxtail yarrow rockcress lance-leaved stonecrop chickweed round-leaved alumroot vegetative aster saxifrage smooth brome timber oatgrass grouseberry crested wheatgrass heart-leaved arnica sedge red fescue sainfoin timothy silky phacelia fireweed wheatgrass alsike clover bare soil  Penstemon confertus Eriogonum umbellatum Antemaria sp. Vaccinium scoparium Areneria capillaris Pinus albicaulis Fragaria virginiana Festuca scabrella Alopecurus pratensis Achillea millefolium Arabis sp. Sedum lanceolatum Stellaria sp. Heuchera cylindrica Aster sp. Saxifraga sp. Bromus inermis Danthonia intermedia Vaccim'um scoparium Agropyron cristatum Arnica cordata Carex spp. Festuca rubra Onobrychus viciaefolia Phleum pratense Phacelia sercea Epilobium angustifolium agropyron caninum trifolium hybridura  TOTAL COVER FORAGE G/SQ M  1988 1988 1990 1990 NAT. PLOT RECL.PLOT NAT.PLOT RECL.PLOT %COVER %COVER %COVER %COVER 7 0 0.5 7 0 8 5 0 5 4 0 3 3 0 8 3 2 8 5 2 0 15 0.5 1 7 0.5 3 1 7 10 5 0.5 0 0.5 0.5 0 0.5 0.5 0 2 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0 0.5 0 3 0.5 15 8 1 0.5 0 0.5 10 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 45 1 2 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 35 5 45 35 40 1.98  59  77 20.99  55 5.9  65 13.55  th  Proceedings of the 16 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Smithers, BC, 1992. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation APPENDIX A-2 EWIN RIDGE NATURAL VS. RECLAIMED PLOTS PLOT NAME 1-5  LOCATION located 39 m at a NU facing bearing of 218 from slope 30X reel 1-5B plot centre Dryas dom alpine tundra  COMMON NAME  LATIN NAME  white mountain avens fireueed smooth brome net-leaved willow vegetative whitebark pine bluegrass snow cinquefoil bright green lichen spotted saxifrage white lichen buckwheat net-leaved willow lance-leaved stonecrop lumpy white lichen sheep fescue gray leafy lichen spike trisetum red fescue kentucky bluegrass silky phacelia crested wheatgrass bare soil  Dryas octopetala Epilobium angustifolium Bromis inermis Salix nival is Asteraceae Pinus albicaulis Poa grayana Potentilla nivalis Cetraria sp. Saxifrage bronchial is Cladonia sp. Eriogonum sp. Salix nivalis Sedum lanceolatum Stereocaulon sp. Festuca ovina Peltigera sp. Trisetum spicatum Festuca rubra Poa pratensis Phacelia sericea agropyron cristatum  1988 1988 1990 1990 NAT. PLOT RECL.PLOT NAT.PLOT RECL.PLOT %COVER %COVER %COVER %COVER 30 5 4 3 3 3 1 1 1 1 1 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5  0 0 0 0 0.5 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0  75 1 10 3 0.5 1  7  3 0.5  TOTAL COVER FORAGE G/SQ M  60  35  62  25  40 5 0.5 2 45  56 3.3  90 7.3  75 9.9  55 7.1  th  Proceedings of the 16 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Smithers, BC, 1992. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  APPENDIX A-2 EWIN RIDGE NATURAL VS. RECLAIMED PLOTS PLOT NAME 2-1  LOCATION located appro. 10 m at a bearing of approx ten degrees from reel 2-1 rough fescue dom alpine  COMMON NAME  LATIN NAME  rough fescue sulphur buckwheat wild strawberry fireweed pussytoes cushion buckwheat shrubby penstemon sandwort sedge yarrow silky phacelia wheatgrass bluegrass round-leaved alumroot alsike cover thimothy red fescue orchard grass meadow foxtail silverleaf phacelia sainfoin Rydber's penstemon bare soil  Festuca scabrella Eriogonum umbellatum Fragaria virginiana Epilobiun angustifolium Antennaria sp. Eriogonum ovalifolium Penstemon confertus Arennaria sp. Carex sp. Achillea millefolium Phacelia sericea Agropyron caninun Poa grayana Heuchera cylindrica Trifoliura hybridum Phleum pratense Festuca rubra Dactylis glomerate Alopecurus pratensis Phacelia hastate Onobrychis viciaefolia Penstemon rydbergii  SE facing slope 60%  1988 1988 1990 1990 NAT. PLOT RECL.PLOT NAT. PLOT RECL.PLOT %COVER %COVER %COVER %COVER 60 5 4 4 4 3 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5  TOTAL COVER FORAGE G/SQ M  61  0 0 0 0 0 0 0.5 0 0 0 0.5 0.5 1 0  60 10 3 0.5  0.5 0.5 0.5 2 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5  0.5  13  50  20  30 9 5 2 0.5 2 1 0.5 50  84 25  54 41.3  80 36.75  50 5.34  th  Proceedings of the 16 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Smithers, BC, 1992. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation APPENDIX A-2 EWIN RIDGE NATURAL VS. RECLAIMED PLOTS PLOT NAME 2-2  LOCATION located 22 m upslope WSW facing from reel 2-2 at a slope 35% bearing of 23 degrees dryas dom alpine 1988 1988 1990 1990 NAT. PLOT RECL.PLOT NAT. PLOT RECL.PLOT %COVER %COVER %COVER %COVER  COMMON NAME  LATIN NAME  white mountain avens moss white tubular lichen pumpelly brome fireweed bluegrass whitebark pine Drummond's rockcress dryland goldenrod snow cinquefoil sheep fescue bright green lichen vegetative composite yellow hedysarun Lodgepole pine Rough fescue Huckleberry Net-leaved willow red fescue timothy meadow foxtail Canada bluegrass subalpine daisy pussytoes yarrow silky locoweed field chickweed lance-leaved stonecrop wheatgrass Jacob's ladder sainfoin bare soil  Dryas octopetala Rhacomitrium Cladonia sp. Bromis inermis var pumpellianus Epilobium angustifolium Poa grayana Pinus albicaulis Arabis drumnondii Solidago spathulata Potentilla nivalis Festuca ovina Cetraria sp. Asteraceae Hedysarun sulphurescens Pinus contorta Festuca scabrella Vaccinium spp Salix nivalis Festuca rubra Phleum pratense Alopecurus pratensis Poa compressa Erigeron peregrinus Antennaria spp Achillia millefolium Oxytropic sericea Cerastium arvense Sedum lanceolatum Agropyron caninum Polemonium pulcherrimum Onybrychis viciaefolia  TOTAL COVER FORAGE G/SQ M  62  80 30 5 5 2 1 1 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5  0 0 0 0 2 5 0 0 0 0.5 0 0.5 0  70  5 1 0.5 0.5  0.5 0.5  0.5  5 1 2 0.5 0.5 20 15 5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5  .  0  60  15  45  99 4.38  42 21.84  85 11.3  55 11.1  th  Proceedings of the 16 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Smithers, BC, 1992. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation APPENDIX A-2 EWIN RIDGE NATURAL VS. RECLAIMED PLOTS PLOT NAME LOCATION 2-3  located 39 m at a bearing of 247 degrees from reel 2-3 plot centre dryas dom ridgetop alpine  COMMON NAME  LATIN NAME  white mountain avens btuegrass sandwort sheep fescue spotted saxifrage Lyall's goldenweed brown ciliate lichen yellow lichen rockcress pussytoes snow cinquefoil leafy lichen white clumpy lichen lace-leaved stonecrop sedge red fescue meadow foxtail cushion buckwheat silky phacelia arctic sandwort spike trisetum bare soil  Dryas integrifolia Poa grayana Arennaria sp. Festuca ovina Saxifraga bronchialis Haplopappus lyallii Cetraria ciliaris Cetraria sp. Arabis sp. Antennaria sp. Potent ilia nival is Peltigera sp. Stereocaulon sp. Sedum lanceleolatum Carex spp. Festuca rubra Alopecurus pratensis Eriogonum ovalifolium Phacelia sericea Arenaria obtusiloba Trisetum spicatum  NW facing slope 15%  1988 1988 1990 1990 NAT. PLOT RECL.PLOT NAT. PLOT RECL.PLOT %COVER %COVER %COVER %COVER 35 3 3 2 1 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5  0 5 2 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.5 0 0  30 0.5 2 0.5 0.5 2  0.5  2 0.5  0.5  0.5 1  TOTAL COVER FORAGE G/SQ M  63  60  50  60  0.5 20 3 2 0.5 2 1 60  48 1.67  49 8.64  40 19.1  30 6.5  th  Proceedings of the 16 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Smithers, BC, 1992. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation APPENDIX A-2 EWIN RIDGE NATURAL VS. PLOT NAME 2-5  RECLAIMED PLOTS LOCATION located directly upslope approximately 20 m from reel 2-5 plot centre grouseberry/fescue alpine  COMMON NAME  LATIN NAME  grouseberry subalpine fir fireueed rough fescue meadow foxtail shrubby penstemon pussytoes uhitebark pine sedge mountainbells subalpine daisy wild strawberry spotted saxifrage yarrow round-leaved alumroot mountain valerian bracted louseuort heart-leaved arnica chickweed violet snow cinquefoil leafy lichen inland bluegrass bare soil  Vaccinium scoparium Abies lasiocarpa Epilobium angustifolium Festuca scabrella Alopecuris pratensis ' Penstemon confertus Antennaria sp. Pinus albicaulis Carex albo-nigra Stenanthiun occidentale Erigeron peregrinus Fragaria virginiana Saxifraga bronchialis Achillea millefolium Heuchera cylindrica Valeriana sitchensis Pedicularis bracteosa Arnica cordifolia Stellaria sp. Viola sp.0.5 Potentilla nivea Peltigera sp. Poa interior  NE facing slope 65%  1988 1988 1990 1990 NAT. PLOT RECL.PLOT NAT. PLOT RECL.PLOT %COVER %COVER %COVER %COVER  TOTAL COVER FORAGE G/SQ M  64  25 10 7 5 3 1 1 1 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5  0 0 1 0 10 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.5 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  50 60 16.49  30 10 10 5 0.5 0.5 1 1 0.5 5 0.5  1 2  0.5  0.5 0.5 3 0.5 0.5  45  0.5 0.5 50  0.5 10  57 30.84  50 8.53  70 16.14  

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