British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium

Mine waste dump management study : a progress report Hawes, Robert A.; Standish, Jace 1986

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th  Proceedings of the 10 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Vernon, BC, 1986. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  MINE WASTE DUMP MANAGEMENT STUDY: A PROGRESS REPORT  ROB HAWES  JACE STANDISH  NORECOL ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS LTD.  th  Proceedings of the 10 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Vernon, BC, 1986. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  BACKGROUND STUDY FOR THE TECHNICAL AND RESEARCH COMMITTEE ON RECLAMATION, FUNDED LARGELY BY THE CANADA-BRITISH COLUMBIA MINERAL DEVELOPMENT SUBSIDIARY AGREEMENT,  CONDUCTED BY: NORECOL ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS LTD ASSISTANCE:  WRIGHT ENGINEERS LIMITED THURBER CONSULTANTS LIMITED POLSTER ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES  th  Proceedings of the 10 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Vernon, BC, 1986. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  OBJECTIVES OF STUDY O TO DEVELOP CRITERIA FOR WASTE DUMP MANAGEMENT FOR FUTURE AS WELL AS PAST DUMPS O EVALUATE THE MAJOR ENGINEERING (MATERIALS HANDLING, COST) STABILITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS IMPORTANT FOR CONSIDERATION o CONSIDER THE NEED FOR AND WHEN RESLOPING MAY BE REQUIRED  th  Proceedings of the 10 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Vernon, BC, 1986. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  OBJECTIVES OF THIS PRESENTATION O STUDY IS IN PROGRESS AND RESULTS ARE NOT COMPLETE  o PRESENT INTERIM RESULTS FROM LITERATURE SURVEY, INTERVIEWS AND INDUSTRY QUESTIONNAIRE O PRESENT SOME INITIAL FINDINGS AND OBTAIN FEEDBACK FROM AUDIENCE  th  Proceedings of the 10 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Vernon, BC, 1986. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  OVERVIEW OF PROBLEM LEGISLATION: GENERAL REQUIREMENT FOR RECLAMATION UNDER O MINES RECLAMATION ACT (1969) 11(1) O COAL MINES REGULATION ACT (1969) 8 (1) O MEMPR GUIDELINE (1984) O "ALL WASTE DUMPS SHALL BE RECLAIMED IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE LAND USE OBJECTIVES" O "WASTE DUMPS SHALL BE RECONTOURED SO THAT THE ANGLE OF REPOSE DOES NOT EXCEED 27 DEGREES, UNLESS PROVED THROUGH FIELD SCALE TRIALS THAT LAND USE AND PRODUCTIVITY OBJECTIVES CAN BE OTHERWISE ACHIEVED"  …CONT’D  th  Proceedings of the 10 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Vernon, BC, 1986. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  COST:  O RESLOPING CAN BE LARGEST RECLAMATION COST ITEM  O OUTSTANDING RECLAMATION COSTS ON ACTIVE MINING SITES TOTAL MILLIONS OF DOLLARS -COSTS WILL BE GREATLY AFFECTED BY RESLOPING DECISIONS  … C O N T 'D  th  Proceedings of the 10 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Vernon, BC, 1986. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  ENVIRONMENTAL O BENEFITS DIFFICULT TO QUANTIFY O MUCH VARIABILITY IN CONDITIONS FROM MINE TO MINE O NEED TO PROVIDE GUIDELINES - REASONABLY SIMPLE FOR ADMINISTRATION, ETC - BUT, BY NATURE, CAN TEND TO BE: ARBITRARY AND INFLEXIBLE OR TOO VAGUE AND GENERAL O EXTREMES ARE LESS DIFFICULT: E.G. - LIFE OR PROPERTY ENDANGERED - VERY HIGH VALUE SPAWNING STREAM - REMOTE AREAS WITH ONLY LOW WILDLIFE HABITAT VALUES O IN BETWEEN CASES CAN BE PROBLEMATIC INSTITUTIONAL o TOO MANY INDIVIDUAL COMPANIES AND GOVT AGENCIES ACTING IN RELATIVE ISOLATION ?  th  Proceedings of the 10 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Vernon, BC, 1986. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  PROGRESS - WHAT HAS BEEN DONE ? O LITERATURE SEARCH  CAN MET DATA BANK 30,000 SOURCES >200 "POTENTIAL" REFERENCES 116 REVIEWED 28 DIRECTLY RELEVANT REFERENCES OTHER SOURCES LIBRARIES INFORMATION ON HAND (PROCEEDINGS,ETC)  … CONT'D  th  Proceedings of the 10 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Vernon, BC, 1986. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  QUESTIONNAIRES TO INDUSTRY  - 30 SENT 11 RESPONSES TO DATE (EXPECT SOME MORE TO COME)  SOME VALUABLE DESCRIPTIVE DATA ( SEE TABLE FOR EXAMPLE)  … CONT'D  th  Proceedings of the 10 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Vernon, BC, 1986. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  th  Proceedings of the 10 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Vernon, BC, 1986. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  th  Proceedings of the 10 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Vernon, BC, 1986. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  WASTE DUMP CLASSIFICATION  -  5 CONFIGURATIONS  -  USEFUL FOR COST ANALYSIS  -  MAY ALSO BE APPLIED TO OTHER CONSIDERATIONS  -  EXAMPLES (FIGS, 1 - 5)  COST ANALYSIS -  FRAMEWORK DEVELOPED  -  NEEDS SOME REFINEMENTS  -  NEED GOOD INPUT DATA FOR COSTS AND VALUES !  -  SEE EXAMPLE  th  Proceedings of the 10 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Vernon, BC, 1986. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  CONCLUSIONS (INTERIM) O IN GENERAL, CRITERIA ARE WIDELY DOCUMENTED IN LITERATURE; NEED TO KNOW HOW TO WEIGHT VARIOUS CRITERIA IN VARIOUS SITUATIONS AND NEED A FRAME WORK FOR GUIDING DECISION MAKING O END LAND USE AND COSTS ARE COMMONLY THE MOST IMPORTANT CRITERIA IN DETERMINING WHETHER OR NOT AREAS SHOULD BE RESLOPED O SHOULD NOT LOOK AT WASTE DUMPS IN ISOLATION CONSIDER LAND USE AND PRODUCTIVITY IN PERSPECTIVE OF THE TOTAL MINE AREA O ANY ONE, RIGID, BLANKET RULE SUCH AS ALL DUMPS MUST BE SLOPED TO 26 DEGREES - MAY NOT BE JUSTIFIABLE o WASTE DUMP CLASSIFICATION AND COST ANALYSIS METHODS MAY BE USEFUL AIDS FOR RECLAMATION DECISION MAKING O RESLOPING CONSIDERATIONS REQUIRE ENGINEERING, COST AND GEOTECHNICAL CONSIDERATIONS AS WELL AS ENVIRONMENTAL  th  Proceedings of the 10 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Vernon, BC, 1986. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  I. Valley Bottom / Internal Pit Operation • PIT AND WASTE DUMPS ESTABLISHED ON FLAT LAND • DEVELOPMENT OF PIT RIMS • HAULS BECOME MORE ADVERSE AS OPERATIONS MATURE • DUMP CAN BE TERRACED ECONOMICALLY TO CREATE FLATTER ANGLES  EXAMPLE: COMINCO’S VALLEY COPPER OPERATION  th  Proceedings of the 10 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Vernon, BC, 1986. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  2. Mountain Bench / Daylighted Pit Operation •  OREBODY ON SIDE OF MOUNTAIN, SLOPE GRADIENTS 20 DEGREES APPROX.  •  OREBODY SHALLOW AND IT'S PLUNGE PARALLEL TO SLOPE OF GROUND  •  MOST OF BENCH DAYLIGHTED  •  HAULAGE OF WASTE FLAT TO DUMP  •  NECCESITY FOR MAINTAINANCE OF HAULAGE BERMS RESULTS IN DUMP FACE SLOPES 16-23 DEGREES  EXAMPLE: ABANDONED DUMPS OF CRAIGMONT MINES  th  Proceedings of the 10 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Vernon, BC, 1986. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  3. Mountain Bench/Internal Pit Operation •  SITUATION OF OREBODY EXCLUDES POSSIBILITY OF DAYLIGHTING THE BENCHES  •  PIT RIM ESTABLISHED EARLY  •  WASTE HAUL IS ADVERSE TO PIT RIM THEN FLAT TO DUMP  •  DUMP BERM ADVANCED BY END DUMPING, CREATING A 37 DEGREE SLOPE FROM DUMP CREST TO TOE  •  TOO EXPENSIVE TO CONSTRUCT AT FLATTER ANGLES  EXAMPLE: GIBRALTER MINES  th  Proceedings of the 10 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Vernon, BC, 1986. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  4. Mountainous Terrain/Daylighted Pit Operation •  HIGH ON MOUNTAIN SIDES ( > 37 DEGREES, > 100 M)  •  SHALLOW OREBODY ENABLING DAYLIGHTED BENCHES  •  NEED CONSIDERABLE WASTE DUMPAGE TO ESTABLISH A CONTINUOUS SLOPE BACK FROM VALLEY FLOOR TO DUMP ELEVATION  •  HIGH TENDENCY FOR CREEP IN UNSTABLE WASTES (EG. OVERBURDENS) WHICH SPILL ACROSS VALLEY FLOOR  •  THUS, POSSIBLE NEED FOR TOE DYKES OR OTHER MEANS OF CONTAINMENT  •  UPON ESTABLISHMENT OF DUMP BERM, BUILT AT A REDUCED SLOPE ANGLE  DUMPS MAY BE  EXAMPLE: FORDING COAL (EAST KOOTENAYS)  th  Proceedings of the 10 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Vernon, BC, 1986. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  5. Terraced Slopes •  IDENTICAL TO N0.4,  ONLY  BENCHES NOT  DAYLIGHTED  •  SINGLE DUMP ELEVATION AT PIT RIM  •  SHALLOW OREBODY, NEED CONSIDERABLE WASTE DUMPAGE TO ESTABLISH A CONTINUOUS SLOPE AND UNSTABLE WASTES TEND TO CREEP  •  TOO EXPENSIVE TO CONSTRUCT  DUMP SLOPE AT FLATTER  ANGLE •  POST-OPERATIONAL  •  CONTAINMENT  RESLOPING  (ONCE  DUMP INACTIVE)  MAY BE PROVIDED BY TOE DYKES  EXAMPLE: BETHLEHEM MINES  th  Proceedings of the 10 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Vernon, BC, 1986. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  VARIABLES CONSIDERED IN COST ANALYSIS •  SLOPE ANGLE , CONTINUOUS OR TERRACED  •  RESLOPING  •  REVEGETATION  •  CONSTRUCTION COST (INCREMENTAL $ / HA DUE TO $/+ HAULED DURING CONSTRUCTION OF DUMP TO INITIAL 27°) NOT USED IN EXAMPLE  •  DUMP HEIGHT  •  GROUND SLOPE  •  SLOPE LENGTH  •  TOE LAND  •  RESLOPE VOLUME ( VOL. MOVED IN RESLOPING PER METRE LATERAL DUMP TO DISTANCE)  •  REHANDLE (APPROX. % OF ABOVE THAT MUST BE REHANDLED IN RESLOPING THE DUMP)  •  LAND  •  COST  ($/m 3  MOVED)  COST  VALUES  ORIGINAL  ASSESSED VALUE OR END USE OF LAND OCCUPIED BY DUMP  RECLAIMED  VALUE OR POTENTIAL LAND USE OF RESLOPED DUMP SURFACE  NOTE (COST AND LAND VALUE DATA USED IN EXAMPLES ARE ORDER OF MAGNITUDE ESTIMATES)  th  Proceedings of the 10 Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium in Vernon, BC, 1986. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation  

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