International Construction Specialty Conference of the Canadian Society for Civil Engineering (ICSC) (5th : 2015)

Photobiological treatment plants integrated with building's architectural shell Buzalo, Natalia; Ermachenko, Pavel; Bulgakov, Alexej; Schach, Rainer Jun 30, 2015

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5th International/11th Construction Specialty Conference 5e International/11e Conférence spécialisée sur la construction    Vancouver, British Columbia June 8 to June 10, 2015 / 8 juin au 10 juin 2015   PHOTOBIOLOGICAL TREATMENT PLANTS INTEGRATED WITH BUILDING’S ARCHITECTURAL SHELL Natalia Buzalo 1,4, Pavel Ermachenko 1, Alexej Bulgakov 2 and Rainer Schach 3 1 Platov South-Russian State Polytechnic University (NPI), Russia 2 South West State University, Russia 3 Dresden University of Technology, Germany 4 n.s.buzalo@mail.ru Abstract: The article deals with issues of the use of photoreactors with growing algae as an element of urban construction. Using microalgae photobioreactors can solve multiple tasks: getting a third-generation biofuels, carbon dioxide recycling, wastewater disinfection, oxygen regeneration, and water purification from nutrients. The paper considers a wastewater purification plant where the major element is such a photoreactor. As examples of such a kind of facilities, we could mention as follows: BIQ House, Hamburg International Building Exhibition; Urban Algae Canopy Module by ecologic Studio; photoreactors at the incineration plant, Alcéade Nantes, France; etc. Unlike the existing projects, we study all the system as a whole. Considered treatment facility includes an algae photobioreactor, a bacterium mineralizer and a desilter as well as a control system that regulates concentration of biogens, oxygen, and carbon dioxide by governing flow between devices. The article investigates the opportunity of incorporation of the photobiological treatment facilities into a building’s architectural shell. Structurally, we propose to make the main technological nodes from the translucent membrane of Ethylene Tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE). Photoreactors with algae are placed on the building facade. That location significantly reduces the required area and provides optimal natural lighting. It also allows using solar radiation for heating and adaptive lighting. The construction form is optimized with using a genetic algorithm.  The engineering solution which is given in this article can be used for already existing treatment plants as well as for urban structure directly. 1 INTRODUCTION The article deals with issues of the use of photoreactors with growing algae as an element of urban construction. Using photoreactors with algae in construction can solve multiple tasks: getting a third-generation biofuels, wastewater disinfection, oxygen regeneration, and water purification from nutrients. One more property that is important is that a photoreactor perfectly works as a natural filter absorbing flue gases and greenhouse gas. All these unique features of algae attract the attention of biologists, construction engineers, and architects. Examples of architecture projects with photoreactors, which have been presented at the exhibitions recently include: BIQ House, Hamburg International Building Exhibition [The Building Exhibition. Smart Material Houses, 2013]; Urban Algae Canopy Module by ecologic Studio [EcoLogicStudio, 2014]; the projet "SymBio2 photoreactors at the incineration plant [Des capteurs solaires biologiques élaborés au laboratoire GEnie des Procédés, 2014]; the project “ENERGY.2010.3.4-1: Bio-fuels from algae” [Co-financed by the EU Commission within the FP 7 programme, 2010]. In our previous publications [Buzalo, Bock, and Bulgakov, 2014], [Buzalo, Ermachenko, Bock, and et al., 2014] the concept of the local photobiological wastewater treatment plant was described. Unlike the 203-1 existing projects, we study all the system as a whole. Considered treatment facility includes an algae photobioreactor, a bacterium mineralizer and a desilter as well as a control system that regulates concentration of biogens, oxygen, and carbon dioxide by governing flow between devices. The example of a possible organisation of a technological scheme is shown in Figure 1.  Figure 1: Technological scheme of purification system, where (1) is the photobioreactor, (2) is the desilter, (3) is the methane tank, (4) is the boiler plant The basic elements of the system are units with microalgae. The cultivation of microalgae under artificial illumination conditions is very energy-intensive. We focus on the use of natural light. The article investigates the opportunity of incorporation of the photobiological treatment facilities into a building’s architectural shell when, to save the useful area, the main elements, photobioreactors, are placed on a special carcass covering separately located facilities or directly on the facade of a residential building. In the context of our work we consider photobiological treatment facilities located within the city. Therefore, it is necessary to take into account shadows of surrounding buildings. The goal is to optimize the illuminance of a carcass with photobiological units to provide the best conditions for algae growth. That can be reached due to the variation of an architectural shell shape.  One if the disputable issues is the construction cost of a facade with algae photoreactors. For a long time this technology have been held back because of the price of one square meter of photobioreactors made of glass and steel exceeds the cost of solar panels. However, the use of modern membrane structures from Ethylene Еetrafluoroethylene (ETFE) can significantly reduce the cost of construction. This is the way, that we propose for a structural solution of main technological nodes. 2 OPTIMIZATION OF ARCHITECTURAL SHELL SHAPE 2.1 Statement of Problem Algae cultivated in the water purification system of a treatment plant are considered as a source of biofuel. In addition to providing the necessary level of water purification, the second important goal of the system is to produce the maximum algae biomass. Factors affecting the rate of growth of microalgae: • The amount of available solar radiation; • The amount of nutrients coming from organic waste; • Availability of sources of carbon dioxide; • Thermal characteristics of the medium. 203-2 In this article, we consider of influence of insolation on the algae growth. The optimization problem is to maximize the function of total amount of algae biomass cultivated for a year divided by the surface area of the shell: [1] maxF( )Ω ,  where Ω  if the shape of an architectural shell. The geometric shape of an architectural shell foundation is fixed. There are also constraints for the maximum and minimum height of the structure.  The maximizing functional in [1] is as follows:  [2] ( )22tI (x,y,z, ,t) с1F( ) exp d dt2d ΩΩ Ω − Ω = µ ⋅ − Ω ⋅ σΩ  ∫ ∫∫, whereµ  is the dissolution rate of oxygen; I (x,y,z, ,t)Ω  is the level of illumination of a photobioreactor: the function of coordinates (x,y,z)∈Ω , time t, and shape of an architectural shell Ω ; с  is the optimal insolation; σ  is the tolerance interval. The period of integration is one year. Despite the fact that the obvious goal is producing the maximum amount of biomass, normalization of the objective function by the surface area of the shell is necessary in order not to ‘overblow’ the shape extremely. We would also like to emphasize that the design corresponding to the maximum brightness of a surface is not the solution. Microalgae can use only 5% of solar radiation for photosynthesis and the majority of solar energy is spent to heating. The solution of the optimization problem is also necessary to avoid critical overheating, which is deadly to living organisms. 2.2 Optimization Algorithm The algorithm takes into account the shadow cast by the surrounding buildings. That make it possible to integrate photobiological treatment plants in the urban environment efficiently.  For solution the shape optimization problem, the genetic algorithm of the plug-in Heliotrope of the software Rhino / Grasshopper is used [Grasshopper. Algorithmic Modeling for Rhino, 2015]. The program has a set of geometric tools for the insolation analysis. It includes the calculation of parametric components of solar vectors for a certain date, time and place. The calculation algorithm: 1. Parametric description of the architectural shell in the software environment Rhino / Grasshopper; 2. Time discretization and discretization of the curved surface of an architectural shell by a finite number of planar polygons. 3. Calculation of average components of solar vectors for every time step and polygon with the plug-in Heliotrope by geographical coordinates, time, and date; 4. Projection of the shadow from surrounding buildings on polygons uniformly for every time step; 5. Setting proportions of direct and scattered light and calculation of the amount of solar radiation on polygons for time steps; 6. Calculation of average growth of microalgae biomass for every time step on each polygon; 203-3 7. Using a genetic algorithm for the search of architectural shell parameters corresponding the maximum of the objective function [2] that is being calculated numerically for each iteration in accordance with steps 1-6. 2.3 Model Problem As an initial approximation for the optimization algorithm, we consider the architecture shell of treatment facilities of the surface area of 16119 m2. Free area between the buildings is 150 m × 150 m. Height varies from 9 to 28 m.  The algorithm takes into account the shadows cast by the surrounding buildings. The computational domain is shown in the Figure 2. Green color corresponds to the minimum value of insolation, red color - the maximum value.  Figure 2: Views of the architectural shell before the optimization Design is located at coordinates 51º02' N 13º44' E (coordinates of Dresden, Germany).  Changing the position of the sun at its zenith is shown in the Figure 3.  Figure 3: Changing the position of the sun at its zenith over the computational domain during the year Figure 4 presents the architectural shell before and after optimization. Views of the shell are shown with different angles. Calculation parameters: the proportion of scattered light is 40%, the density of the solar radiation is 1000 W/m2, µ = 10 g/m2h, с = 650 W/m2,σ = 95 W/m2.  203-4     a)     b) Figure 4: Views of the architectural shell: a) is before optimization, b) is after optimization. The results of the optimization: • Before optimization: • The surface area of Ω is s( )Ω  = 16119.2 m2; • The average daily specific growth of biomass per unit area 21 gf 51.F 6( )365 m day= Ω = ; • After optimization: • s( )Ω  = 11061.2 m2; • 2gfm95day= . 3 PHOTOBIOLOGICAL MODULAR BUILDING BLOCKS MADE OF THE TRANSLUCENT MEMBRANE OF ETFE Structurally, we propose to make the main technological nodes from the architectural translucent membrane of ETFE. The architectural membrane can sustain the temperature from – 80°C until 155°C. The capsules are transparent, have heat-reflective properties, and inert to acid and alkaline mediums. They do not lose their chemical features during their term of service (approximately 25 years). Membrane are self-cleaned by the action of water flow due to the adhesive properties and a very smooth surface. This property is particularly valuable, taken into account biofouling of bioreactors. Figure 5 and 6 show an architectural shell of the installation for photoreactors with algae and photoreactor units.  203-5  Figure 5: Architectural shell of the installation for photoreactors with algae  Figure 6: Modular building blocks with integrated photobioreactors The modular building blocks of the membrane translucent with integrated photobioreactor can be located into an architectural shell as an insulating walling. Sanitary zone around the facilities can be greatly reduced due to the recovery of carbon dioxide, shell hermeticity, and transparency of material. The design of an architectural shell generated by genetic optimization algorithm  blends harmoniously with the natural landscape and has aesthetically pleasing appearance. 4 CONCLUSION This paper discusses the problem of shape optimization of an architectural shell with photobioreactors. The parametric approach to the design of engineering structures is the most suitable for the creation of urban objects in accordance with the principles of biosphere compatibility. For example, to maximize the use of natural lighting. In this paper, the algorithm of integration of an architectural shell of photobiological treatment facilities in dense urban areas was considered. The algorithm takes into account shading from neighboring buildings and provides the maximization of the specific growth of microalgae biomass. In the future work, we plan to improve the proposed optimization algorithm in order to take into account the effect of the scattered and reflected light, as well as the spectral composition of the radiation, which influences on the efficiency of photosynthesis. References The Building Exhibition /Smart Material Houses / BIQ. 2013. On-line: http://www.iba-hamburg.de/en/themes-projects/the-building-exhibition-within-the-building-exhibition/smart-material-houses/biq/projekt/biq.html, (last accessed on 25 January 2015).  EcoLogicStudio. Urban Algae Canopy Module ecoLogicStudio + Carlo Ratti. 2014. On-line: http://www.ecologicstudio.com/v2/project.php?idcat=3&idsubcat=59&idproj=129, (last accessed on 25 January 2015).  203-6 Des capteurs solaires biologiques élaborés au laboratoire GEnie des Procédés - Environnement – Agroalimentaire (GEPEA) bientôt sur les façades des bâtiments? 2014. On-line: http://www.univ-nantes.fr/1363880042335/0/fiche___actualite/&RH=PRES (last accessed on 25 January 2015).  Co-financed by the EU Commission within the FP 7 programme, the project “ENERGY.2010.3.4-1: Bio-fuels from algae” On-line: http://www.all-gas.eu/Pages/AimofProject.aspx, (last accessed on 25 January 2015).  Buzalo, N., Bock, T., and Bulgakov, A. 2014. Space Technologies of Life Support Systems for the Metropolitan Cities. In Proceedings of the 31th International Symposium for Automation and Robotics in Construction (ISARC), pages 142-148, Sydney, Australia, 2014. Buzalo, N., Ermachenko, P., Bock, T., Bulgakov, A., Chistyakov, A., Sukhinov A., Zhmenya, E., and Zakharchenko, N. Mathematical Modeling of Microalgae-mineralization-human Structure within the Environment Regeneration System for the Biosphere Compatible City. Procedia Engineering, 85: 84–93, 2014.  Grasshopper. Algorithmic Modeling for Rhino. 2015. On-line: http://www.grasshopper3d.com/group/heliotrope, (last accessed on 16 February 2015).     203-7 

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