International Construction Specialty Conference of the Canadian Society for Civil Engineering (ICSC) (5th : 2015)

A framework of organization performance assessment in the construction industry using fuzzy approach Rathore, Zenith; Elwakil, Emad Jun 30, 2015

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5th International/11th Construction Specialty Conference 5e International/11e Conférence spécialisée sur la construction    Vancouver, British Columbia June 8 to June 10, 2015 / 8 juin au 10 juin 2015   A FRAMEWORK OF ORGANIZATION PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT IN THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY USING FUZZY APPROACH Zenith Rathore1,2 and Emad Elwakil1  1 Building Construction Management Department, Purdue University, West Lafayette, United States 2 zrathore@purdue.edu Abstract: Organizations have been trying to increase their efficiency and improve their performance in order to achieve their goals. The organizational success is determined by various factors that impact organization's performance. The ability to predict construction organization performance will enable practitioners to identify the weak points and in searching solutions to improve, thus leading to better efficiency and increase profit. Previous research works have focused on measuring project success and in the process the importance and evaluation of organization's performance in non-financial aspects has received little attention. Uncertainty and uniqueness of projects are inherent characteristics of this industry. Hence, developing an effective construction performance assessment model has been very difficult. Therefore, the objective of the present research is to identify and study the success factors and to propose a performance prediction model(s) for construction organizations. The potential success factors are collected from literature and shortlisted based on construction expert’s opinion. A questionnaire is prepared and sent to evaluate the effect of these potential success factors on organizational performance. The collected data will be analyzed using Fuzzy modelling approach to build a prediction model, which will show robust results when verified and tested. The proposed research/model will benefit both researcher and practitioners to predict accurate company performance. 1 INTRODUCTION Construction is a diverse, project based industry (Ozorhon, 2012). The project-based nature of construction industry makes every project unique (Veshosky, 1998). The unique nature of concerns and challenges often render the generalizable decision rules and frameworks for organizational phenomena unusable (Pinto & Covin, 1989). Financial and tangible assets gained are often translated to organization success. In a review of project success factors conducted by Müller et al. 2012, it is has been noted that project success was considered only as a subject of implementation in the 1980s. The approach towards the subject has evolved over the years. It is now gradually extending from inception to closing out of a project. Today, the literature in this field spans the entire product life cycle from product success to business success. This change has led to shift in emphasis from project success to organization success. The need to examine A/E/C organizations and the factors that impact the performance of organizations is now necessary to compete in an ever-changing marketplace (Liu et. al., 2014). 2 BACKGROUND A company is a complex structure, comprising of various interconnected components that influence its performance (Tang & Ogunlana, 2003). The existing literature shows that numerous models were developed to measure performance by using critical success factors, performance measures, and 291-1 indicators. However, they mostly address metric requirements for the manufacturing industries rather than construction. Studies conducted in the construction industry have laid more emphasis on the measurement of project performance rather than company performance (Isik, Arditi, Dikmen, & Birgonul, 2010). Bontis et al. 1999 proposed Balanced Scorecard (BSC). The framework laid emphasis on qualitative measure at organizational level and advocated the balance between measure of financial and non-financial success. Another example of performance measurement and management framework is Performance Prism. The first part of this framework encourages to assess stakeholder satisfaction, and assess the needs of stakeholder. The second part is to understand the needs of organization (i.e. reciprocal relationships) as well as on how to align strategies, processes and capabilities (Neely et. al., 2001). The prism focuses on significant measures and connects the performance practices within the organization. These frameworks are more than a decade old. Hence, in order to keep up with the ever changing markets, many new studies are being carried out.    Performance prediction of construction organizations enables identification of the weak points in order to improvise processes and to increase profits (Zayed et al. 2012). The attention of organizations is usually focused on improving the efficiency of its tangible assets as they can be measured and evaluated (Hauser & Katz, 1998). In the process, the organizations often do not consider the invisible and intangible assets that impact the overall performance. A good metric systems empowers organization (Hauser & Katz, 1998). In a recent study and analysis of a case study by Gustavsson et al., 2012, a need for new collaborative project practice development and organizational change has been discussed. Company performance can be assessed by evaluation of measurable characteristics of performance indicators (Bititci & Muir, 1997).   2.1 Critical Success Factors in construction organization Organizations that focus on satisfying the customers with greater efficiency and effectiveness have an edge over their competitors (Neely et. al., 2005). Studies have shown that practitioners have been able to settle that improving communication has a major impact on construction practice. It allows better customer engagement, leading to better performance of organizations. Neely et al. 2005 stresses on importance of metrics associated with quality, time, cost and flexibility, thus relating performance of organizations with project success. Pinto and Covin (1989), Müller et al, 2012 have discussed that project success is dependent on the interaction of individuals, project teams and organizational success. Chinowsky et al. 2000 proposed the concept of seven guiding principles of strategic management for construction industry. These comprise of Vision, Mission, Goals, Core Competencies, and Knowledge resources, Education, Finance, Markets and Competition (Chinowsky & Meredith, 2000). Knowledge and information are now considered as critical factors that influence a company’s life. They are rated higher than land, capital or labor (Bontis & Dragonetti, 1999). A good knowledge data base will allow organizations to leverage against their competitors in future and thus giving organizations a competitive edge (Arthur, 1994). Unfortunately, Knowledge being an intangible asset is difficult to measure and hence often forgotten in the process (Bontis & Dragonetti, 1999).  Organizations are conceptualized as “the product of though and action of [their] members” (Gioia & Sims, 1986) or as Weick 1987 stated “the body of thought by organizational thinkers” (Nicolini & Meznar, 1995). Human elements are the assets of organizations that are capable of learning, evolving, innovating and creatively propelling the growth of organization, which is essential for long-run survival of the organization. It has been noted that majority of Human Resource Accounting (HRA) techniques have been designed for industries like accounting firms, banks, insurance companies and financial service firms, where human resources represent a substantial share of the organization value (Bontis & Dragonetti, 1999). However, construction organization lacks such initiatives that are designed to evaluate employee performance, satisfaction and compensation. Factors such as organization’s employee culture and engagement are important aspects for an organization. Other important factor is the feedback systems, as they are extremely crucial for implementation of metric system and evaluating performance of organization. Feedback evaluation is one of the critical success factors that aid in analyzing and improving organization performance (Hauser & Katz, 1998). 291-2 2.2 Previous studies In a study conducted by Zayed et.al 2012 classified 18 Critical Success factors in to four categories. i.e. (i) Administrative and legal factors, (ii) Technical factors, (iii) Management and (iv) Market and finance, as shown at Figure 1.  Figure 1: Categorisation of 18 Critical Success Factors  The research work is in continuation to the study carried out by Elwakil et al. 2009. The previously published paper was an overview for an outline or a framework for performance assessment of organizations in construction industry. The procedure included a literature review and identification of 18 potential critical success factors. This was followed by preparation of questionnaire designed to assess the impact of these factors in construction industry. The questionnaire had two parts where Part I asked the experts from construction organizations to answer the questions, reflecting their experience and corporation information. Part II asked the experts to use a specified 5 point subjective scale to rate the impact of identified success factors on organization performance. Additionally, the decision-makers were asked to evaluate the overall success of his/her construction organization using a value out of 100. One hundred and fifty questionnaires were sent out to top and middle management decision makers in construction organizations across different countries, i.e., Canada, Egypt, France, Greece, Germany, USA, Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates. A total of Sixty three responses were received ie. A response rate of 42%, which is considered good. A sample response from data is provided in Table 1 (Zayed et al., 2012). 291-3 Table 1: A sample of questionnaire Category Success Factors Responses (Scale: 1-5) Sample #3 Sample #4 Administrative and legal 1. Clear Vision, Mission, and Goals 2. Competition Strategy 3. Organizational Structure 4. Political Conditions 5. Number of Full Time employees 4 4 4 4 4 5 3 4 4 4 Technical 6. Usage of International Aspects (ISO) 7. Availability of Knowledge 8. Usage of IT 9. Business Experience (no. of years) 10. Product Maintenance 3 5 5 5 5 2 4 4 2 4 Management 11. Employee Culture Environment 12. Employee compensation and Motivation 13. Applying Total Quality Management 14. Training 4 4 3 4 2 4 5 4 Market and Finance 15. Quick Liquid Assets 16. Feedback Evaluation 17. Research and Development 18. Market Conditions/ Customer Engagement 4 4 4 4  4 4 5 4 Overall Company Performance (%) 70 75 * Data is shared by co-author  Since the responses from questionnaire dealt with 18 factors, it is very difficult to analyse the impact of all the factors. Hence, these factors were evaluated and allotted ranks using ANN training i.e. ranking the factors to determine the relative importance of each variable and the highest impact on the model. Analysis of weights of the trained neural network are used to derive the contribution percentages. The higher the value implies that the variable contribution to classification/prediction is also high. Based on the ANN rankings, 9 factors with highest contribution factor were shortlisted from the pool of 18 factors as shown at Figure 2.   Figure 2: Factors shortlisted using ANN ranking method 291-4 2.3 Previous modelling techniques The previously published paper guides the researchers to the starting point of a detailed research in the field. The previous paper discussed the overall impact of the factors. The selected nine CSFs were used to develop prediction models for performance of construction organization using Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model and regression. Neuroshell software package was used to develop and train the ANN model. Similarly, MINITAB software is used to build a regression model for construction organizations’ performance using the selected CSFs (Zayed et al., 2012).   One of the many advantages of theoretic properties of ANN is the ability to distinguish unspecified relations such as nonlinear effects and/or interactions. However, this advantage comes at the cost of minimized interpretability of the model output. The “black box” quality of an ANN model makes it next to impossible to gain insight into a problem based on an ANN model. Regression technique allows the user to sequentially remove possible explanatory variables that do not contribute to the fit of the model (Sargent, 2001). Regression techniques permit hypothesis testing concerning both the univariate and multivariate association amongst each explanatory variable and the outcome of interest. However, it fails to recognize or identify the highly nonlinear factors, or correlation among variables (Sargent, 2001). Human reasoning being more approximate than precise in nature often makes it difficult to measure and determine the measure of factors affecting a particular cause. Introduced by Zadeh (1965), Fuzzy logic can be used as a tool to understand imprecision and qualitative aspects of natural language and imprecise cognitive reasoning. Fuzzy logic-based systems are used to analyze and process linguistic inputs to derive outputs or decisions, refer Figure 1 (Senouchi et al 2014).  The background shows a lack of a model that considers the qualitative factors and the expert opinions. The objectives of this paper will be: identify and study the success factors and to develop performance prediction model(s) for construction organizations.   Fuzzification DefuzzificationRule-based system(Inference)Decision-Making Logic(Composition)Fuzzy or Crisp InputsCrisp Outputs  Figure 3: Fuzzy expert system (FES) (Senouci et. al.2012)  3 Research Methodology  The methodology of this research is presented in the schematic diagram (figure 4). The steps are summarized as following:  1. Conduct a literature review to identify the success factors that can impact performance of construction organization. Data collected from questionnaire in the previous study conducted by Zayed et al 2012 will be studied and analyzed.  2. Model the impact of individual factors and establish correlation between factors. It is proposed to develop a performance assessment model for construction organization using Fuzzy Expert System. The model will focus on analyzing the impact of preselected 9 CSFs on the performance assessment model. 291-5 3. The model will be tested and validated by results of ANN and regression analysis in order to determine their accuracy in assessing the performance of construction organization.  StartLiterature ReviewInvestigated VariablesFuzzy Model Building Define Fuzzy Input & Output Linguistic Variables & their ValuesDefine membership functions representativesSelect Fuzzy Relations & ImplicationsSelect Defuzzification MethodIdentify Fuzzy Decision RulesModel ImplementationModel ValidationMathematical ValidationValidation: Results fromANN ModelRegression ModelSatisfactory Utilize ModelNO YES Figure 4: Analysis framework 3.1 Development of Fuzzy Logic-based performance assessment model Factors that have an impact on an organization’s performance are the inputs for the fuzzy model. The selected CSFs have been identified and classified into 4 categories ie. 1. Administrative and Legal, 2. Technical, 3. Management and 4. Market and finance. The output will be the performance of construction organization. The methodology used to build the model using fuzzy expert system is shown in figure 5.  291-6  Where C= Clear Vision, Mission, and Goals; S= Competition Strategy; O= Organizational Structure, P= Political Conditions, K= Availability of Knowledge, N= Business Experience (no. of years), E= Employee Culture Environment, F= Feedback Evaluation, R= Research and Development and OP = Overall Performance. For example:   IF Clear Vision, Mission, and Goals is 4,  AND Competition Strategy is 4,  AND Organizational Structure is 4,  AND Political Conditions is 4,  AND Availability of Knowledge is 5,  AND Business Experience (no. of years) is 5,  AND Employee Culture Environment is 4,  AND Feedback Evaluation is 4,  AND Research and Development is 4,  THEN Overall Performance is 70 Table 2: Input and Output Linguistic Variables and Fuzzy/Crisp Value Input / Output Linguistic Variable Crisp/fuzzy value Administrative and legal        Clear Vision, Mission, and Goals Competition Strategy Organizational Structure Political Conditions  1-5 1-5 1-5 1-5  Technical Availability of Knowledge Business Experience (no. of years)  1-5 1-5  Management Employee Culture Environment  1-5  Market and Finance Feedback Evaluation Research and Development  1-5 1-5 Overall Performance  0-100%  3.4 Model Implementation  It is proposed to utilize the software Matlab R2014b Fuzzy Logic Tool Box to process fuzzy logic inference. The input of the linguistic variables are fuzzified using the membership functions. One by one the strength of variable is determined and its impact on the output value. The minimum operator is used to calculate the firing strength of each fuzzy rule. The firing strength is directly proportional to the impact on the output. Output membership function maps the height corresponding to the firing strength of rules (Chao & Skibniewski, 1998).   Fi= min(x1,x2,x3, x4, x5, x6, x7, x8, x9)  where Fi is the firing strength of rule and x1,x2,x3, x4, x5…. are the parameters representing membership of linguistic variables (Chao & Skibniewski, 1998).  After all the rules are evaluated, union member function is used to combine the consequences of all the rules to form an overall membership function. This function is then converted into crisp value using defuzzification method.  291-8 3.5 Model Validation The purpose of this step is to check the accuracy of results provided by the model. It is proposed to set aside 20% i.e. 13 responses out of 63 responses from questionnaire for validation purposes. In order to predict error and validate the model, it is proposed to use average validity/invalidity percentages (AIP and AVP), followed by Root Mean Square error (RSME). In addition to the mathematical validation, the results from previous study by Zayed et al., 2012 will also be used to determine the soundness of model. The models developed in previous study to assess the performance of organization used ANN modelling technique and Regression analysis. 4 CONCLUSION The present study includes a literature survey to validate the importance of critical success factors identified in previous studies. This paper represents development of framework to assess the performance of construction organizations based on nine CSFs using fuzzy approach. These nine critical success factors (i.e. Clear Vision, Mission, and Goals, Competition Strategy, Organizational Structure, Political Conditions, Availability of Knowledge, Business Experience (no. of years), Employee Culture Environment, Feedback Evaluation, Research and Development) were selected in the previous study using ANN ranking system. In order to assess the impact of individual factors on the overall organization performance, they have been modelled using FES. Fuzzy input and outputs and the rules governing them are designed in order to cover maximum possible cases. The study will be a step towards understanding a detailed analysis of factors that may impact the overall performance. The study shows a need for further investigation on critical success factor to select the optimum number and nature for modeling the organization’s performance. The developed research/model benefits both researcher and practitioners to predict accurate company performance. References Arthur, W. B. (1994). Increasing returns and the new world of business. Harvard Business Review, 74, 100–9. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10158472 Bititci, U., & Muir, D. (1997). Integrated performance measurement systems: a development guide. International Journal Of Operations & Production Management, 17, 522–556. Bontis, N., & Dragonetti, N. C. (1999). The Knowledge Toolbox : A Review of the Tools Available to Measure and Manage Intangible Resources. European Managment Journal, 17(4), 391–402. doi:10.1016/S0263-2373(99)00019-5 Chao, L.-C., & Skibniewski, M. J. (1998). Fuzzy Logic for Evaluating Alternative Construction Technology. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 124, 297–304. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9364(1998)124:4(297) Chinowsky, Paul (Associate member, ASCE) Meredith, J. (2000). Strategic Management in Construction Industry, (February), 1–9. Elwakil, E., Ammar, M., Zayed, T., Mahmoud, M., Eweda, A., & Mashhour, I. (2009). INVESTIGATION AND MODELING OF CRITICAL SUCCESS FACTORS IN Copyright Construction Research Congress Copyright ASCE 2009. American Society of Civil Engineers, 350–359. Gustavsson, T. K. (2012). Boundary action in construction projects: new collaborative project practices. International Journal of Managing Projects in Business, 5, 364–376. doi:10.1108/17538371211235272 Hauser, J., & Katz, G. (1998). Metrics: you are what you measure! European Management Journal, 16(5), 517–528. doi:10.1016/S0263-2373(98)00029-2 Isik, Z., Arditi, D., Dikmen, I., & Birgonul, M. T. (2010). Impact of Resources and Strategies on Construction Company Performance. Journal of Management in Engineering, 26(January), 9–18. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)0742-597X(2010)26:1(9) Liu, H., Wang, M., Skibniewski, M. J., He, J., & Zhang, Z. (2014). Identification of Critical Success Factors for Construction Innovation : From the Perspective of Strategic Cooperation. Frontiers of Engineering Management, (1989), 202–209. doi:10.15302/J-FEM-2014027 291-9 Müller, R. (2012). Critical success factors in projects: Pinto, Slevin, and Prescott – the elucidation of project success. International Journal of Managing Projects in Business, 5, 757–775. doi:10.1108/17538371211269040 Neely, A., Adams, C., & Crowe, P. (2001). The performance prism in practice. Measuring Business Excellence, 5, 6–13. doi:10.1108/13683040110385142 Neely, A., Gregory, M., & Platts, K. (1995). Performance measurement system design: a literature review and research agenda. International Journal Of Operations & Production Management, 15(4), 80–116. Retrieved from http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?articleid=1529552&show=abstract Nicolini, D., & Meznar, M. B. (1995). The Social Construction of Organizational Learning: Conceptual and Practical Issues in the Field. Human Relations, 48, 727–746. doi:10.1177/001872679504800701 Ozorhon, B. (2012). Analysis of Construction Innovation Process at Project Level. Journal of Management in Engineering, (October), 120915010108004. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)ME.1943-5479.0000157 Pinto, J. K., & Covin, J. G. (1989). Critical factors in project implementation: a comparison of construction and R&D projects. Technovation. doi:10.1016/0166-4972(89)90040-0 Sargent, D. J. (2001). Comparison of artificial neural networks with other statistical approaches: results from medical data sets. Cancer, 91, 1636–1642. Tang, Y. H., & Ogunlana, S. O. (2003). Modelling the dynamic performance of a construction organization. Construction Management and Economics, 21(February 2015), 127–136. doi:10.1080/0144619032000079699 Veshosky, D. (1998). Managing Innovation Information in Engineering and Construction Firms. Journal of Management in Engineering, 14(February), 58–66. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)0742-597X(1998)14:1(58) Zayed, T., Elwakil, E., & Ammar, M. (2012). A Framework for Performance Assessment of Organizations in the Construction Industry. International Journal of Architecture, Engineering and Construction, 1(4), 199–212. doi:10.7492/IJAEC.2012.022   291-10  5th International/11th Construction Specialty Conference 5e International/11e Conférence spécialisée sur la construction    Vancouver, British Columbia June 8 to June 10, 2015 / 8 juin au 10 juin 2015   A FRAMEWORK OF ORGANIZATION PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT IN THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY USING FUZZY APPROACH Zenith Rathore1,2 and Emad Elwakil1  1 Building Construction Management Department, Purdue University, West Lafayette, United States 2 zrathore@purdue.edu Abstract: Organizations have been trying to increase their efficiency and improve their performance in order to achieve their goals. The organizational success is determined by various factors that impact organization's performance. The ability to predict construction organization performance will enable practitioners to identify the weak points and in searching solutions to improve, thus leading to better efficiency and increase profit. Previous research works have focused on measuring project success and in the process the importance and evaluation of organization's performance in non-financial aspects has received little attention. Uncertainty and uniqueness of projects are inherent characteristics of this industry. Hence, developing an effective construction performance assessment model has been very difficult. Therefore, the objective of the present research is to identify and study the success factors and to propose a performance prediction model(s) for construction organizations. The potential success factors are collected from literature and shortlisted based on construction expert’s opinion. A questionnaire is prepared and sent to evaluate the effect of these potential success factors on organizational performance. The collected data will be analyzed using Fuzzy modelling approach to build a prediction model, which will show robust results when verified and tested. The proposed research/model will benefit both researcher and practitioners to predict accurate company performance. 1 INTRODUCTION Construction is a diverse, project based industry (Ozorhon, 2012). The project-based nature of construction industry makes every project unique (Veshosky, 1998). The unique nature of concerns and challenges often render the generalizable decision rules and frameworks for organizational phenomena unusable (Pinto & Covin, 1989). Financial and tangible assets gained are often translated to organization success. In a review of project success factors conducted by Müller et al. 2012, it is has been noted that project success was considered only as a subject of implementation in the 1980s. The approach towards the subject has evolved over the years. It is now gradually extending from inception to closing out of a project. Today, the literature in this field spans the entire product life cycle from product success to business success. This change has led to shift in emphasis from project success to organization success. The need to examine A/E/C organizations and the factors that impact the performance of organizations is now necessary to compete in an ever-changing marketplace (Liu et. al., 2014). 2 BACKGROUND A company is a complex structure, comprising of various interconnected components that influence its performance (Tang & Ogunlana, 2003). The existing literature shows that numerous models were developed to measure performance by using critical success factors, performance measures, and 291-1 indicators. However, they mostly address metric requirements for the manufacturing industries rather than construction. Studies conducted in the construction industry have laid more emphasis on the measurement of project performance rather than company performance (Isik, Arditi, Dikmen, & Birgonul, 2010). Bontis et al. 1999 proposed Balanced Scorecard (BSC). The framework laid emphasis on qualitative measure at organizational level and advocated the balance between measure of financial and non-financial success. Another example of performance measurement and management framework is Performance Prism. The first part of this framework encourages to assess stakeholder satisfaction, and assess the needs of stakeholder. The second part is to understand the needs of organization (i.e. reciprocal relationships) as well as on how to align strategies, processes and capabilities (Neely et. al., 2001). The prism focuses on significant measures and connects the performance practices within the organization. These frameworks are more than a decade old. Hence, in order to keep up with the ever changing markets, many new studies are being carried out.    Performance prediction of construction organizations enables identification of the weak points in order to improvise processes and to increase profits (Zayed et al. 2012). The attention of organizations is usually focused on improving the efficiency of its tangible assets as they can be measured and evaluated (Hauser & Katz, 1998). In the process, the organizations often do not consider the invisible and intangible assets that impact the overall performance. A good metric systems empowers organization (Hauser & Katz, 1998). In a recent study and analysis of a case study by Gustavsson et al., 2012, a need for new collaborative project practice development and organizational change has been discussed. Company performance can be assessed by evaluation of measurable characteristics of performance indicators (Bititci & Muir, 1997).   2.1 Critical Success Factors in construction organization Organizations that focus on satisfying the customers with greater efficiency and effectiveness have an edge over their competitors (Neely et. al., 2005). Studies have shown that practitioners have been able to settle that improving communication has a major impact on construction practice. It allows better customer engagement, leading to better performance of organizations. Neely et al. 2005 stresses on importance of metrics associated with quality, time, cost and flexibility, thus relating performance of organizations with project success. Pinto and Covin (1989), Müller et al, 2012 have discussed that project success is dependent on the interaction of individuals, project teams and organizational success. Chinowsky et al. 2000 proposed the concept of seven guiding principles of strategic management for construction industry. These comprise of Vision, Mission, Goals, Core Competencies, and Knowledge resources, Education, Finance, Markets and Competition (Chinowsky & Meredith, 2000). Knowledge and information are now considered as critical factors that influence a company’s life. They are rated higher than land, capital or labor (Bontis & Dragonetti, 1999). A good knowledge data base will allow organizations to leverage against their competitors in future and thus giving organizations a competitive edge (Arthur, 1994). Unfortunately, Knowledge being an intangible asset is difficult to measure and hence often forgotten in the process (Bontis & Dragonetti, 1999).  Organizations are conceptualized as “the product of though and action of [their] members” (Gioia & Sims, 1986) or as Weick 1987 stated “the body of thought by organizational thinkers” (Nicolini & Meznar, 1995). Human elements are the assets of organizations that are capable of learning, evolving, innovating and creatively propelling the growth of organization, which is essential for long-run survival of the organization. It has been noted that majority of Human Resource Accounting (HRA) techniques have been designed for industries like accounting firms, banks, insurance companies and financial service firms, where human resources represent a substantial share of the organization value (Bontis & Dragonetti, 1999). However, construction organization lacks such initiatives that are designed to evaluate employee performance, satisfaction and compensation. Factors such as organization’s employee culture and engagement are important aspects for an organization. Other important factor is the feedback systems, as they are extremely crucial for implementation of metric system and evaluating performance of organization. Feedback evaluation is one of the critical success factors that aid in analyzing and improving organization performance (Hauser & Katz, 1998). 291-2 2.2 Previous studies In a study conducted by Zayed et.al 2012 classified 18 Critical Success factors in to four categories. i.e. (i) Administrative and legal factors, (ii) Technical factors, (iii) Management and (iv) Market and finance, as shown at Figure 1.  Figure 1: Categorisation of 18 Critical Success Factors  The research work is in continuation to the study carried out by Elwakil et al. 2009. The previously published paper was an overview for an outline or a framework for performance assessment of organizations in construction industry. The procedure included a literature review and identification of 18 potential critical success factors. This was followed by preparation of questionnaire designed to assess the impact of these factors in construction industry. The questionnaire had two parts where Part I asked the experts from construction organizations to answer the questions, reflecting their experience and corporation information. Part II asked the experts to use a specified 5 point subjective scale to rate the impact of identified success factors on organization performance. Additionally, the decision-makers were asked to evaluate the overall success of his/her construction organization using a value out of 100. One hundred and fifty questionnaires were sent out to top and middle management decision makers in construction organizations across different countries, i.e., Canada, Egypt, France, Greece, Germany, USA, Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates. A total of Sixty three responses were received ie. A response rate of 42%, which is considered good. A sample response from data is provided in Table 1 (Zayed et al., 2012). 291-3 Table 1: A sample of questionnaire Category Success Factors Responses (Scale: 1-5) Sample #3 Sample #4 Administrative and legal 1. Clear Vision, Mission, and Goals 2. Competition Strategy 3. Organizational Structure 4. Political Conditions 5. Number of Full Time employees 4 4 4 4 4 5 3 4 4 4 Technical 6. Usage of International Aspects (ISO) 7. Availability of Knowledge 8. Usage of IT 9. Business Experience (no. of years) 10. Product Maintenance 3 5 5 5 5 2 4 4 2 4 Management 11. Employee Culture Environment 12. Employee compensation and Motivation 13. Applying Total Quality Management 14. Training 4 4 3 4 2 4 5 4 Market and Finance 15. Quick Liquid Assets 16. Feedback Evaluation 17. Research and Development 18. Market Conditions/ Customer Engagement 4 4 4 4  4 4 5 4 Overall Company Performance (%) 70 75 * Data is shared by co-author  Since the responses from questionnaire dealt with 18 factors, it is very difficult to analyse the impact of all the factors. Hence, these factors were evaluated and allotted ranks using ANN training i.e. ranking the factors to determine the relative importance of each variable and the highest impact on the model. Analysis of weights of the trained neural network are used to derive the contribution percentages. The higher the value implies that the variable contribution to classification/prediction is also high. Based on the ANN rankings, 9 factors with highest contribution factor were shortlisted from the pool of 18 factors as shown at Figure 2.   Figure 2: Factors shortlisted using ANN ranking method 291-4 2.3 Previous modelling techniques The previously published paper guides the researchers to the starting point of a detailed research in the field. The previous paper discussed the overall impact of the factors. The selected nine CSFs were used to develop prediction models for performance of construction organization using Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model and regression. Neuroshell software package was used to develop and train the ANN model. Similarly, MINITAB software is used to build a regression model for construction organizations’ performance using the selected CSFs (Zayed et al., 2012).   One of the many advantages of theoretic properties of ANN is the ability to distinguish unspecified relations such as nonlinear effects and/or interactions. However, this advantage comes at the cost of minimized interpretability of the model output. The “black box” quality of an ANN model makes it next to impossible to gain insight into a problem based on an ANN model. Regression technique allows the user to sequentially remove possible explanatory variables that do not contribute to the fit of the model (Sargent, 2001). Regression techniques permit hypothesis testing concerning both the univariate and multivariate association amongst each explanatory variable and the outcome of interest. However, it fails to recognize or identify the highly nonlinear factors, or correlation among variables (Sargent, 2001). Human reasoning being more approximate than precise in nature often makes it difficult to measure and determine the measure of factors affecting a particular cause. Introduced by Zadeh (1965), Fuzzy logic can be used as a tool to understand imprecision and qualitative aspects of natural language and imprecise cognitive reasoning. Fuzzy logic-based systems are used to analyze and process linguistic inputs to derive outputs or decisions, refer Figure 1 (Senouchi et al 2014).  The background shows a lack of a model that considers the qualitative factors and the expert opinions. The objectives of this paper will be: identify and study the success factors and to develop performance prediction model(s) for construction organizations.   Fuzzification DefuzzificationRule-based system(Inference)Decision-Making Logic(Composition)Fuzzy or Crisp InputsCrisp Outputs  Figure 3: Fuzzy expert system (FES) (Senouci et. al.2012)  3 Research Methodology  The methodology of this research is presented in the schematic diagram (figure 4). The steps are summarized as following:  1. Conduct a literature review to identify the success factors that can impact performance of construction organization. Data collected from questionnaire in the previous study conducted by Zayed et al 2012 will be studied and analyzed.  2. Model the impact of individual factors and establish correlation between factors. It is proposed to develop a performance assessment model for construction organization using Fuzzy Expert System. The model will focus on analyzing the impact of preselected 9 CSFs on the performance assessment model. 291-5 3. The model will be tested and validated by results of ANN and regression analysis in order to determine their accuracy in assessing the performance of construction organization.  StartLiterature ReviewInvestigated VariablesFuzzy Model Building Define Fuzzy Input & Output Linguistic Variables & their ValuesDefine membership functions representativesSelect Fuzzy Relations & ImplicationsSelect Defuzzification MethodIdentify Fuzzy Decision RulesModel ImplementationModel ValidationMathematical ValidationValidation: Results fromANN ModelRegression ModelSatisfactory Utilize ModelNO YES Figure 4: Analysis framework 3.1 Development of Fuzzy Logic-based performance assessment model Factors that have an impact on an organization’s performance are the inputs for the fuzzy model. The selected CSFs have been identified and classified into 4 categories ie. 1. Administrative and Legal, 2. Technical, 3. Management and 4. Market and finance. The output will be the performance of construction organization. The methodology used to build the model using fuzzy expert system is shown in figure 5.  291-6  Where C= Clear Vision, Mission, and Goals; S= Competition Strategy; O= Organizational Structure, P= Political Conditions, K= Availability of Knowledge, N= Business Experience (no. of years), E= Employee Culture Environment, F= Feedback Evaluation, R= Research and Development and OP = Overall Performance. For example:   IF Clear Vision, Mission, and Goals is 4,  AND Competition Strategy is 4,  AND Organizational Structure is 4,  AND Political Conditions is 4,  AND Availability of Knowledge is 5,  AND Business Experience (no. of years) is 5,  AND Employee Culture Environment is 4,  AND Feedback Evaluation is 4,  AND Research and Development is 4,  THEN Overall Performance is 70 Table 2: Input and Output Linguistic Variables and Fuzzy/Crisp Value Input / Output Linguistic Variable Crisp/fuzzy value Administrative and legal        Clear Vision, Mission, and Goals Competition Strategy Organizational Structure Political Conditions  1-5 1-5 1-5 1-5  Technical Availability of Knowledge Business Experience (no. of years)  1-5 1-5  Management Employee Culture Environment  1-5  Market and Finance Feedback Evaluation Research and Development  1-5 1-5 Overall Performance  0-100%  3.4 Model Implementation  It is proposed to utilize the software Matlab R2014b Fuzzy Logic Tool Box to process fuzzy logic inference. The input of the linguistic variables are fuzzified using the membership functions. One by one the strength of variable is determined and its impact on the output value. The minimum operator is used to calculate the firing strength of each fuzzy rule. The firing strength is directly proportional to the impact on the output. Output membership function maps the height corresponding to the firing strength of rules (Chao & Skibniewski, 1998).   Fi= min(x1,x2,x3, x4, x5, x6, x7, x8, x9)  where Fi is the firing strength of rule and x1,x2,x3, x4, x5…. are the parameters representing membership of linguistic variables (Chao & Skibniewski, 1998).  After all the rules are evaluated, union member function is used to combine the consequences of all the rules to form an overall membership function. This function is then converted into crisp value using defuzzification method.  291-8 3.5 Model Validation The purpose of this step is to check the accuracy of results provided by the model. It is proposed to set aside 20% i.e. 13 responses out of 63 responses from questionnaire for validation purposes. In order to predict error and validate the model, it is proposed to use average validity/invalidity percentages (AIP and AVP), followed by Root Mean Square error (RSME). In addition to the mathematical validation, the results from previous study by Zayed et al., 2012 will also be used to determine the soundness of model. The models developed in previous study to assess the performance of organization used ANN modelling technique and Regression analysis. 4 CONCLUSION The present study includes a literature survey to validate the importance of critical success factors identified in previous studies. This paper represents development of framework to assess the performance of construction organizations based on nine CSFs using fuzzy approach. These nine critical success factors (i.e. Clear Vision, Mission, and Goals, Competition Strategy, Organizational Structure, Political Conditions, Availability of Knowledge, Business Experience (no. of years), Employee Culture Environment, Feedback Evaluation, Research and Development) were selected in the previous study using ANN ranking system. In order to assess the impact of individual factors on the overall organization performance, they have been modelled using FES. Fuzzy input and outputs and the rules governing them are designed in order to cover maximum possible cases. The study will be a step towards understanding a detailed analysis of factors that may impact the overall performance. The study shows a need for further investigation on critical success factor to select the optimum number and nature for modeling the organization’s performance. The developed research/model benefits both researcher and practitioners to predict accurate company performance. References Arthur, W. B. (1994). Increasing returns and the new world of business. Harvard Business Review, 74, 100–9. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10158472 Bititci, U., & Muir, D. (1997). Integrated performance measurement systems: a development guide. International Journal Of Operations & Production Management, 17, 522–556. Bontis, N., & Dragonetti, N. C. (1999). The Knowledge Toolbox : A Review of the Tools Available to Measure and Manage Intangible Resources. European Managment Journal, 17(4), 391–402. doi:10.1016/S0263-2373(99)00019-5 Chao, L.-C., & Skibniewski, M. J. (1998). Fuzzy Logic for Evaluating Alternative Construction Technology. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 124, 297–304. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9364(1998)124:4(297) Chinowsky, Paul (Associate member, ASCE) Meredith, J. (2000). Strategic Management in Construction Industry, (February), 1–9. Elwakil, E., Ammar, M., Zayed, T., Mahmoud, M., Eweda, A., & Mashhour, I. (2009). INVESTIGATION AND MODELING OF CRITICAL SUCCESS FACTORS IN Copyright Construction Research Congress Copyright ASCE 2009. American Society of Civil Engineers, 350–359. Gustavsson, T. K. (2012). Boundary action in construction projects: new collaborative project practices. International Journal of Managing Projects in Business, 5, 364–376. doi:10.1108/17538371211235272 Hauser, J., & Katz, G. (1998). Metrics: you are what you measure! European Management Journal, 16(5), 517–528. doi:10.1016/S0263-2373(98)00029-2 Isik, Z., Arditi, D., Dikmen, I., & Birgonul, M. T. (2010). Impact of Resources and Strategies on Construction Company Performance. Journal of Management in Engineering, 26(January), 9–18. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)0742-597X(2010)26:1(9) Liu, H., Wang, M., Skibniewski, M. J., He, J., & Zhang, Z. (2014). Identification of Critical Success Factors for Construction Innovation : From the Perspective of Strategic Cooperation. Frontiers of Engineering Management, (1989), 202–209. doi:10.15302/J-FEM-2014027 291-9 Müller, R. (2012). Critical success factors in projects: Pinto, Slevin, and Prescott – the elucidation of project success. International Journal of Managing Projects in Business, 5, 757–775. doi:10.1108/17538371211269040 Neely, A., Adams, C., & Crowe, P. (2001). The performance prism in practice. Measuring Business Excellence, 5, 6–13. doi:10.1108/13683040110385142 Neely, A., Gregory, M., & Platts, K. (1995). Performance measurement system design: a literature review and research agenda. International Journal Of Operations & Production Management, 15(4), 80–116. Retrieved from http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?articleid=1529552&show=abstract Nicolini, D., & Meznar, M. B. (1995). The Social Construction of Organizational Learning: Conceptual and Practical Issues in the Field. Human Relations, 48, 727–746. doi:10.1177/001872679504800701 Ozorhon, B. (2012). Analysis of Construction Innovation Process at Project Level. Journal of Management in Engineering, (October), 120915010108004. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)ME.1943-5479.0000157 Pinto, J. K., & Covin, J. G. (1989). Critical factors in project implementation: a comparison of construction and R&D projects. Technovation. doi:10.1016/0166-4972(89)90040-0 Sargent, D. J. (2001). Comparison of artificial neural networks with other statistical approaches: results from medical data sets. Cancer, 91, 1636–1642. Tang, Y. H., & Ogunlana, S. O. (2003). Modelling the dynamic performance of a construction organization. Construction Management and Economics, 21(February 2015), 127–136. doi:10.1080/0144619032000079699 Veshosky, D. (1998). Managing Innovation Information in Engineering and Construction Firms. Journal of Management in Engineering, 14(February), 58–66. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)0742-597X(1998)14:1(58) Zayed, T., Elwakil, E., & Ammar, M. (2012). A Framework for Performance Assessment of Organizations in the Construction Industry. International Journal of Architecture, Engineering and Construction, 1(4), 199–212. doi:10.7492/IJAEC.2012.022   291-10  A Framework Of Organization Performance Assessment In The Construction Industry Using Fuzzy ApproachZenith RathoreMaster’s Candidate , School of Construction Management, Purdue UniversityDr. Emad ElwakilAssistant Professor, School of Construction Management, Purdue University5th International/11th Construction Specialty Conference5e International/11e Conférence spécialisée sur la constructionVancouver, British ColumbiaJune 8 to June 10, 2015 / 8 juin au 10 juin 2015Content• Overview• Rationale for the Study• Overview of Previous Literature• Methodology• Assumptions, Limitations and Delimitations • Conclusion5th International/11th Construction Specialty Conference5e International/11e Conférence spécialisée sur la constructionVancouver, British ColumbiaJune 8 to June 10, 2015 / 8 juin au 10 juin 20155th International/11th Construction Specialty Conference5e International/11e Conférence spécialisée sur la constructionVancouver, British ColumbiaJune 8 to June 10, 2015 / 8 juin au 10 juin 2015OverviewRationale for study• The attention of organizations is usually focused on improving the efficiency of its tangible assets as they can be measured and evaluated (Hauser & Katz, 1998). • Organizations often do not consider the invisible and intangible assets that impact the overall performance. • A good metric systems empowers organization (Hauser & Katz, 1998).• Existing performance benchmarks mostly address metric requirements for the manufacturing industries rather than construction. • Studies conducted in the construction industry have laid more emphasis on the measurement of project performance rather than company performance (Isik, Arditi, Dikmen, & Birgonul, 2010). 5th International/11th Construction Specialty Conference5e International/11e Conférence spécialisée sur la constructionVancouver, British ColumbiaJune 8 to June 10, 2015 / 8 juin au 10 juin 2015Overview of Previous Literature• Existing studies primarily focus on factors influencing project success• Earliest studies on Construction Organization success date back to 1989 (Pinto & Covin, 1989)• Research works are primarily Qualitative in nature• Literature review has been conducted in three phases• Identifying the Key Performance Indices (KPIs) that impact organization performance• Existing metrics for evaluating performance• Balance Score Card (BSC) (Bontis et al. 1999)• Performance Prism (Neely et. al. 2001)• Modelling Techniques5th International/11th Construction Specialty Conference5e International/11e Conférence spécialisée sur la constructionVancouver, British ColumbiaJune 8 to June 10, 2015 / 8 juin au 10 juin 2015Overview of Previous LiteratureUnderstanding Employee Perspective Understanding Stakeholder’s Perspective5th International/11th Construction Specialty Conference5e International/11e Conférence spécialisée sur la constructionVancouver, British ColumbiaJune 8 to June 10, 2015 / 8 juin au 10 juin 2015Overview of Previous Literature5th International/11th Construction Specialty Conference5e International/11e Conférence spécialisée sur la constructionVancouver, British ColumbiaJune 8 to June 10, 2015 / 8 juin au 10 juin 2015Overview of Previous LiteratureFactors that impact organization performance• Understanding stakeholder expectations and interests• Identifying critical success factors• Categorizing critical success factors• Tangible vs intangible assets of organization• Financial vs non-financial assets5th International/11th Construction Specialty Conference5e International/11e Conférence spécialisée sur la constructionVancouver, British ColumbiaJune 8 to June 10, 2015 / 8 juin au 10 juin 2015Organization ManagementLeadershipVision, Mission, goalPlanSuccessionHuman ResourceHuman ResourceTeam MembersCommitmentSatisfactionTeam LeadersVisionInterpersonal skillsLeadership skills TechnicalDomain knowledge SpecializationInnovationResearchInformation TechnologyExternal ParameterGovernment policiesDemographic impactLegal issuesResearch Methodology5th International/11th Construction Specialty Conference5e International/11e Conférence spécialisée sur la constructionVancouver, British ColumbiaJune 8 to June 10, 2015 / 8 juin au 10 juin 2015StartLiterature ReviewInvestigated VariablesFuzzy Model Building Define Fuzzy Input & Output Linguistic Variables & their ValuesDefine membership functions representativesSelect Fuzzy Relations & ImplicationsSelect Defuzzification MethodIdentify Fuzzy Decision RulesModel ImplementationModel ValidationMathematical ValidationValidation: Results fromANN ModelRegression ModelSatisfactory Utilize ModelNO YES• Literature Review• Data Collection• Model Development- Fuzzy Logic Approach• Validation5th International/11th Construction Specialty Conference5e International/11e Conférence spécialisée sur la constructionVancouver, British ColumbiaJune 8 to June 10, 2015 / 8 juin au 10 juin 2015Administrative & Legal•Clear, Vision, Mission & Goal•Competition Strategy•Organization Structure•Political Conditions•Number of Full time EmployeeTechnical• International Standard Usage•Availability of knowledge• IT Usage•Business Experience•Product MaintenanceManagement•Employee Culture Environment•Employee Compensation & Motivation•Applying Total Quality Management•TrainingMarket & Finance•Quick Liquid Assets•Feedback Evaluation•Research Development•Market Conditions•Customer EngagementFactors selected from literatureData Collection• Questionnaire was prepared to determine impact of 18 factors.• Actual vs Ideal• Construction organizations across different countries, i.e., Canada, Egypt, France, Greece, Germany, USA, Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates. • Questionnaire asked experts to rate impact of 18 selected factors on five point- Likert scale• 150 questionnaires were sent to industry experts, 63 responses were received. i.e. 42% response rate42%58%Response RateResponseReceivedSentQuestionnaire5th International/11th Construction Specialty Conference5e International/11e Conférence spécialisée sur la constructionVancouver, British ColumbiaJune 8 to June 10, 2015 / 8 juin au 10 juin 20155th International/11th Construction Specialty Conference5e International/11e Conférence spécialisée sur la constructionVancouver, British ColumbiaJune 8 to June 10, 2015 / 8 juin au 10 juin 2015Data CollectionFuzzy Logic Approach•Assign membership to input variablesFuzzification•Compute output truth values•Generate sets of “Fuzzy Outputs”Fuzzy Rule Inference & Composition •Assign crisp value to Fuzzy output setDefuzzification5th International/11th Construction Specialty Conference5e International/11e Conférence spécialisée sur la constructionVancouver, British ColumbiaJune 8 to June 10, 2015 / 8 juin au 10 juin 2015Fuzzy Logic Approach5th International/11th Construction Specialty Conference5e International/11e Conférence spécialisée sur la constructionVancouver, British ColumbiaJune 8 to June 10, 2015 / 8 juin au 10 juin 2015Fuzzy Decision Rules• FES computes the task formulated as a collection of fuzzy if/then rules• They are describes as: IF precondition 1 exits AND precondition 2 exits AND precondition 3 exits AND: THEN consequence 1 AND consequence 2  will be the output (Chao & Skibniewski, 1998)5th International/11th Construction Specialty Conference5e International/11e Conférence spécialisée sur la constructionVancouver, British ColumbiaJune 8 to June 10, 2015 / 8 juin au 10 juin 2015IF Clear Vision, Mission, and Goals is 4,  AND Competition Strategy is 4,  AND Organizational Structure is 4,  AND Political Conditions is 4,  AND Availability of Knowledge is 5,  AND Business Experience (no. of years) is 5,  AND Employee Culture Environment is 4,  AND Feedback Evaluation is 4,  AND Research and Development is 4,  THEN Overall Performance is 70 Fuzzy Decision Rules• The minimum operator is used to calculate the firing strength of each fuzzy rule. • The firing strength is directly proportional to the impact on the output. Output membership function maps the height corresponding to the firing strength of rules (Chao & Skibniewski, 1998). • Fi= min(x1,x2,x3, x4, x5, x6, x7, x8, x9)• where Fi is the firing strength of rule and x1,x2,x3, x4, x5…. are the parameters representing membership of linguistic variables (Chao & Skibniewski, 1998).5th International/11th Construction Specialty Conference5e International/11e Conférence spécialisée sur la constructionVancouver, British ColumbiaJune 8 to June 10, 2015 / 8 juin au 10 juin 2015Fuzzy Model Overview5th International/11th Construction Specialty Conference5e International/11e Conférence spécialisée sur la constructionVancouver, British ColumbiaJune 8 to June 10, 2015 / 8 juin au 10 juin 2015Model Validation5th International/11th Construction Specialty Conference5e International/11e Conférence spécialisée sur la constructionVancouver, British ColumbiaJune 8 to June 10, 2015 / 8 juin au 10 juin 2015Conclusion• Limitations• The framework for performance assessment model has been based on data responses collected from the experts in industry. The interpretation of questions may vary from individual to individual.• The participants are not from the same organization or in the same functional role. Hence, the perspectives of individuals will vary from one functional role to another.• The survey has been conducted for organizations from different countries. The demographics has not been considered.5th International/11th Construction Specialty Conference5e International/11e Conférence spécialisée sur la constructionVancouver, British ColumbiaJune 8 to June 10, 2015 / 8 juin au 10 juin 2015Conclusion• Delimitations• The Key Performance Indices (KPIs) are shortlisted from the existing literature. Many sub-factors have not been included.• Due to scarcity of time and data, data has not been classified as per the type of contracts executed by construction organization i.e. Engineering Procurement Construction (EPC), Design Build (DB), General Contractor (GC), etc. is not considered for this study.• The size of organizations, value of projects and specialization works have not been considered in this study. The performance model is based only on the opinions. 5th International/11th Construction Specialty Conference5e International/11e Conférence spécialisée sur la constructionVancouver, British ColumbiaJune 8 to June 10, 2015 / 8 juin au 10 juin 2015References• Bontis, N., & Dragonetti, N. C. (1999). The Knowledge Toolbox : A Review of the Tools Available to Measure and Manage Intangible Resources. European ManagmentJournal, 17(4), 391–402. doi:10.1016/S0263-2373(99)00019-5 • Hauser, J., & Katz, G. (1998). Metrics: you are what you measure! European Management Journal, 16(5), 517–528. doi:10.1016/S0263-2373(98)00029-2 • Isik, Z., Arditi, D., Dikmen, I., & Birgonul, M. T. (2010). Impact of Resources and Strategies on Construction Company Performance. Journal of Management in Engineering, 26(January), 9–18. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)0742-597X(2010)26:1(9) • Neely, A., Adams, C., & Crowe, P. (2001). The performance prism in practice. Measuring Business Excellence, 5, 6–13. doi:10.1108/13683040110385142 • Neely, A., Gregory, M., & Platts, K. (1995). Performance measurement system design: a literature review and research agenda. International Journal Of Operations & Production Management, 15(4), 80–116. Retrieved from http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?articleid=1529552&show=abstract • Pinto, J. K., & Covin, J. G. (1989). Critical factors in project implementation: a comparison of construction and R&D projects. Technovation. doi:10.1016/0166-4972(89)90040-0 5th International/11th Construction Specialty Conference5e International/11e Conférence spécialisée sur la constructionVancouver, British ColumbiaJune 8 to June 10, 2015 / 8 juin au 10 juin 2015Thank you!5th International/11th Construction Specialty Conference5e International/11e Conférence spécialisée sur la constructionVancouver, British ColumbiaJune 8 to June 10, 2015 / 8 juin au 10 juin 2015

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