Workshop for Instruction in Library Use (WILU) (45th : 2016)

Discovering the junction : professor expectations and student interpretations of academic skills Parlette-Stewart, Melanie; Schnablegger, Laura; Rushe, Shannon May 31, 2016

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D I S C O V E R I N G  T H E  J U N C T I O N :  PROFESSOR  EXPECTAT IONS  AND  S TUDENT  I N T ERPRETAT IONS  O F  ACADEM IC  SK I L L SMelanie Parlette-Stewart | Laura Schnablegger (absent) | Shannon Rushe (absent)University of GuelphPHOTO CREDIT: Markus Spiske / raumrot.comINTRODUCTIONLearning &                      Curriculum Support                  Team @ the                                    University of Guelph Library• Front-line support to students • Learning, Research and WritingWitnessing challenges in student skill development• Across disciplinesCollaborative, cross-unit research project• Funded by the University of Guelph’s Scholarship of Teaching and Learning GrantSeries of disconnects• Between the learning, writing and information literacy skills professors expect students to possess and the skills students think they possess when they enter the course.• Between professor expectations of student skill requirements and student interpretation of skill requirements from the course outline.• Between professor and student understandings of where students should develop these skills (i.e. in class or outside of class).OBJECTIVESTo identify the gap between the learning, writing and information literacy skills professors expect students to possess before a course and which of these skills students think that they have when they enter the course To identify which skills professors explicitly articulate to their students and indicate they expect in their courses, and which skills professors expect students to develop outside of the courseTo identify which skills students seek to develop based on their interpretations of professor expectationsTo evaluate, across multiple disciplines, students’ ability to articulate and identify the skills necessary for particular third-year courses before and after taking these coursesTo recommend curriculum support and academic service delivery based on these findings. To inform the content strategy of the Virtual Learning Commons @ the University of Guelph LibraryLITERATURE REVIEWLack of literature on the extent to which professors communicate to students the skills they expect them to develop. Some assumption that students possess academic skill sets when they enter courses or that students will develop these skill sets independently (Mager and Sproken-Smith, 2014).No consistent approach to the development of necessary skills within courses, programs, disciplines, or across disciplines. Professor communication of skill expectations is often limited and “fails to provide sufficiently clear guidelines for the students, in terms of the level of mastery they are expected to reach” (McGuinnes, 2006). DATA COLLECTIONFaculty Recruitment• Summer 2015Faculty Survey• Summer 2015Student Survey #1• Week 1,2 Fall 2015Student Survey #2• Week 11,12 Fall 2015Data Analysis• Winter/Spring 2016DATA OVERVIEWNumber of Student Participants 1904 Total StudentsSurvey 1: 900 (47%)Survey 2: 566 (30%)Number of Classes / FacultyNumber of 3rd Year Classes Invited: 281Total Participating Classes: 24 (8.5 %)Number of Skills RatedTotal: 33Information Literacy: 11Learning: 11Writing: 11DATA OVERVIEW321Top Student Responses(33 potential academic skills)I Already Have This SkillI Do Not Need This Skill17314Top Faculty Responses(33 potential academic skills)Students are Expected to Already HaveThis SkillStudents do Not Require this SkillI will Teach this SkillDATA OVERVIEWLearningWritingResearch22211261110545653382933Percentage of Student ResponsesStrongly Disagree Disagree Neither Agree nor Disagree Agree Strongly AgreeI feel confident in applying my learning, writing and research skills to future courses.We asked students to respond to the statement:DISCOVERING THE DISCREPANCIES• The students’ options were coded as:• 1= I already have this skill• 2= I expect to be taught this skill during course time (instructor or other)• 3= I expect to develop this skill outside of course time• 4= I do not need this skill for this course• Faculty options were coded as:• 1= Students are expected to come into the course with this skill• 2= The skill will be taught during course time (instructor or other)• 3= This skill must be developed by the student outside of class time• 4= Students do not need this skill for my course.SAMPLE STUDENT SURVEY QUESTIONSAMPLE FACULTY SURVEY QUESTIONIS THERE A DISCREPANCY?Student Response: Student Response:Faculty Response:Faculty Response:Question 1: Question 2:Yes!No!DISCOVERING THE DISCREPANCIES• Assumption: any option (out of four options) which received more than 50% of respondents from the student survey can represent the general opinion of the student sample in a particular class. • This study, therefore, compared the students’ option (which received more than a 50% response rate) and the faculty option for each measurement item for each class. DISCREPANCY DATA: BY SKILL AREA• Overall discrepancy rate is 63%Information Literacy• 58% (Y)• 43% (N)Learning• 69% (Y)• 31% (N)Writing• 63% (Y)• 37% (N)SAMPLE FINDINGS: Select relevant, current, academic and non-biased sources for use in my assignment(s)141872 2511: I already have thisskill / Students expectedto have skill12: I already have thisskill / Skill will be taught13:  I already have thisskill / Skill must bedeveloped outside ofclass14: I already have thisskill / Students do notneed this skill44: I don't need this skill/Students do not needthis skill0:  No one optiongreater than 50%DISTRIBUTION OF DISCREPANCY SCENARIOS71% DiscrepancySkill: I2 Note: *All other discrepancy combinations did not occurSAMPLE FINDINGS: Search a variety of resources (library databases) and source types to find information1913531711: I already have thisskill / Students expectedto have skill12: I already have thisskill / Skill will be taught13:  I already have thisskill / Skill must bedeveloped outside ofclass14: I already have thisskill / Students do notneed this skill44: I don't need this skill/Students do not needthis skill0:  No one optiongreater than 50%DISTRIBUTION OF DISCREPANCY SCENARIOS58% DiscrepancySkill: I1 Note: *All other discrepancy combinations did not occurSAMPLE FINDINGS: Create appropriately formatted bibliographies / works cited25103 31 2411: I already havethis skill / Studentsexpected to haveskill12: I already havethis skill / Skill will betaught13:  I already havethis skill / Skill mustbe developed outsideof class14: I already havethis skill / Studentsdo not need this skill41: I don't need thisskill / Studentsexpected to haveskill44: I don't need thisskill/ Students do notneed this skill0:  No one optiongreater than 50%DISTRIBUTION OF DISCREPANCY SCENARIOS44% DiscrepancySkill: I6 Note: *All other discrepancy combinations did not occurSAMPLE FINDINGS: Meet standards of conduct for academic integrity (i.e. avoiding plagiarism)368411: I already have this skill / Students expected tohave skill12: I already have this skill / Skill will be taught 13:  I already have this skill / Skill must bedeveloped outside of classDISTRIBUTION OF DISCREPANCY SCENARIOS25% DiscrepancySkill: I7 Note: *All other discrepancy combinations did not occurWHICH SKILLS DO STUDENTS WANT HELP WITH?WHICH SKILLS DO STUDENTS WANT HELP WITH? INFORMATION LITERACY SKILLSExamples: “Researching appropriate background articles for final project” “Researching and applying appropriate information” “Coming to conclusions when looking at controversial research” “Connecting creative ideas with scientific data to support them” “Critically analyzing readings and reports”WHICH SKILLS DO STUDENTS WANT HELP WITH? WRITING & LEARNING SKILLSExamples: “Structuring my thoughts coherently in writing” “Time management on the big projects and not feeling overwhelmed and getting stuck” “How to write the required assignments to meet and exceed expected level” “Grammar. Don’t know how to use commas.”WHICH SKILLS DO STUDENTS WANT HELP WITH? AFFECTIVE SKILLSExamples: “Studying motivation” “Being more inquisitive and being more confident in asking questions in class” “Paying more attention during the 8:30 class” “Making friends” “Listening in class during boring lectures”FURTHER FINDINGS: DISCREPANCY TRENDSDiscipline Survey 1 Survey 2Social Sciences + Humanities61% 58%Sciences 68% 65%FURTHER FINDINGS: DISCREPANCY TRENDS Survey 1 Survey 2 All Surveys65% 62% 63%FINDINGS: COURSE OUTLINE ANALYSIS• Which skills do professors articulate they will teach in their course and which skills they expect students to develop outside of class time?• Currently conducting NVIVO analysis– content analysis of course outlines to determine how course skills are articulated and the frequency– coding and analyzing for theseA C T I V I T YL O O K I N G  AT  C O U R S E  O U T L I N E S• What challenges might students encounter when interpreting a syllabus?• What opportunities do you have in  your practice to decrease the disconnect between student interpretation and faculty expectations of academic skills?IMPLICATIONSFor Practice• Make skills explicit in Course Outlines, Provide resources for students to develop skills• Map and scaffold skills to curriculum• Develop collaborative partnerships to support student skill development on program or curriculum committees• Support faculty in skill instruction• Advocate for student skill developmentFor Research• Academic Support Staff can provide additional perspectives and be partners in SoTL research• A multidisciplinary approach to skill development research builds awareness of disciplinary assumptions and generalizations• Skill development research benefits from a holistic understanding of student learning (learning, writing and research).FUTURE RESEARCHStudent perception of skill level vs. student demonstration of skill levelConnection between assessment of content knowledge and skill level Explore relationship between skill instruction and skill assessmentStudent determination of academic skills required in courses / disciplinesQuestions?CONTACTMelanie Parlette-Stewart, Blended Learning Librarian mparlett@uoguelph.ca@mparstewREFERENCESCharmain, C. (2011). Student perception of academic writing skills activities in a traditional programming course. Computers & Education, 58:1028-1041. Retrieved from http://www.lib.uoguelph.ca/Crosthwaite, I. et al. (2006). Balancing curriculum processes and content in a project centred curriculum: In pursuit of graduate attributes. Chemical Engineering Research and Design, 84(A7): 619-628. Retrieved from http://www.lib.uoguelph.ca/Fraser, K. and Thomas, T. (2013). Challenges of assuring the development of graduate attributes in a Bachelor of Arts. Higher Education Research & Development, 32(4):545-560. Retrieved from http://www.lib.uoguelph.ca/Haigh, A. (2012). You can lead students to the Library, but can you make them do research? The effect of syllabus design and content on undergraduates’ perceptions and use of the academic library. Journal of Business & Finance  Librarianship, 18 (1): 33-48). Retrieved from  http://www.lib.uoguelph.ca/Mager, S. and Spronken-Smith, R. (2014). Graduate attribute attainment in a multi-level undergraduate geography course.Journal of Geography in Higher Education, 38(2): 238-250. Retrieved from http://www.lib.uoguelph.ca/McGuinness, C. (2006). What faculty think - Exploring the barriers to information literacy development in undergraduate education. The Journal of Academic Librarianship, 12(6): 573-582. Retrieved from http://www.lib.uoguelph.ca/Mounce, M. (2010). Working together: Academic librarians and faculty collaborating to improve students’ information literacy skills: A literature review 2000-2009. The Reference Librarian, 51(4): 300-320. Retrieved from http://www.lib.uoguelph.ca/Raven, M. (2012). Bridging the gap: Understanding the differing research expectations of first-year students and professors. Evidence Based Library and Information Practice, 7(3). Retrieved from http://www.lib.uoguelph.ca/Walter, S. and Eodice, M. (2007). Meeting the student learning imperative: Supporting and sustaining collaboration between academic libraries and student services programs. Research Strategies, 20: 219-225. Retrieved from http://www.lib.uoguelph.ca/SKILLS: INFORMATION LITERACYSkill ID StatementI1 Search a variety of resources (library databases) and source types ( to find information)I2 Select relevant, current, academic and non-biased sources for use in my assignment(s)I3 Use effective search strategies, keywords and criteria to find appropriate information sourcesI4 Access full text information, both print and digital, and download online material and dataI5 Cite printed and electronic sources using suitable and appropriate reference stylesI6 Create appropriately formatted bibliographies / works citedI7 Meet standards of conduct for academic integrity (i.e. avoiding plagiarism)I8 Use appropriate data management software and techniques to manage dataI9 Analyse and present data without misrepresentationI10 Use appropriate software (i.e. spreadsheet, technical, etc.)I11 Develop a personal profile in the community using appropriate personal networks and digital technologies (i.e. discussion lists, social networking sites, blogs, etc.)SKILLS: LEARNINGSkill ID StatementL1 Interpret sources and develop an opinion when presenting an argumentL2 Present a clear and consistent message, using appropriate language for audience needs in oral presentations and class discussionsL3 Work with group members to achieve group goals and complete a group/team projectL4 In group or team projects, offer alternative solutions that build on the ideas of othersL5 Identify multiple approaches for solving problems and implement or recommend solutions in course work or assignmentsL6 Self-check understanding of course content by reviewing and monitoring learningL7 Independently connect examples, facts or theories from more than one field of study or perspectiveL8 Adapt studying and exam preparation techniques based on the type of assessment (i.e. multiple choice vs. essay answer)L9 Apply time management skills and strategies (i.e. to-do lists and calendars) to manage multiple deadlinesL10 Use texts and lecture content to deepen understanding of course material and complete course assignmentsL11 Use presentation techniques (i.e. good posture, eye contact, vocal expressiveness, and audience engagement) during oral presentationsSKILLS: WRITINGW1 Develop a thesis or main argument in written tasksW2 Use academic evidence to support your thesis or main argument in written tasksW3 Paraphrase, quote and summarize academic sources in written tasksW4 Develop introductions, body paragraphs and conclusions in written tasksW5 Plan, manage, and divide writing processW6 Use correct grammatical forms, sentence construction and punctuation in written tasksW7 Use transitions to establish flow between ideas in written tasksW8 Use appropriate language and tone based on assignment expectations (i.e. audience and purpose) in written tasksW9 Select a writing structure and format based on the type of assignment (i.e. literature review, lab reports, critical review, research essay)W10 Sequence ideas in logical order using paragraphs in written tasksW11 Select and use academic or disciplinary vocabulary in written tasksW1 Develop a thesis or main argument in written tasksSAMPLE DISCREPANCY FINDINGS: WRITING• Meet standards of conduct for academic integrity (i.e. avoiding plagiarism)620021000000001001811: I already have this skill / Students expected to have skill12: I already have this skill / Skill will be taught13:  I already have this skill / Skill must be developed outside of class14: I already have this skill / Students do not need this skill21: I expect to be taught this skill during class / Students expected to…22:  I expect to be taught this skill during class / The skill will be taught…23:  I expect to be taught this skill during class / Skill must be…24:  I expect to be taught this skill during class / Students do not need…31:  I expect to develop this skill outside of class / Students expected…32:  I expect to develop this skill outside of class/ The skill will be…33: I expect to develop this skill outside of class/ Skill must be…34:  I expect to develop this skill outside of class/ Students do not…41: I don't need this skill / Students expected to have skill42:I don't need this skill/ The skill will be taught during course time43: I don't need this skill/ Skill must be developed outside of class44: I don't need this skill/ Students do not need this skill0:  No one option greater than 50%SAMPLE DISCREPANCY FINDINGS: LEARNING• Select relevant, current, academic and non-biased sources for use in my assignment(s)214170301000000002011: I already have this skill / Students expected to have skill12: I already have this skill / Skill will be taught13:  I already have this skill / Skill must be developed outside of class14: I already have this skill / Students do not need this skill21: I expect to be taught this skill during class / Students expected to…22:  I expect to be taught this skill during class / The skill will be taught…23:  I expect to be taught this skill during class / Skill must be…24:  I expect to be taught this skill during class / Students do not need…31:  I expect to develop this skill outside of class / Students expected…32:  I expect to develop this skill outside of class/ The skill will be…33: I expect to develop this skill outside of class/ Skill must be…34:  I expect to develop this skill outside of class/ Students do not…41: I don't need this skill / Students expected to have skill42:I don't need this skill/ The skill will be taught during course time43: I don't need this skill/ Skill must be developed outside of class44: I don't need this skill/ Students do not need this skill0:  No one option greater than 50% D I S C O V E R I N G  T H E  J U N C T I O N :  PROFESSOR  EXPECTAT IONS  AND  S TUDENT  I N T ERPRETAT IONS  O F  ACADEM IC  SK I L L SMelanie Parlette-Stewart | Laura Schnablegger (absent) | Shannon Rushe (absent)University of GuelphPHOTO CREDIT: Markus Spiske / raumrot.comINTRODUCTIONLearning &                      Curriculum Support                  Team @ the                                    University of Guelph Library• Front-line support to students • Learning, Research and WritingWitnessing challenges in student skill development• Across disciplinesCollaborative, cross-unit research project• Funded by the University of Guelph’s Scholarship of Teaching and Learning GrantSeries of disconnects• Between the learning, writing and information literacy skills professors expect students to possess and the skills students think they possess when they enter the course.• Between professor expectations of student skill requirements and student interpretation of skill requirements from the course outline.• Between professor and student understandings of where students should develop these skills (i.e. in class or outside of class).OBJECTIVESTo identify the gap between the learning, writing and information literacy skills professors expect students to possess before a course and which of these skills students think that they have when they enter the course To identify which skills professors explicitly articulate to their students and indicate they expect in their courses, and which skills professors expect students to develop outside of the courseTo identify which skills students seek to develop based on their interpretations of professor expectationsTo evaluate, across multiple disciplines, students’ ability to articulate and identify the skills necessary for particular third-year courses before and after taking these coursesTo recommend curriculum support and academic service delivery based on these findings. To inform the content strategy of the Virtual Learning Commons @ the University of Guelph LibraryLITERATURE REVIEWLack of literature on the extent to which professors communicate to students the skills they expect them to develop. Some assumption that students possess academic skill sets when they enter courses or that students will develop these skill sets independently (Mager and Sproken-Smith, 2014).No consistent approach to the development of necessary skills within courses, programs, disciplines, or across disciplines. Professor communication of skill expectations is often limited and “fails to provide sufficiently clear guidelines for the students, in terms of the level of mastery they are expected to reach” (McGuinnes, 2006). DATA COLLECTIONFaculty Recruitment• Summer 2015Faculty Survey• Summer 2015Student Survey #1• Week 1,2 Fall 2015Student Survey #2• Week 11,12 Fall 2015Data Analysis• Winter/Spring 2016DATA OVERVIEWNumber of Student Participants 1904 Total StudentsSurvey 1: 900 (47%)Survey 2: 566 (30%)Number of Classes / FacultyNumber of 3rd Year Classes Invited: 281Total Participating Classes: 24 (8.5 %)Number of Skills RatedTotal: 33Information Literacy: 11Learning: 11Writing: 11DATA OVERVIEW321Top Student Responses(33 potential academic skills)I Already Have This SkillI Do Not Need This Skill17314Top Faculty Responses(33 potential academic skills)Students are Expected to Already HaveThis SkillStudents do Not Require this SkillI will Teach this SkillDATA OVERVIEWLearningWritingResearch22211261110545653382933Percentage of Student ResponsesStrongly Disagree Disagree Neither Agree nor Disagree Agree Strongly AgreeI feel confident in applying my learning, writing and research skills to future courses.We asked students to respond to the statement:DISCOVERING THE DISCREPANCIES• The students’ options were coded as:• 1= I already have this skill• 2= I expect to be taught this skill during course time (instructor or other)• 3= I expect to develop this skill outside of course time• 4= I do not need this skill for this course• Faculty options were coded as:• 1= Students are expected to come into the course with this skill• 2= The skill will be taught during course time (instructor or other)• 3= This skill must be developed by the student outside of class time• 4= Students do not need this skill for my course.SAMPLE STUDENT SURVEY QUESTIONSAMPLE FACULTY SURVEY QUESTIONIS THERE A DISCREPANCY?Student Response: Student Response:Faculty Response:Faculty Response:Question 1: Question 2:Yes!No!DISCOVERING THE DISCREPANCIES• Assumption: any option (out of four options) which received more than 50% of respondents from the student survey can represent the general opinion of the student sample in a particular class. • This study, therefore, compared the students’ option (which received more than a 50% response rate) and the faculty option for each measurement item for each class. DISCREPANCY DATA: BY SKILL AREA• Overall discrepancy rate is 63%Information Literacy• 58% (Y)• 43% (N)Learning• 69% (Y)• 31% (N)Writing• 63% (Y)• 37% (N)SAMPLE FINDINGS: Select relevant, current, academic and non-biased sources for use in my assignment(s)141872 2511: I already have thisskill / Students expectedto have skill12: I already have thisskill / Skill will be taught13:  I already have thisskill / Skill must bedeveloped outside ofclass14: I already have thisskill / Students do notneed this skill44: I don't need this skill/Students do not needthis skill0:  No one optiongreater than 50%DISTRIBUTION OF DISCREPANCY SCENARIOS71% DiscrepancySkill: I2 Note: *All other discrepancy combinations did not occurSAMPLE FINDINGS: Search a variety of resources (library databases) and source types to find information1913531711: I already have thisskill / Students expectedto have skill12: I already have thisskill / Skill will be taught13:  I already have thisskill / Skill must bedeveloped outside ofclass14: I already have thisskill / Students do notneed this skill44: I don't need this skill/Students do not needthis skill0:  No one optiongreater than 50%DISTRIBUTION OF DISCREPANCY SCENARIOS58% DiscrepancySkill: I1 Note: *All other discrepancy combinations did not occurSAMPLE FINDINGS: Create appropriately formatted bibliographies / works cited25103 31 2411: I already havethis skill / Studentsexpected to haveskill12: I already havethis skill / Skill will betaught13:  I already havethis skill / Skill mustbe developed outsideof class14: I already havethis skill / Studentsdo not need this skill41: I don't need thisskill / Studentsexpected to haveskill44: I don't need thisskill/ Students do notneed this skill0:  No one optiongreater than 50%DISTRIBUTION OF DISCREPANCY SCENARIOS44% DiscrepancySkill: I6 Note: *All other discrepancy combinations did not occurSAMPLE FINDINGS: Meet standards of conduct for academic integrity (i.e. avoiding plagiarism)368411: I already have this skill / Students expected tohave skill12: I already have this skill / Skill will be taught 13:  I already have this skill / Skill must bedeveloped outside of classDISTRIBUTION OF DISCREPANCY SCENARIOS25% DiscrepancySkill: I7 Note: *All other discrepancy combinations did not occurWHICH SKILLS DO STUDENTS WANT HELP WITH?WHICH SKILLS DO STUDENTS WANT HELP WITH? INFORMATION LITERACY SKILLSExamples: “Researching appropriate background articles for final project” “Researching and applying appropriate information” “Coming to conclusions when looking at controversial research” “Connecting creative ideas with scientific data to support them” “Critically analyzing readings and reports”WHICH SKILLS DO STUDENTS WANT HELP WITH? WRITING & LEARNING SKILLSExamples: “Structuring my thoughts coherently in writing” “Time management on the big projects and not feeling overwhelmed and getting stuck” “How to write the required assignments to meet and exceed expected level” “Grammar. Don’t know how to use commas.”WHICH SKILLS DO STUDENTS WANT HELP WITH? AFFECTIVE SKILLSExamples: “Studying motivation” “Being more inquisitive and being more confident in asking questions in class” “Paying more attention during the 8:30 class” “Making friends” “Listening in class during boring lectures”FURTHER FINDINGS: DISCREPANCY TRENDSDiscipline Survey 1 Survey 2Social Sciences + Humanities61% 58%Sciences 68% 65%FURTHER FINDINGS: DISCREPANCY TRENDS Survey 1 Survey 2 All Surveys65% 62% 63%FINDINGS: COURSE OUTLINE ANALYSIS• Which skills do professors articulate they will teach in their course and which skills they expect students to develop outside of class time?• Currently conducting NVIVO analysis– content analysis of course outlines to determine how course skills are articulated and the frequency– coding and analyzing for theseA C T I V I T YL O O K I N G  AT  C O U R S E  O U T L I N E S• What challenges might students encounter when interpreting a syllabus?• What opportunities do you have in  your practice to decrease the disconnect between student interpretation and faculty expectations of academic skills?IMPLICATIONSFor Practice• Make skills explicit in Course Outlines, Provide resources for students to develop skills• Map and scaffold skills to curriculum• Develop collaborative partnerships to support student skill development on program or curriculum committees• Support faculty in skill instruction• Advocate for student skill developmentFor Research• Academic Support Staff can provide additional perspectives and be partners in SoTL research• A multidisciplinary approach to skill development research builds awareness of disciplinary assumptions and generalizations• Skill development research benefits from a holistic understanding of student learning (learning, writing and research).FUTURE RESEARCHStudent perception of skill level vs. student demonstration of skill levelConnection between assessment of content knowledge and skill level Explore relationship between skill instruction and skill assessmentStudent determination of academic skills required in courses / disciplinesQuestions?CONTACTMelanie Parlette-Stewart, Blended Learning Librarian mparlett@uoguelph.ca@mparstewREFERENCESCharmain, C. (2011). Student perception of academic writing skills activities in a traditional programming course. Computers & Education, 58:1028-1041. Retrieved from http://www.lib.uoguelph.ca/Crosthwaite, I. et al. (2006). Balancing curriculum processes and content in a project centred curriculum: In pursuit of graduate attributes. Chemical Engineering Research and Design, 84(A7): 619-628. Retrieved from http://www.lib.uoguelph.ca/Fraser, K. and Thomas, T. (2013). Challenges of assuring the development of graduate attributes in a Bachelor of Arts. Higher Education Research & Development, 32(4):545-560. Retrieved from http://www.lib.uoguelph.ca/Haigh, A. (2012). You can lead students to the Library, but can you make them do research? The effect of syllabus design and content on undergraduates’ perceptions and use of the academic library. Journal of Business & Finance  Librarianship, 18 (1): 33-48). Retrieved from  http://www.lib.uoguelph.ca/Mager, S. and Spronken-Smith, R. (2014). Graduate attribute attainment in a multi-level undergraduate geography course.Journal of Geography in Higher Education, 38(2): 238-250. Retrieved from http://www.lib.uoguelph.ca/McGuinness, C. (2006). What faculty think - Exploring the barriers to information literacy development in undergraduate education. The Journal of Academic Librarianship, 12(6): 573-582. Retrieved from http://www.lib.uoguelph.ca/Mounce, M. (2010). Working together: Academic librarians and faculty collaborating to improve students’ information literacy skills: A literature review 2000-2009. The Reference Librarian, 51(4): 300-320. Retrieved from http://www.lib.uoguelph.ca/Raven, M. (2012). Bridging the gap: Understanding the differing research expectations of first-year students and professors. Evidence Based Library and Information Practice, 7(3). Retrieved from http://www.lib.uoguelph.ca/Walter, S. and Eodice, M. (2007). Meeting the student learning imperative: Supporting and sustaining collaboration between academic libraries and student services programs. Research Strategies, 20: 219-225. Retrieved from http://www.lib.uoguelph.ca/SKILLS: INFORMATION LITERACYSkill ID StatementI1 Search a variety of resources (library databases) and source types ( to find information)I2 Select relevant, current, academic and non-biased sources for use in my assignment(s)I3 Use effective search strategies, keywords and criteria to find appropriate information sourcesI4 Access full text information, both print and digital, and download online material and dataI5 Cite printed and electronic sources using suitable and appropriate reference stylesI6 Create appropriately formatted bibliographies / works citedI7 Meet standards of conduct for academic integrity (i.e. avoiding plagiarism)I8 Use appropriate data management software and techniques to manage dataI9 Analyse and present data without misrepresentationI10 Use appropriate software (i.e. spreadsheet, technical, etc.)I11 Develop a personal profile in the community using appropriate personal networks and digital technologies (i.e. discussion lists, social networking sites, blogs, etc.)SKILLS: LEARNINGSkill ID StatementL1 Interpret sources and develop an opinion when presenting an argumentL2 Present a clear and consistent message, using appropriate language for audience needs in oral presentations and class discussionsL3 Work with group members to achieve group goals and complete a group/team projectL4 In group or team projects, offer alternative solutions that build on the ideas of othersL5 Identify multiple approaches for solving problems and implement or recommend solutions in course work or assignmentsL6 Self-check understanding of course content by reviewing and monitoring learningL7 Independently connect examples, facts or theories from more than one field of study or perspectiveL8 Adapt studying and exam preparation techniques based on the type of assessment (i.e. multiple choice vs. essay answer)L9 Apply time management skills and strategies (i.e. to-do lists and calendars) to manage multiple deadlinesL10 Use texts and lecture content to deepen understanding of course material and complete course assignmentsL11 Use presentation techniques (i.e. good posture, eye contact, vocal expressiveness, and audience engagement) during oral presentationsSKILLS: WRITINGW1 Develop a thesis or main argument in written tasksW2 Use academic evidence to support your thesis or main argument in written tasksW3 Paraphrase, quote and summarize academic sources in written tasksW4 Develop introductions, body paragraphs and conclusions in written tasksW5 Plan, manage, and divide writing processW6 Use correct grammatical forms, sentence construction and punctuation in written tasksW7 Use transitions to establish flow between ideas in written tasksW8 Use appropriate language and tone based on assignment expectations (i.e. audience and purpose) in written tasksW9 Select a writing structure and format based on the type of assignment (i.e. literature review, lab reports, critical review, research essay)W10 Sequence ideas in logical order using paragraphs in written tasksW11 Select and use academic or disciplinary vocabulary in written tasksW1 Develop a thesis or main argument in written tasksSAMPLE DISCREPANCY FINDINGS: WRITING• Meet standards of conduct for academic integrity (i.e. avoiding plagiarism)620021000000001001811: I already have this skill / Students expected to have skill12: I already have this skill / Skill will be taught13:  I already have this skill / Skill must be developed outside of class14: I already have this skill / Students do not need this skill21: I expect to be taught this skill during class / Students expected to…22:  I expect to be taught this skill during class / The skill will be taught…23:  I expect to be taught this skill during class / Skill must be…24:  I expect to be taught this skill during class / Students do not need…31:  I expect to develop this skill outside of class / Students expected…32:  I expect to develop this skill outside of class/ The skill will be…33: I expect to develop this skill outside of class/ Skill must be…34:  I expect to develop this skill outside of class/ Students do not…41: I don't need this skill / Students expected to have skill42:I don't need this skill/ The skill will be taught during course time43: I don't need this skill/ Skill must be developed outside of class44: I don't need this skill/ Students do not need this skill0:  No one option greater than 50%SAMPLE DISCREPANCY FINDINGS: LEARNING• Select relevant, current, academic and non-biased sources for use in my assignment(s)214170301000000002011: I already have this skill / Students expected to have skill12: I already have this skill / Skill will be taught13:  I already have this skill / Skill must be developed outside of class14: I already have this skill / Students do not need this skill21: I expect to be taught this skill during class / Students expected to…22:  I expect to be taught this skill during class / The skill will be taught…23:  I expect to be taught this skill during class / Skill must be…24:  I expect to be taught this skill during class / Students do not need…31:  I expect to develop this skill outside of class / Students expected…32:  I expect to develop this skill outside of class/ The skill will be…33: I expect to develop this skill outside of class/ Skill must be…34:  I expect to develop this skill outside of class/ Students do not…41: I don't need this skill / Students expected to have skill42:I don't need this skill/ The skill will be taught during course time43: I don't need this skill/ Skill must be developed outside of class44: I don't need this skill/ Students do not need this skill0:  No one option greater than 50% Skill: Information LiteracySkill ID Statement Is this skills required to be successful in the course?NotesI1 Search a variety of resources (library databases) and source types ( to find information)Yes  / NoI2 Select relevant, current, academic and non-biased sources for use in my assignment(s)Yes  / NoI3 Use effective search strategies, keywords and criteria to find appropriate information sourcesYes  / NoI4 Access full text information, both print and digital, and download online material and dataYes  / NoI5 Cite printed and electronic sources using suitable and appropriate reference stylesYes  / NoI6 Create appropriately formatted bibliographies / works citedYes  / NoI7 Meet standards of conduct for academic integrity (i.e. avoiding plagiarism)Yes  / NoI8 Use appropriate data management software and techniques to manage dataYes  / NoI9 Analyse and present data without misrepresentation Yes  / NoI10 Use appropriate software (i.e. spreadsheet, technical, etc.)Yes  / NoI11 Develop a personal profile in the community using appropriate personal networks and digital technologies (i.e. discussion lists, social networking sites, blogs, etc.)Yes  / NoActivity:1. Review the syllabus2. Identify the information literacy skills you believe are required to be successful in this course and how this is indicated (i.e. how do you know this skill would be required?).Skill: LearningSkill ID Statement Is this skills required to be successful in the course?NotesL1 Interpret sources and develop an opinion when presenting an argumentYes  / NoL2 Present a clear and consistent message, using appropriate language for audience needs in oral presentations and class discussionsYes  / NoL3 Work with group members to achieve group goals and complete a group/team projectYes  / NoL4 In group or team projects, offer alternative solutions that build on the ideas of othersYes  / NoL5 Identify multiple approaches for solving problems and implement or recommend solutions in course work or assignmentsYes  / NoL6 Self-check understanding of course content by reviewing and monitoring learningYes  / NoL7 Independently connect examples, facts or theories from more than one field of study or perspectiveYes  / NoL8 Adapt studying and exam preparation techniques based on the type of assessment (i.e. multiple choice vs. essay answer)Yes  / NoL9 Apply time management skills and strategies (i.e. to-do lists and calendars) to manage multiple deadlinesYes  / NoL10 Use texts and lecture content to deepen understanding of course material and complete course assignmentsYes  / NoL11 Use presentation techniques (i.e. good posture, eye contact, vocal expressiveness, and audience engagement) during oral presentationsYes  / NoActivity:1. Review the syllabus2. Identify the learning skills you believe are required to be successful in this course and how this is indicated (i.e. how do you know this skill would be required?).Skill: WritingSkillIDStatement Is this skills required to be successful in the course?NotesW1 Develop a thesis or main argument in written tasks Yes  / NoW2 Use academic evidence to support your thesis or main argument in written tasksYes  / NoW3 Paraphrase, quote and summarize academic sources in written tasksYes  / NoW4 Develop introductions, body paragraphs and conclusions in written tasksYes  / NoW5 Plan, manage, and divide writing process Yes  / NoW6 Use correct grammatical forms, sentence construction and punctuation in written tasksYes  / NoW7 Use transitions to establish flow between ideas in written tasksYes  / NoW8 Use appropriate language and tone based on assignment expectations (i.e. audience and purpose) in written tasksYes  / NoW9 Select a writing structure and format based on the type of assignment (i.e. literature review, lab reports, critical review, research essay)Yes  / NoW10 Sequence ideas in logical order using paragraphs in written tasksYes  / NoW11 Select and use academic or disciplinary vocabulary in written tasksYes  / NoActivity:1. Review the syllabus2. Identify the writing skills you believe are required to be successful in this course and how this is indicated (i.e. how do you know this skill would be required?).Activity Reflection• What challenges might students encounter when interpreting a syllabus?• What opportunities do you have in  your practice to decrease the disconnect between student interpretation and faculty expectations of academic skills?• What questions do you still have?

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