International Construction Specialty Conference of the Canadian Society for Civil Engineering (ICSC) (5th : 2015)

Culture in construction engineering Allison, Leigh A.; Kaminsky, Jessica A. Jun 30, 2015

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
52660-Allison_L_et_al_ICSC15_027_Construction_Culture.pdf [ 343.82kB ]
52660-Allison_L_et_al_ICSC15_027_Construction_Culture_slides.pdf [ 1.12MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 52660-1.0076468.json
JSON-LD: 52660-1.0076468-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 52660-1.0076468-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 52660-1.0076468-rdf.json
Turtle: 52660-1.0076468-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 52660-1.0076468-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 52660-1.0076468-source.json
Full Text
52660-1.0076468-fulltext.txt
Citation
52660-1.0076468.ris

Full Text

5th International/11th Construction Specialty Conference 5e International/11e Conférence spécialisée sur la construction    Vancouver, British Columbia June 8 to June 10, 2015 / 8 juin au 10 juin 2015   CULTURE IN CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING Leigh A. Allison1,3, and Jessica A. Kaminsky2  1 Civil and Environmental Engineering at University of Washington, United States 2 Civil and Environmental Engineering at University of Washington, United States 3 laalliso@uw.edu Abstract: The idea of culture has become a hot topic in construction engineering research.  However, this term is used with many meanings.  As such, the objective of this paper is to present a content analysis of the online record of ASCE Journal of Construction Engineering and Management (JCEM).  A 2014 keyword search for “culture” in JCEM returned 557 articles.  The authors reviewed the abstracts of each paper to categorize them according to the purpose statement: international markets (70 articles), safety (63 articles), and collaborative working arrangements (40 articles) emerged as the most frequent themes of the articles. The identified papers were then downloaded in full text form and imported into QSR NVivo, a qualitative coding software package. These articles were then searched for use of the word culture in conventional content analysis. Definitions of culture were extracted from the articles presenting a wide array of interpretations with respect to culture. Finally, this paper reviews the various theoretical bases for culture used in each category, and makes recommendations for future research in culture and construction based on the findings.  1 INTRODUCTION Culture can be defined in a variety of ways. It can be used as a verb (to culture as in microbial cells), noun (culture as a group of beliefs or ideas), or adjective (cultural as in cultural traditions). The goal of this paper is to discuss the various meanings of culture in the construction research community. The construction practice is made of people from varying firms, countries, and perspectives trying to work towards common goals. The accomplishment of such goals typically involves a strict schedule and tight budget; this makes team performance vitally important for successful projects. Culture has therefore been a factor in many research analyses. The paper aims to determine how culture is used in construction research through a content analysis of Journal of Construction Engineering and Management (JCEM) research.  2 POINTS OF DEPARTURE Changing technologies, geographies, and demographics have real impacts on construction projects and organizations (Levitt 2007). Within the past 15 years, culture has come into focus in research; unfortunately culture is not always well mobilized despite being the subject of ongoing research (Fellows 2010). In order to explore how culture has been used in the construction research community, this research identifies definitions of culture in construction and explores how construction research has approached culture research. Future investigations will focus on how culture is being operationalized. 027-1 When researchers conduct cultural studies, they assume a philosophical position, which will impact their choice of research methods and therefore results (Gajendran et al. 2012). In this paper, we identify culture as a traveling concept (Bal 2002). Bal’s argument is that the transfer of concepts across disciplinary, national, and historic boundaries alters the intended meaning. These changes are what create discussions in interdisciplinary subjects. Culture, with its roots in the social sciences, has crossed over the disciplinary boundary (Murdock 1932). Concept mapping bridges the gap in varying academic disciplines (Neumann and Nünning 2012) and adds clarity to our theory. In support of this goal, this paper maps concept of culture throughout JCEM in order to determine how the idea of culture is being viewed from varying nations, sectors, and firms. 3 RESEARCH METHOD  In order to determine the various uses of the word culture within Construction engineering, a keyword search was performed for the word “culture” in the American Society of Civil Engineer’s Journal of Construction Engineering and Management from March 1, 1983 until the present (December 29 2014). This search resulted in 557 articles from 1988 until 2014. 523 of those articles were primary articles. All editor’s notes and discussions were excluded from this research. A conventional content analysis in which codes emerged from the data was performed twice: first on the purpose statements within the abstracts of these articles and second on the full text of 172 articles identified in the first analysis.  Content analysis is a proven research technique to study the characteristic meaning of messages (Krippendorff 2012). In this case, technical construction articles from JCEM were analyzed as the messages in order to determine the meaning behind the use of the word culture. Content analysis has several methodological advantages validating its use in this research. First, it is unobtrusive, as in the instrument by which the data was collected does not affect the results. Second, the results are directly taken from the data. Third content analysis does not require a specific format for the data; it takes context into account (which is of particular importance in this study); and fourth it allows for the study of large amounts of data (Krippendorff 2012). This study implemented both conventional content analysis, which is particularly useful in areas where research literature on a phenomenon is limited and a summative content analysis which focuses on interpreting the content (Hsieh and Shannon 2005). In conventional content analysis, categories are derived inductively. Subcategories are combined into larger categories, and definitions of the larger (parent) categories are developed. This approach was used to classify each articles purpose statement. In summative content analysis, searches for a particular word are performed in order to determine how that word is being used. This approach was implemented to find definitions of culture. In the conventional content analysis, the articles were categorized into categories through an iterative process. International management, safety, and collaborative working arrangements emerged as the top three categories with 40 or more articles each. Descriptions of these categories can be seen in the results section. For this paper, only articles in these three categories were analyzed further. All 172 articles from these categorizes were further subjected to a summative content analysis for the word culture using QSR Nvivo. Within the 172 articles, several were categorized in two of the three categories. For example, the purpose statement in Ozorhon et al. (2008) [Statement: “In this study, the effect of cultural similarity/difference relative to the national and organizational characteristics of partner companies on IJV performance is examined through a questionnaire survey” pg. 361] was coded in collaborative working arrangements and international markets. Eight articles were repeated in both international markets and safety, and two articles were repeated in international market and safety. 4 RESULTS 4.1 Keyword Search  The 523 articles were analyzed and categorized according to the purpose statement given in the abstract. The purpose statement was defined as the statement in which the goals, intent, or purpose of the article was included. If no purpose statement was provided in the abstract, the article was categorized based on 027-2 the summarization of findings, also found in the abstract. The abstracts were read three times in order to iteratively categorize the articles. For brevity, table 1 only shows the top three categories and the description of the types of articles the category contains. Table 1: Article Categories Category Description Article Count International Markets Export of construction services to a nation outside of the firm's home nation or comparisons between construction practices of two nations 70 Safety Qualities of or related to risk or causes of injury;  62 Collaborative Working Arrangement Relationships described between two or more companies in the construction industry which offer the potential for greater market competitiveness including alliances, joint ventures, and partnering 40 As mentioned in the research methods, several articles were listed in two categories as they were equally related to both topics. (Ozorhon et al. 2008) was the only article that was double coded and contained explicit definitions of culture. These definitions are contained within the collaborative working arrangements section although they could also have been presented in international markets.  4.2 International Markets (IM) Articles related to international markets were distinguished by their mention of work outside of a home country or a comparison of international firms or nations. Seventy of the original 523 related to the international market category. Table 2 below shows the definitions given in the full text.  Table 2: Definitions of Culture Term Definition Source Culture "Culture, consisting essentially of people's collective deep-held values and beliefs, is a critical factor in shaping people's conceptions of the world around them (Earley and Erez 1997)." (Chen et al., 2009, pg 478) Culture "Hofstede (1984) defines culture as ‘‘the collective programming of the mind which distinguishes the members of one human group from other's.  systems of values and values are the building blocks of culture.’’ (Chan and Tse, 2003, pg 376) Culture “Loosemore (1999) states that ‘‘it is now accepted that a culture of a society is its shared values, understandings, assumptions and goals learned from earlier generations. It results in common attitudes, codes of conduct and expectations that guide behavior.’’ (Chan and Tse, 2003, pg 376) Culture ‘‘Culture describes the social system created by a group of people; it starts from the moment that a few people get together regularly and begin to establish norms and rules through which they will interact and communicate with each other and maintain order; it is about patterns of meaning; it is about shared beliefs, values, perspectives, and worldviews; it is about shared behavior, practices, rules, and rituals; … (Tso 1999). (Chan and Tse, 2003, pg 376) Culture "Culture as the word is understood by every man in the street without elaboration." (Chan and Tse, 2003, pg 376) Culture "Culture represents a general pattern of values, attitudes and behavior in one nation that distinguishes it from other culture groups." (Chua et al, 2003, pg 135) Culture “Culture serves as a socially shared knowledge schema giving meaning to incoming stimuli and channeling outgoing reactions (Triandis 1972). (Tsai and Chi, 2009, pg. 957)  027-3 Term Definition Source Culture “Every national culture describes distinct beliefs (what is true), values (what is important), and norms (what is appropriate) that are deeply embedded in people’s mind and demonstrated in their behaviors accordingly (Trompenaar 2004).” (Tsai and Chi, 2009, pg. 957) Culture “Kotter and Heskett [1992] think of culture as having two levels, which differ in terms of their visibility and their resistance to change. At the deeper and less visible level, culture refers to values that are shared by the people in a group and that tend to persist over time even when group membership changes. At the more visible level, culture represents the behavior patterns or practices of an organization that new employees are encouraged to follow.” (Ozorovakaja, et al, 2007, pg 901) Cultural “Widely shared, socially constructed symbolic representations” (Javernick-Will and Scott, 2010, pg 547) Four articles defined the word culture just once. Chan and Tse (2003) present three definitions as they explain how culture lacks true definition in the literature. They conclude by defining culture for their paper as a concept generally “understood by every man” (pg 376). Tsai and Chi (2009) present several definitions of culture shown in Table 2 while explaining the uses of Hofestede’s cultural dimensions that the study used to measure cultural characteristics of Taiwanese-Chinese construction professionals. Finally, as previously mentioned Ozohorn et al (2008) also defined culture in international market, but the definitions are in the collaborative working arrangement category. 4.3 Safety Sixty-two articles described safety in their purpose statements and were therefore analyzed for their use of culture. In this set of articles culture was used in a compound noun (i.e. blame culture, corporate culture etc.) to describe which type of culture to which the author was referring. Seven articles provided the seventeen definitions of culture as seen in Table 4 below. There are six definitions of corporate culture, two for organizational culture, and eight for safety culture.  Table 4: Definitions of Culture Term Definition Source Blame Culture "A blame culture allocates fault and responsibility to the individual making the error rather than to the system or management process." Martin and Lewis, 2014 Corporate Culture "Hampden-Turner (1990) define corporate culture as “a pattern of basic assumptions invented, discovered, or developed by a given group as it learns to cope with its problems of external adaptation and internal integration that has worked well enough to be valid and to be taught to new members as the correct way to perceive, think, and feel in relation to these problems.” " Molenaar et al., 2009, PG  498 Corporate Culture Corporate culture refers to the values held by employees of an organization that tend to persist even when membership changes (Kotter and Heskett 1992). Molenaar et al., 2009, PG  498 Corporate Culture  "Corporate culture is a collection of uniform and enduring beliefs, customs, traditions, and practices that are shared and continued by the employees of a corporation (Hai 1986)."  Molenaar et al., 2009, PG  498 Corporate Culture "These shared beliefs define the fundamental characteristics of an organization and create an attitude that distinguishes one organization from all others (Maloney and Federle 1990)" Molenaar et al., 2009, PG  498 027-4 Term Definition Source Corporate Culture "It is the unique configuration of norms and behaviors that characterize the manner in which employees combine to accomplish tasks (Graves 1986)." Molenaar et al., 2009, PG  498 Corporate Culture "Corporate culture is defined as the beliefs, values, and behaviors that are consistent throughout all members of the corporation. These beliefs, values, and behaviors must be consistent throughout upper management, middle management, and field employees." Molenaar et al., 2009, PG  498 Organizat-ional Culture "Organizational culture can be thought of as “the interaction between the organization and individuals” (Choudhry et al. 2007) containing both formalized structure and direction from the top down (Zohar 2005)" Gilkey et al., 2012, PG 1044 Organizational Culture “ ‘Organizational culture’—a concept often used to describe shared corpora  values that affect and influence members’ attitudes and behaviors.” Mohammed 2003, PG 81 Safety Culture "The safety culture of an organization is the product of individual and group values, attitudes, perceptions, competencies, and patterns of behavior [Health and Safety Commission (HSC) 1993]." Martin and Lewis, 2014 Safety Culture "Safety culture is a set of prevailing indicators, beliefs, and values that the organization owns in safety" Fang et al., 2006 PG 574 Safety Culture "According to Mohamed (2003), safety culture is a top-down organizational attribute approach to addressing safety management." Chen and Jin, 2013, PG 806 Safety Culture “The National Occupational Research Agenda (NORA)…defined safety culture as the organizational principles, norms, commitments, and values related to the operation of safety and health. Safety culture determines the relative importance of safety and other workplace goals (NORA 2008)” Chen and Jin, 2013, PG 806 Safety Culture “The corporate atmosphere or culture in which safety is understood to be, and is accepted as, the number one priority (Cullen 1990)."  Mohammed 2003, PG 81 Safety Culture " fundamental to an organization’s ability to manage safety-related aspects of its operations (Glendon and Stanton 2000)." Mohammed 2003, PG 81 Safety Culture "Safety culture is a subfacet of organizational culture, which affects workers’ attitudes and behavior in relation to an organization’s on-going safety performance. " Mohammed 2003, PG 81 Safety Culture "Mohamed (2003) suggested that safety culture is concerned with the determinants for the ability to manage safety (top-down organizational attribute approach); whereas, safety climate is concerned with the workers’ perceptions of the role safety plays in the workplace (bottom-up perceptual approach)." Choudhry et al. 2009, PG 891  As seen in the table, blame culture, corporate culture, organizational culture, and safety culture make up the four terms used in the safety articles. Although all subsets of culture, each of these terms implies a slight narrowing from the broad term of culture. Four articles provided more than one definition of these culture related terms. Molenaar et al. (2009) provided all the definitions of corporate culture in an attempt to explain how it relates to safety and references Molenaar et al. (2002), published outside of JECM and therefore out of the scope of this paper, for further definitions of corporate culture. Martin and Lewis (2003) defined both safety culture and blame culture. They differentiated between safety climate and culture, as they wanted to understand the key drivers of risk taking behaviours on construction sites before attempting to measure safety climate. Similarly, Chen and Jin (2013) offered two definitions of safety culture in an attempt to describe the difference between safety climate and culture before they conducted a study measuring safety culture. Finally, Mohammed (2003) referenced by Chen and Jin (2013) provided one definition of organizational culture and three definitions of safety culture. Mohammed (2003) sees safety culture as a subset of organizational culture; therefore he defined organizational culture and then safety culture in the article’s literature review before recommending the use of a scorecard approach to measuring what he calls organizational safety culture.  027-5 4.4 Collaborative Working Arrangements (CWA) For purposes of this article, collaborative working arrangements are defined as relationships established between two or more firms in the construction industry, which together attempt to create a more competitive team to complete a project. Examples are relational contracting, alliances, joint ventures, and partnering. From the original 523 articles, 40 related directly to collaborative working groups. Of these 40 articles, only four defined a term containing the word culture as shown in Table 6. Table 6: Definitions of Culture in CWG Articles Term Definition Source Cultural Distance "Individual’s perception and understanding of the differences between the individual’s culture and a foreign culture that forms the basis of cultural distance (Evans et al. 2000; O’Grady and Lane 1996). Ozorhon et al., 2008 pg 364 Cultural Distance "the distance between the home market of an IJV [International Joint Venture] partner and a foreign market where the IJV is operating" Ozorhon et al., 2008, pg 364 Culture "A set of shared experiences, understandings, and meanings among members of a group, an organization, a community, or a nation (Hofstede and Hofstede 2005; Mead 1998).  Ozorhon et al., 2008, pg 361 Culture "Culture is also that complex whole which includes knowledge, beliefs, arts, morals, customs, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by men and women as members of a society”(Pheng and Leong 2000)  Ozorhon et al., 2008,  pg 361 Culture "According to Barkema et al. (1997), culture is a complex phenomenon and embodies a host of values, beliefs, and norms, many of which are subtle, intangible, and difficult to measure" Ozorhon et al., 2008 pg 364 Culture "Weber sees culture as an autonomous producer of social structure and networks..Elements of culture can be material artifacts or immaterial values, norms, symbols, language, and knowledge. Culture is meaning making in everyday life... (Lewis 2002).  Girmscheid,and Brokmann 2010, pg 354 Culture "The business traditions, processes, and attitudes that an organization uses in pursuit and performance of its work." Sillars and Kangari, 2004, pg 507 Organizational Culture Hofstede and Hofstede (2005) define organizational culture as “the collective programming of the mind which distinguishes the members of one human group from another.”  Ozorhon et al., 2008, pg 362 Organizational Culture Organizational culture refers to a pattern of shared basic assumptions about the environment, human nature, social relationships, and reality that employees have learned as they addressed and resolved problems of external adaptation and internal integration (Schein 1992) Ozorhon et al., 2008, pg 362-363 Organizational Culture Organizational culture refers to the set of values, beliefs, understandings, and ways of thinking that are common to the members of an organization or corporation (Daft 2001) Ho et al., 2009, pg 521 Of particular note in Table 6 is the number of definitions that come from Ozorhorn et al. (2008). The purpose of this study was to measure the cultural effect on international joint venture performance. Both national and organizational realms of culture were operationalized through Hofstede and Hofestede’s (2005) framework.   5 DISCUSSION Thirty-seven definitions were found in 17 of the 172 articles studied, meaning only 10% of the articles contained in this detailed search contained a definition of culture. All 37 definitions were unique; there is no single understanding of culture in construction research. Unique here does not imply that every one of the 37 definitions is radically different from the other; however, it means that no two definitions have the 027-6 same combination of ideas. For example, Molenaar et al. (2009) combines the concept of a set of values in a group and persistence over time as the defining components of corporate culture; where as the working definition of culture for this same article adds such ideas must also be spread out throughout the entire organization in order to be considered culture. No other definition combined these two components. The definitions contained two general themes. In 38% of the articles, culture was thought to be a set of values, beliefs or ideas held by a particular group of people; however, 54% went beyond that idea and thought that these values were translated into behaviours and actions taken by certain groups. Just 8% saw culture as just the actions take by a group of people.  As was mentioned after each table of definitions, articles frequently include several definitions in order to properly convey a point (Mohamed 2003; Molenaar, et al 2009; E. Chan and Tse 2003). This range of definitions offered the audience a range of perspectives about how people have sought to define aspects of culture. The unique nature of these definitions can cause variation in the measurement of culture as a variable which should be considered in future research. Behaviour and actions are inherently easier to measure because they are observable; conversely, values and beliefs have to be measured or quantified indirectly. In our data set, this is most commonly been done through questionnaires. Both observations and questionnaires have their advantages and disadvantages as well as their own biases. When interpreting results from studies related to culture it is important to notice this distinction in order to realize the generalizability of the previous data as the field moves forward. For example, Molenaar (2009) defined corporate culture as including beliefs and behaviours consistent through time and throughout the organization. The resulting study then measured both belief and behaviour in a longitudinal study at every level of the company. Molenaar (2009) conducted a survey that resulted in a structural equation model which provides guidance for future researchers who intend to define culture in a similar fashion.  Another foundational difference seen in the definitions was the inclusion of time. Four definitions included time culture included maintenance over time (Molenaar et al. 2009; E. Chan and Tse 2003). While those two articles only represent 1% of all the articles, time was considered in several other studies within this paper’s scope. For some, safety culture developed very slowly (Huang and Hinze 2006; Kleiner et al. 2008; Patel and Jha 2015), while for others project culture in partnering could be developed rapidly (A. Chan et al. 2004). Definitions of culture without time imply cross-sectional studies of an environment are suitable to make evaluations of culture; however, these few definitions with time might require a longitudinal study in order to get a full view of culture. As for all research, specific research questions will define the appropriate theoretical grounding.  Another distinction made in the definitions of culture was the organizers of culture. 74% of the definitions made a reference to who governed a certain culture. Thirty-five percent of those articles argued that culture was controlled by an organization while 65 percent argued that the members or employees guided the culture. This was particularly apparent in the definitions of safety culture. Chen and Jin (2013), Choudhry (2013), Fang et al (2006), Mohammed (2003) reference safety culture as a product of the organization; where as the remaining two safety definitions (Martin and Lewis (2014) and Mohammed’s definition from Cullen (1990) see safety culture as the product of the employees. This distinction is important to note because of the impact it has on the types of beliefs and behaviours a group takes on. A culture imposed by a single source (like upper management of an organization) can heavily influence the resulting culture, which in the case of safety could save lives; however, this influence could allow for certain values to be ignored such as communication. A culture founded in beliefs from the employees can be much more comprehensive by allowing employees to contribute their views to company; however, priorities of each belief could vary among employees causing conflicts when different priorities oppose. From a construction research perspective, where the culture is founded substantially influences who to survey and what questions to ask, as was noted by Gilkey et al. (2012) and Chen and Jin (2013).  Sixty-one percent of the definitions originated from a source outside the field of engineering and construction, meaning there were only seven definitions, which referenced a source in construction.  In fact 39% of the definitions came from engineering and construction, 33% came from business and management and finally 28% came from the social sciences. The field was determined by the journal in which the reference was published or author’s background. For multiple authors the definition was counted once for each author. The ideas of Bal (2002) and Neumann and Nünning (2012) offer a viable 027-7 explanation for the large variability that was seen in the definitions of culture. The concept of culture is changing as it is converted into a usable concept for construction engineering. As conceptual misinterpretations can lead to inaccurate interpretation of results, our results emphasize the need for careful and explicitly given definitions as construction researchers mobilize the idea of culture.  6 CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE RESEARCH  This paper presented a conventional content analysis of 523 articles in the JCEM produced by ASCE and a more detailed summative content analysis for 172 articles relating to the same category. Thirty-seven unique definitions were found, suggesting that culture is not uniformly defined in construction research. Fifty-four percent of the definitions contained beliefs and behaviours as part of the definitions, and 11% of the definitions included time (i.e. the amount of time the beliefs and behaviours have persisted). Finally, culture was seen as the product of the organization by 35% of the definitions and as a product of the people by 65%. All three of these variances in the definitions effect the way in which culture in construction is researched, particularly the measurement of culture (surveys or observations) and research design (longitudinal or cross-sectional, and target population). Finally, the definitions of culture referenced literature in engineering/construction, business/management, and social sciences approximately equally which may explain some of the variation in the definitions. In conclusion, these results show definitions of culture travelling across disciplinary boundaries to create a set of definitions which researchers should carefully consider. More research is needed to determine if larger trends exist in defining of culture. Further analysis into the effect of a definition of culture on the methods and results of a study would provide valuable insight into how the definitions should be chosen and standardized across construction research. Expansion of the current content analysis to search for definitions of culture in all 523 articles as well as adding more academic construction journals would also add valuable knowledge.  Acknowledgements We would like to thank the University of Washington for providing us with the resources to conduct this research. In particular we would like to thank the Valle Scholarship Program without which this work would not have been possible. References Bal, Mieke. 2002. Travelling Concepts in the Humanities: A Rough Guide. University of Toronto Press. Barkema, Harry G., Oded Shenkar, Freek Vermeulen, and John H. J. Bell. 1997. “Working Abroad, Working with Others: How Firms Learn to Operate International Joint Ventures.” The Academy of Management Journal 40 (2): 426–42. doi:10.2307/256889. Chan, A., D. Chan, Y. Chiang, B. Tang, E. Chan, and K. Ho. 2004. “Exploring Critical Success Factors for Partnering in Construction Projects.” JCEM 130 (2): 188–98. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9364(2004)130:2(188). Chan, E., and R. Tse. 2003. “Cultural Considerations in International Construction Contracts.” JCEM 129 (4): 375–81. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9364(2003)129:4(375). Chen, P., D. Partington, and M. Qiang. 2009. “Cross-Cultural Understanding of Construction Project Managers’ Conceptions of Their Work.” JCEM 135 (6): 477–87. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)CO.1943-7862.0000009. Chen, Q., and R. Jin. 2013. “Multilevel Safety Culture and Climate Survey for Assessing New Safety Program.” JCEM 139 (7): 805–17. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)CO.1943-7862.0000659. Choudhry, Rafiq M., Dongping Fang, and Sherif Mohamed. 2007. “The Nature of Safety Culture: A Survey of the State-of-the-Art.” Safety Science 45 (10): 993–1012. doi:10.1016/j.ssci.2006.09.003. Choudhry, R., D. Fang, and H. Lingard. 2009. “Measuring Safety Climate of a Construction Company.” JCEM 135 (9): 890–99. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)CO.1943-7862.0000063. Chua, D., Y. Wang, and W. Tan. 2003. “Impacts of Obstacles in East Asian Cross-Border Construction.” JCEM 129 (2): 131–41. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9364(2003)129:2(131). 027-8 Cullen, Lord. 1990. The Public Inquiry into the Piper Alpha Disaster. London: Stationery Office Books. Daft, Richard. 2001. Organization Theory and Design. 7th ed. Cengage South-Western. http://www.barnesandnoble.com/w/organization-theory-and-design-richard-l-daft/1119278156. Earley, P. Christopher, and Miriam Erez. 1997. The Transplanted Executive: Why You Need to Understand How Workers in Other Countries See the World Differently. New York: Oxford University Press. Fang, D., Y. Chen, and L. Wong. 2006. “Safety Climate in Construction Industry: A Case Study in Hong Kong.” JCEM 132 (6): 573–84. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9364(2006)132:6(573). Fellows, Richard. 2010. “Understanding Organisational Culture in the Construction Industry.” Construction Management & Economics 28 (8): 898–900. doi:10.1080/01446193.2010.498480. Gajendran, Thayaparan, Graham Brewer, Andrew RJ Dainty, and Goran Runeson. 2012. “A Conceptual Approach to Studying the Organisational Culture of Construction Projects.” Australasian Journal of Construction Economics and Building 12 (2): 26. Gilkey, D., C. del Puerto, T. Keefe, P. Bigelow, R. Herron, J. Rosecrance, and P. Chen. 2012. “Comparative Analysis of Safety Culture Perceptions among HomeSafe Managers and Workers in Residential Construction.” JCEM 138 (9): 1044–52. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)CO.1943-7862.0000519. Girmscheid, G., and C. Brockmann. 2010. “Inter- and Intraorganizational Trust in International Construction Joint Ventures.” JCEM 136 (3): 353–60. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)CO.1943-7862.0000142. Glendon, A. I, and N. A Stanton. 2000. “Perspectives on Safety Culture.” Safety Science 34 (1–3): 193–214. doi:10.1016/S0925-7535(00)00013-8. Graves, Desmond. 1986. Corporate Culture: Diagnosis and Change : Auditing and Changing the Culture of Organizations. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Hai, D. M. 1986. Organizational Behavior: Experiences and Cases. St. Paul, Minn.: West Pub. Co. Hampden-Turner, Charles. 1990. Creating Corporate Culture: From Discord to Harmony. First Printing edition. Reading, Mass: Addison-Wesley. Health and Safety Commission. 1993. ACSNI Study Group on Human Factors: Third Report - Organising for Safety. Sheffield: HSE Books. Hofstede, Geert. 1984. Culture’s Consequences: International Differences in Work-Related Values. Abridged edition. Beverly Hills: SAGE Publications, Inc. Hofstede, Geert, and Gert Jan Hofstede. 2005. Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind. 2 edition. New York: McGraw-Hill. Ho, S., Y. Lin, W. Chu, and H. Wu. 2009. “Model for Organizational Governance Structure Choices in Construction Joint Ventures.” JCEM 135 (6): 518–30. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9364(2009)135:6(518). Hsieh, Hsiu-Fang, and Sarah E. Shannon. 2005. “Three Approaches to Qualitative Content Analysis.” Qualitative Health Research 15 (9): 1277–88. Huang, X., and J. Hinze. 2006. “Owner’s Role in Construction Safety.” J JCEM 132 (2): 164–73. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9364(2006)132:2(164). Javernick-Will, A., and W. Scott. 2010. “Who Needs to Know What? Institutional Knowledge and Global Projects.” JCEM 136 (5): 546–57. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)CO.1943-7862.0000035. Kleiner, B., T. Smith-Jackson, T. Mills, M. O’Brien, and E. Haro. 2008. “Design, Development, and Deployment of a Rapid Universal Safety and Health System for Construction.” J JCEM 134 (4): 273–79. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9364(2008)134:4(273). Kotter, John P., and James L. Heskett. 1992. Corporate Culture and Performance. Free Press. Krippendorff, Klaus. 2012. Content Analysis: An Introduction to Its Methodology. SAGE. Lee, D.-J. 1998. “The Effect of Cultural Distance on the Relational Exchange Between Exporters and Importers: The Case of Australian Exporters.” JOURNAL OF GLOBAL MARKETING 11 (4): 7–22. Levitt, R. 2007. “CEM Research for the Next 50 Years: Maximizing Economic, Environmental, and Societal Value of the Built Environment.” JCEM 133 (9): 619–28. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9364(2007)133:9(619). Lewis, Jeff. 2002. Cultural Studies - The Basics. SAGE Publications. Loosemore, Martin. 1999. “International Construction Management Research: Cultural Sensitivity in Methodological Design.” Construction Management & Economics 17 (5): 553–61. Maloney, W. F., and M. O. Federle. 1990. Organizational Culture in Engineering and Construction Organizations. Source Document No. 52. Austin, TX. 027-9 Martin, H., and T. Lewis. 2014. “Pinpointing Safety Leadership Factors for Safe Construction Sites in Trinidad and Tobago.” Journal of Construction Engineering and Management 140 (2): 04013046. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)CO.1943-7862.0000795. Mead, Richard. 1998. International Management. Wiley. Mohamed, S. 2003. “Scorecard Approach to Benchmarking Organizational Safety Culture in Construction.” J JCEM 129 (1): 80–88. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9364(2003)129:1(80). Molenaar, Keith, Hyman Brown, Shreve Caile, and Roger Smith. 2002. “ASSE Foundation Research - Corporate Culture: A Study of Firms with Outstanding Construction Safety” Professional Safety. 47 (7): 18. Molenaar, K., J. Park, and S. Washington. 2009. “Framework for Measuring Corporate Safety Culture and Its Impact on Construction Safety Performance.” JCEM 135 (6): 488–96. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9364(2009)135:6(488). Murdock, George Peter. 1932. “The Science of Culture.” American Anthropologist 34 (2): 200–215. National Occupational Research Agenda (NORA). 2008. “National Construction Agenda for Occupational Safety and Health Research and Practice in the U.S. Construction Sector.” NORA Construction Sector Council. http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/nora/comment/agendas/ construction/pdfs/ConstOct2008.pdf. Neumann, Birgit, and Ansgar Nünning. 2012. Travelling Concepts for the Study of Culture. Boston: De Gruyter. Nordström, Kjell A. 1994. “Is the Globe Shrinking? : Psychic Distance and the Establishment of Swedish Sales Subsidiaries during the Last 100 Years.” O’Grady, Shawna, and Henry W. Lane. 1996. “The Psychic Distance Paradox.” Journal of International Business Studies 27 (2): 309–33. Ozorhon, B., D. Arditi, I. Dikmen, and M. Birgonul. 2008. “Implications of Culture in the Performance of International Construction Joint Ventures.” JCEM 134 (5): 361–70. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9364(2008)134:5(361). Ozorovskaja, R., J. Voordijk, and C. Wilderom. 2007. “Leadership and Cultures of Lithuanian and Dutch Construction Firms.” Journal of Construction Engineering and Management 133 (11): 900–911. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9364(2007)133:11(900). Patel, D., and K. Jha. 2015. “Neural Network Model for the Prediction of Safe Work Behavior in Construction Projects.” Journal of Construction Engineering and Management 141 (1): 04014066. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)CO.1943-7862.0000922. Pheng, Low Sui, and Christopher H. Y Leong. 2000. “Cross-Cultural Project Management for International Construction in China.” International Journal of Project Management 18 (5): 307–16. doi:10.1016/S0263-7863(99)00027-7. Schein, Edgar H. 1992. Organizational Culture and Leadership. 2nd edition. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Scott, W. Richard. 2007. Institutions and Organizations: Ideas and Interests. 3rd edition. Los Angeles: SAGE Publications, Inc. Sillars, D., and R. Kangari. 2004. “Predicting Organizational Success within a Project-Based Joint Venture Alliance.” JCEM 130 (4): 500–508. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9364(2004)130:4(500). Triandis, Harry Charalambos. 1972. The Analysis of Subjective Culture. Wiley-Interscience. Trompenaars, Fons, and Charles Hampden-Turner. 2004. Managing People Across Cultures. 1 edition. Oxford: Capstone. Tsai, J., and C. Chi. 2009. “Influences of Chinese Cultural Orientations and Conflict Management Styles on Construction Dispute Resolving Strategies.” JCEM 135 (10): 955–64. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9364(2009)135:10(955). Tso, Judy. 1999. “Do You Dig Up Dinosaur Bones? Anthropology, Business, and Design.” Design Management Journal (Former Series) 10 (4): 69–74. doi:10.1111/j.1948-7169.1999.tb00279.x. Zohar, Dov, and Gil Luria. 2005. “A Multilevel Model of Safety Climate: Cross-Level Relationships Between Organization and Group-Level Climates.” Journal of Applied Psychology 90 (4): 616–28. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.90.4.616.  027-10  5th International/11th Construction Specialty Conference 5e International/11e Conférence spécialisée sur la construction    Vancouver, British Columbia June 8 to June 10, 2015 / 8 juin au 10 juin 2015   CULTURE IN CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING Leigh A. Allison1,3, and Jessica A. Kaminsky2  1 Civil and Environmental Engineering at University of Washington, United States 2 Civil and Environmental Engineering at University of Washington, United States 3 laalliso@uw.edu Abstract: The idea of culture has become a hot topic in construction engineering research.  However, this term is used with many meanings.  As such, the objective of this paper is to present a content analysis of the online record of ASCE Journal of Construction Engineering and Management (JCEM).  A 2014 keyword search for “culture” in JCEM returned 557 articles.  The authors reviewed the abstracts of each paper to categorize them according to the purpose statement: international markets (70 articles), safety (63 articles), and collaborative working arrangements (40 articles) emerged as the most frequent themes of the articles. The identified papers were then downloaded in full text form and imported into QSR NVivo, a qualitative coding software package. These articles were then searched for use of the word culture in conventional content analysis. Definitions of culture were extracted from the articles presenting a wide array of interpretations with respect to culture. Finally, this paper reviews the various theoretical bases for culture used in each category, and makes recommendations for future research in culture and construction based on the findings.  1 INTRODUCTION Culture can be defined in a variety of ways. It can be used as a verb (to culture as in microbial cells), noun (culture as a group of beliefs or ideas), or adjective (cultural as in cultural traditions). The goal of this paper is to discuss the various meanings of culture in the construction research community. The construction practice is made of people from varying firms, countries, and perspectives trying to work towards common goals. The accomplishment of such goals typically involves a strict schedule and tight budget; this makes team performance vitally important for successful projects. Culture has therefore been a factor in many research analyses. The paper aims to determine how culture is used in construction research through a content analysis of Journal of Construction Engineering and Management (JCEM) research.  2 POINTS OF DEPARTURE Changing technologies, geographies, and demographics have real impacts on construction projects and organizations (Levitt 2007). Within the past 15 years, culture has come into focus in research; unfortunately culture is not always well mobilized despite being the subject of ongoing research (Fellows 2010). In order to explore how culture has been used in the construction research community, this research identifies definitions of culture in construction and explores how construction research has approached culture research. Future investigations will focus on how culture is being operationalized. 027-1 When researchers conduct cultural studies, they assume a philosophical position, which will impact their choice of research methods and therefore results (Gajendran et al. 2012). In this paper, we identify culture as a traveling concept (Bal 2002). Bal’s argument is that the transfer of concepts across disciplinary, national, and historic boundaries alters the intended meaning. These changes are what create discussions in interdisciplinary subjects. Culture, with its roots in the social sciences, has crossed over the disciplinary boundary (Murdock 1932). Concept mapping bridges the gap in varying academic disciplines (Neumann and Nünning 2012) and adds clarity to our theory. In support of this goal, this paper maps concept of culture throughout JCEM in order to determine how the idea of culture is being viewed from varying nations, sectors, and firms. 3 RESEARCH METHOD  In order to determine the various uses of the word culture within Construction engineering, a keyword search was performed for the word “culture” in the American Society of Civil Engineer’s Journal of Construction Engineering and Management from March 1, 1983 until the present (December 29 2014). This search resulted in 557 articles from 1988 until 2014. 523 of those articles were primary articles. All editor’s notes and discussions were excluded from this research. A conventional content analysis in which codes emerged from the data was performed twice: first on the purpose statements within the abstracts of these articles and second on the full text of 172 articles identified in the first analysis.  Content analysis is a proven research technique to study the characteristic meaning of messages (Krippendorff 2012). In this case, technical construction articles from JCEM were analyzed as the messages in order to determine the meaning behind the use of the word culture. Content analysis has several methodological advantages validating its use in this research. First, it is unobtrusive, as in the instrument by which the data was collected does not affect the results. Second, the results are directly taken from the data. Third content analysis does not require a specific format for the data; it takes context into account (which is of particular importance in this study); and fourth it allows for the study of large amounts of data (Krippendorff 2012). This study implemented both conventional content analysis, which is particularly useful in areas where research literature on a phenomenon is limited and a summative content analysis which focuses on interpreting the content (Hsieh and Shannon 2005). In conventional content analysis, categories are derived inductively. Subcategories are combined into larger categories, and definitions of the larger (parent) categories are developed. This approach was used to classify each articles purpose statement. In summative content analysis, searches for a particular word are performed in order to determine how that word is being used. This approach was implemented to find definitions of culture. In the conventional content analysis, the articles were categorized into categories through an iterative process. International management, safety, and collaborative working arrangements emerged as the top three categories with 40 or more articles each. Descriptions of these categories can be seen in the results section. For this paper, only articles in these three categories were analyzed further. All 172 articles from these categorizes were further subjected to a summative content analysis for the word culture using QSR Nvivo. Within the 172 articles, several were categorized in two of the three categories. For example, the purpose statement in Ozorhon et al. (2008) [Statement: “In this study, the effect of cultural similarity/difference relative to the national and organizational characteristics of partner companies on IJV performance is examined through a questionnaire survey” pg. 361] was coded in collaborative working arrangements and international markets. Eight articles were repeated in both international markets and safety, and two articles were repeated in international market and safety. 4 RESULTS 4.1 Keyword Search  The 523 articles were analyzed and categorized according to the purpose statement given in the abstract. The purpose statement was defined as the statement in which the goals, intent, or purpose of the article was included. If no purpose statement was provided in the abstract, the article was categorized based on 027-2 the summarization of findings, also found in the abstract. The abstracts were read three times in order to iteratively categorize the articles. For brevity, table 1 only shows the top three categories and the description of the types of articles the category contains. Table 1: Article Categories Category Description Article Count International Markets Export of construction services to a nation outside of the firm's home nation or comparisons between construction practices of two nations 70 Safety Qualities of or related to risk or causes of injury;  62 Collaborative Working Arrangement Relationships described between two or more companies in the construction industry which offer the potential for greater market competitiveness including alliances, joint ventures, and partnering 40 As mentioned in the research methods, several articles were listed in two categories as they were equally related to both topics. (Ozorhon et al. 2008) was the only article that was double coded and contained explicit definitions of culture. These definitions are contained within the collaborative working arrangements section although they could also have been presented in international markets.  4.2 International Markets (IM) Articles related to international markets were distinguished by their mention of work outside of a home country or a comparison of international firms or nations. Seventy of the original 523 related to the international market category. Table 2 below shows the definitions given in the full text.  Table 2: Definitions of Culture Term Definition Source Culture "Culture, consisting essentially of people's collective deep-held values and beliefs, is a critical factor in shaping people's conceptions of the world around them (Earley and Erez 1997)." (Chen et al., 2009, pg 478) Culture "Hofstede (1984) defines culture as ‘‘the collective programming of the mind which distinguishes the members of one human group from other's.  systems of values and values are the building blocks of culture.’’ (Chan and Tse, 2003, pg 376) Culture “Loosemore (1999) states that ‘‘it is now accepted that a culture of a society is its shared values, understandings, assumptions and goals learned from earlier generations. It results in common attitudes, codes of conduct and expectations that guide behavior.’’ (Chan and Tse, 2003, pg 376) Culture ‘‘Culture describes the social system created by a group of people; it starts from the moment that a few people get together regularly and begin to establish norms and rules through which they will interact and communicate with each other and maintain order; it is about patterns of meaning; it is about shared beliefs, values, perspectives, and worldviews; it is about shared behavior, practices, rules, and rituals; … (Tso 1999). (Chan and Tse, 2003, pg 376) Culture "Culture as the word is understood by every man in the street without elaboration." (Chan and Tse, 2003, pg 376) Culture "Culture represents a general pattern of values, attitudes and behavior in one nation that distinguishes it from other culture groups." (Chua et al, 2003, pg 135) Culture “Culture serves as a socially shared knowledge schema giving meaning to incoming stimuli and channeling outgoing reactions (Triandis 1972). (Tsai and Chi, 2009, pg. 957)  027-3 Term Definition Source Culture “Every national culture describes distinct beliefs (what is true), values (what is important), and norms (what is appropriate) that are deeply embedded in people’s mind and demonstrated in their behaviors accordingly (Trompenaar 2004).” (Tsai and Chi, 2009, pg. 957) Culture “Kotter and Heskett [1992] think of culture as having two levels, which differ in terms of their visibility and their resistance to change. At the deeper and less visible level, culture refers to values that are shared by the people in a group and that tend to persist over time even when group membership changes. At the more visible level, culture represents the behavior patterns or practices of an organization that new employees are encouraged to follow.” (Ozorovakaja, et al, 2007, pg 901) Cultural “Widely shared, socially constructed symbolic representations” (Javernick-Will and Scott, 2010, pg 547) Four articles defined the word culture just once. Chan and Tse (2003) present three definitions as they explain how culture lacks true definition in the literature. They conclude by defining culture for their paper as a concept generally “understood by every man” (pg 376). Tsai and Chi (2009) present several definitions of culture shown in Table 2 while explaining the uses of Hofestede’s cultural dimensions that the study used to measure cultural characteristics of Taiwanese-Chinese construction professionals. Finally, as previously mentioned Ozohorn et al (2008) also defined culture in international market, but the definitions are in the collaborative working arrangement category. 4.3 Safety Sixty-two articles described safety in their purpose statements and were therefore analyzed for their use of culture. In this set of articles culture was used in a compound noun (i.e. blame culture, corporate culture etc.) to describe which type of culture to which the author was referring. Seven articles provided the seventeen definitions of culture as seen in Table 4 below. There are six definitions of corporate culture, two for organizational culture, and eight for safety culture.  Table 4: Definitions of Culture Term Definition Source Blame Culture "A blame culture allocates fault and responsibility to the individual making the error rather than to the system or management process." Martin and Lewis, 2014 Corporate Culture "Hampden-Turner (1990) define corporate culture as “a pattern of basic assumptions invented, discovered, or developed by a given group as it learns to cope with its problems of external adaptation and internal integration that has worked well enough to be valid and to be taught to new members as the correct way to perceive, think, and feel in relation to these problems.” " Molenaar et al., 2009, PG  498 Corporate Culture Corporate culture refers to the values held by employees of an organization that tend to persist even when membership changes (Kotter and Heskett 1992). Molenaar et al., 2009, PG  498 Corporate Culture  "Corporate culture is a collection of uniform and enduring beliefs, customs, traditions, and practices that are shared and continued by the employees of a corporation (Hai 1986)."  Molenaar et al., 2009, PG  498 Corporate Culture "These shared beliefs define the fundamental characteristics of an organization and create an attitude that distinguishes one organization from all others (Maloney and Federle 1990)" Molenaar et al., 2009, PG  498 027-4 Term Definition Source Corporate Culture "It is the unique configuration of norms and behaviors that characterize the manner in which employees combine to accomplish tasks (Graves 1986)." Molenaar et al., 2009, PG  498 Corporate Culture "Corporate culture is defined as the beliefs, values, and behaviors that are consistent throughout all members of the corporation. These beliefs, values, and behaviors must be consistent throughout upper management, middle management, and field employees." Molenaar et al., 2009, PG  498 Organizat-ional Culture "Organizational culture can be thought of as “the interaction between the organization and individuals” (Choudhry et al. 2007) containing both formalized structure and direction from the top down (Zohar 2005)" Gilkey et al., 2012, PG 1044 Organizational Culture “ ‘Organizational culture’—a concept often used to describe shared corpora  values that affect and influence members’ attitudes and behaviors.” Mohammed 2003, PG 81 Safety Culture "The safety culture of an organization is the product of individual and group values, attitudes, perceptions, competencies, and patterns of behavior [Health and Safety Commission (HSC) 1993]." Martin and Lewis, 2014 Safety Culture "Safety culture is a set of prevailing indicators, beliefs, and values that the organization owns in safety" Fang et al., 2006 PG 574 Safety Culture "According to Mohamed (2003), safety culture is a top-down organizational attribute approach to addressing safety management." Chen and Jin, 2013, PG 806 Safety Culture “The National Occupational Research Agenda (NORA)…defined safety culture as the organizational principles, norms, commitments, and values related to the operation of safety and health. Safety culture determines the relative importance of safety and other workplace goals (NORA 2008)” Chen and Jin, 2013, PG 806 Safety Culture “The corporate atmosphere or culture in which safety is understood to be, and is accepted as, the number one priority (Cullen 1990)."  Mohammed 2003, PG 81 Safety Culture " fundamental to an organization’s ability to manage safety-related aspects of its operations (Glendon and Stanton 2000)." Mohammed 2003, PG 81 Safety Culture "Safety culture is a subfacet of organizational culture, which affects workers’ attitudes and behavior in relation to an organization’s on-going safety performance. " Mohammed 2003, PG 81 Safety Culture "Mohamed (2003) suggested that safety culture is concerned with the determinants for the ability to manage safety (top-down organizational attribute approach); whereas, safety climate is concerned with the workers’ perceptions of the role safety plays in the workplace (bottom-up perceptual approach)." Choudhry et al. 2009, PG 891  As seen in the table, blame culture, corporate culture, organizational culture, and safety culture make up the four terms used in the safety articles. Although all subsets of culture, each of these terms implies a slight narrowing from the broad term of culture. Four articles provided more than one definition of these culture related terms. Molenaar et al. (2009) provided all the definitions of corporate culture in an attempt to explain how it relates to safety and references Molenaar et al. (2002), published outside of JECM and therefore out of the scope of this paper, for further definitions of corporate culture. Martin and Lewis (2003) defined both safety culture and blame culture. They differentiated between safety climate and culture, as they wanted to understand the key drivers of risk taking behaviours on construction sites before attempting to measure safety climate. Similarly, Chen and Jin (2013) offered two definitions of safety culture in an attempt to describe the difference between safety climate and culture before they conducted a study measuring safety culture. Finally, Mohammed (2003) referenced by Chen and Jin (2013) provided one definition of organizational culture and three definitions of safety culture. Mohammed (2003) sees safety culture as a subset of organizational culture; therefore he defined organizational culture and then safety culture in the article’s literature review before recommending the use of a scorecard approach to measuring what he calls organizational safety culture.  027-5 4.4 Collaborative Working Arrangements (CWA) For purposes of this article, collaborative working arrangements are defined as relationships established between two or more firms in the construction industry, which together attempt to create a more competitive team to complete a project. Examples are relational contracting, alliances, joint ventures, and partnering. From the original 523 articles, 40 related directly to collaborative working groups. Of these 40 articles, only four defined a term containing the word culture as shown in Table 6. Table 6: Definitions of Culture in CWG Articles Term Definition Source Cultural Distance "Individual’s perception and understanding of the differences between the individual’s culture and a foreign culture that forms the basis of cultural distance (Evans et al. 2000; O’Grady and Lane 1996). Ozorhon et al., 2008 pg 364 Cultural Distance "the distance between the home market of an IJV [International Joint Venture] partner and a foreign market where the IJV is operating" Ozorhon et al., 2008, pg 364 Culture "A set of shared experiences, understandings, and meanings among members of a group, an organization, a community, or a nation (Hofstede and Hofstede 2005; Mead 1998).  Ozorhon et al., 2008, pg 361 Culture "Culture is also that complex whole which includes knowledge, beliefs, arts, morals, customs, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by men and women as members of a society”(Pheng and Leong 2000)  Ozorhon et al., 2008,  pg 361 Culture "According to Barkema et al. (1997), culture is a complex phenomenon and embodies a host of values, beliefs, and norms, many of which are subtle, intangible, and difficult to measure" Ozorhon et al., 2008 pg 364 Culture "Weber sees culture as an autonomous producer of social structure and networks..Elements of culture can be material artifacts or immaterial values, norms, symbols, language, and knowledge. Culture is meaning making in everyday life... (Lewis 2002).  Girmscheid,and Brokmann 2010, pg 354 Culture "The business traditions, processes, and attitudes that an organization uses in pursuit and performance of its work." Sillars and Kangari, 2004, pg 507 Organizational Culture Hofstede and Hofstede (2005) define organizational culture as “the collective programming of the mind which distinguishes the members of one human group from another.”  Ozorhon et al., 2008, pg 362 Organizational Culture Organizational culture refers to a pattern of shared basic assumptions about the environment, human nature, social relationships, and reality that employees have learned as they addressed and resolved problems of external adaptation and internal integration (Schein 1992) Ozorhon et al., 2008, pg 362-363 Organizational Culture Organizational culture refers to the set of values, beliefs, understandings, and ways of thinking that are common to the members of an organization or corporation (Daft 2001) Ho et al., 2009, pg 521 Of particular note in Table 6 is the number of definitions that come from Ozorhorn et al. (2008). The purpose of this study was to measure the cultural effect on international joint venture performance. Both national and organizational realms of culture were operationalized through Hofstede and Hofestede’s (2005) framework.   5 DISCUSSION Thirty-seven definitions were found in 17 of the 172 articles studied, meaning only 10% of the articles contained in this detailed search contained a definition of culture. All 37 definitions were unique; there is no single understanding of culture in construction research. Unique here does not imply that every one of the 37 definitions is radically different from the other; however, it means that no two definitions have the 027-6 same combination of ideas. For example, Molenaar et al. (2009) combines the concept of a set of values in a group and persistence over time as the defining components of corporate culture; where as the working definition of culture for this same article adds such ideas must also be spread out throughout the entire organization in order to be considered culture. No other definition combined these two components. The definitions contained two general themes. In 38% of the articles, culture was thought to be a set of values, beliefs or ideas held by a particular group of people; however, 54% went beyond that idea and thought that these values were translated into behaviours and actions taken by certain groups. Just 8% saw culture as just the actions take by a group of people.  As was mentioned after each table of definitions, articles frequently include several definitions in order to properly convey a point (Mohamed 2003; Molenaar, et al 2009; E. Chan and Tse 2003). This range of definitions offered the audience a range of perspectives about how people have sought to define aspects of culture. The unique nature of these definitions can cause variation in the measurement of culture as a variable which should be considered in future research. Behaviour and actions are inherently easier to measure because they are observable; conversely, values and beliefs have to be measured or quantified indirectly. In our data set, this is most commonly been done through questionnaires. Both observations and questionnaires have their advantages and disadvantages as well as their own biases. When interpreting results from studies related to culture it is important to notice this distinction in order to realize the generalizability of the previous data as the field moves forward. For example, Molenaar (2009) defined corporate culture as including beliefs and behaviours consistent through time and throughout the organization. The resulting study then measured both belief and behaviour in a longitudinal study at every level of the company. Molenaar (2009) conducted a survey that resulted in a structural equation model which provides guidance for future researchers who intend to define culture in a similar fashion.  Another foundational difference seen in the definitions was the inclusion of time. Four definitions included time culture included maintenance over time (Molenaar et al. 2009; E. Chan and Tse 2003). While those two articles only represent 1% of all the articles, time was considered in several other studies within this paper’s scope. For some, safety culture developed very slowly (Huang and Hinze 2006; Kleiner et al. 2008; Patel and Jha 2015), while for others project culture in partnering could be developed rapidly (A. Chan et al. 2004). Definitions of culture without time imply cross-sectional studies of an environment are suitable to make evaluations of culture; however, these few definitions with time might require a longitudinal study in order to get a full view of culture. As for all research, specific research questions will define the appropriate theoretical grounding.  Another distinction made in the definitions of culture was the organizers of culture. 74% of the definitions made a reference to who governed a certain culture. Thirty-five percent of those articles argued that culture was controlled by an organization while 65 percent argued that the members or employees guided the culture. This was particularly apparent in the definitions of safety culture. Chen and Jin (2013), Choudhry (2013), Fang et al (2006), Mohammed (2003) reference safety culture as a product of the organization; where as the remaining two safety definitions (Martin and Lewis (2014) and Mohammed’s definition from Cullen (1990) see safety culture as the product of the employees. This distinction is important to note because of the impact it has on the types of beliefs and behaviours a group takes on. A culture imposed by a single source (like upper management of an organization) can heavily influence the resulting culture, which in the case of safety could save lives; however, this influence could allow for certain values to be ignored such as communication. A culture founded in beliefs from the employees can be much more comprehensive by allowing employees to contribute their views to company; however, priorities of each belief could vary among employees causing conflicts when different priorities oppose. From a construction research perspective, where the culture is founded substantially influences who to survey and what questions to ask, as was noted by Gilkey et al. (2012) and Chen and Jin (2013).  Sixty-one percent of the definitions originated from a source outside the field of engineering and construction, meaning there were only seven definitions, which referenced a source in construction.  In fact 39% of the definitions came from engineering and construction, 33% came from business and management and finally 28% came from the social sciences. The field was determined by the journal in which the reference was published or author’s background. For multiple authors the definition was counted once for each author. The ideas of Bal (2002) and Neumann and Nünning (2012) offer a viable 027-7 explanation for the large variability that was seen in the definitions of culture. The concept of culture is changing as it is converted into a usable concept for construction engineering. As conceptual misinterpretations can lead to inaccurate interpretation of results, our results emphasize the need for careful and explicitly given definitions as construction researchers mobilize the idea of culture.  6 CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE RESEARCH  This paper presented a conventional content analysis of 523 articles in the JCEM produced by ASCE and a more detailed summative content analysis for 172 articles relating to the same category. Thirty-seven unique definitions were found, suggesting that culture is not uniformly defined in construction research. Fifty-four percent of the definitions contained beliefs and behaviours as part of the definitions, and 11% of the definitions included time (i.e. the amount of time the beliefs and behaviours have persisted). Finally, culture was seen as the product of the organization by 35% of the definitions and as a product of the people by 65%. All three of these variances in the definitions effect the way in which culture in construction is researched, particularly the measurement of culture (surveys or observations) and research design (longitudinal or cross-sectional, and target population). Finally, the definitions of culture referenced literature in engineering/construction, business/management, and social sciences approximately equally which may explain some of the variation in the definitions. In conclusion, these results show definitions of culture travelling across disciplinary boundaries to create a set of definitions which researchers should carefully consider. More research is needed to determine if larger trends exist in defining of culture. Further analysis into the effect of a definition of culture on the methods and results of a study would provide valuable insight into how the definitions should be chosen and standardized across construction research. Expansion of the current content analysis to search for definitions of culture in all 523 articles as well as adding more academic construction journals would also add valuable knowledge.  Acknowledgements We would like to thank the University of Washington for providing us with the resources to conduct this research. In particular we would like to thank the Valle Scholarship Program without which this work would not have been possible. References Bal, Mieke. 2002. Travelling Concepts in the Humanities: A Rough Guide. University of Toronto Press. Barkema, Harry G., Oded Shenkar, Freek Vermeulen, and John H. J. Bell. 1997. “Working Abroad, Working with Others: How Firms Learn to Operate International Joint Ventures.” The Academy of Management Journal 40 (2): 426–42. doi:10.2307/256889. Chan, A., D. Chan, Y. Chiang, B. Tang, E. Chan, and K. Ho. 2004. “Exploring Critical Success Factors for Partnering in Construction Projects.” JCEM 130 (2): 188–98. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9364(2004)130:2(188). Chan, E., and R. Tse. 2003. “Cultural Considerations in International Construction Contracts.” JCEM 129 (4): 375–81. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9364(2003)129:4(375). Chen, P., D. Partington, and M. Qiang. 2009. “Cross-Cultural Understanding of Construction Project Managers’ Conceptions of Their Work.” JCEM 135 (6): 477–87. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)CO.1943-7862.0000009. Chen, Q., and R. Jin. 2013. “Multilevel Safety Culture and Climate Survey for Assessing New Safety Program.” JCEM 139 (7): 805–17. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)CO.1943-7862.0000659. Choudhry, Rafiq M., Dongping Fang, and Sherif Mohamed. 2007. “The Nature of Safety Culture: A Survey of the State-of-the-Art.” Safety Science 45 (10): 993–1012. doi:10.1016/j.ssci.2006.09.003. Choudhry, R., D. Fang, and H. Lingard. 2009. “Measuring Safety Climate of a Construction Company.” JCEM 135 (9): 890–99. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)CO.1943-7862.0000063. Chua, D., Y. Wang, and W. Tan. 2003. “Impacts of Obstacles in East Asian Cross-Border Construction.” JCEM 129 (2): 131–41. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9364(2003)129:2(131). 027-8 Cullen, Lord. 1990. The Public Inquiry into the Piper Alpha Disaster. London: Stationery Office Books. Daft, Richard. 2001. Organization Theory and Design. 7th ed. Cengage South-Western. http://www.barnesandnoble.com/w/organization-theory-and-design-richard-l-daft/1119278156. Earley, P. Christopher, and Miriam Erez. 1997. The Transplanted Executive: Why You Need to Understand How Workers in Other Countries See the World Differently. New York: Oxford University Press. Fang, D., Y. Chen, and L. Wong. 2006. “Safety Climate in Construction Industry: A Case Study in Hong Kong.” JCEM 132 (6): 573–84. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9364(2006)132:6(573). Fellows, Richard. 2010. “Understanding Organisational Culture in the Construction Industry.” Construction Management & Economics 28 (8): 898–900. doi:10.1080/01446193.2010.498480. Gajendran, Thayaparan, Graham Brewer, Andrew RJ Dainty, and Goran Runeson. 2012. “A Conceptual Approach to Studying the Organisational Culture of Construction Projects.” Australasian Journal of Construction Economics and Building 12 (2): 26. Gilkey, D., C. del Puerto, T. Keefe, P. Bigelow, R. Herron, J. Rosecrance, and P. Chen. 2012. “Comparative Analysis of Safety Culture Perceptions among HomeSafe Managers and Workers in Residential Construction.” JCEM 138 (9): 1044–52. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)CO.1943-7862.0000519. Girmscheid, G., and C. Brockmann. 2010. “Inter- and Intraorganizational Trust in International Construction Joint Ventures.” JCEM 136 (3): 353–60. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)CO.1943-7862.0000142. Glendon, A. I, and N. A Stanton. 2000. “Perspectives on Safety Culture.” Safety Science 34 (1–3): 193–214. doi:10.1016/S0925-7535(00)00013-8. Graves, Desmond. 1986. Corporate Culture: Diagnosis and Change : Auditing and Changing the Culture of Organizations. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Hai, D. M. 1986. Organizational Behavior: Experiences and Cases. St. Paul, Minn.: West Pub. Co. Hampden-Turner, Charles. 1990. Creating Corporate Culture: From Discord to Harmony. First Printing edition. Reading, Mass: Addison-Wesley. Health and Safety Commission. 1993. ACSNI Study Group on Human Factors: Third Report - Organising for Safety. Sheffield: HSE Books. Hofstede, Geert. 1984. Culture’s Consequences: International Differences in Work-Related Values. Abridged edition. Beverly Hills: SAGE Publications, Inc. Hofstede, Geert, and Gert Jan Hofstede. 2005. Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind. 2 edition. New York: McGraw-Hill. Ho, S., Y. Lin, W. Chu, and H. Wu. 2009. “Model for Organizational Governance Structure Choices in Construction Joint Ventures.” JCEM 135 (6): 518–30. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9364(2009)135:6(518). Hsieh, Hsiu-Fang, and Sarah E. Shannon. 2005. “Three Approaches to Qualitative Content Analysis.” Qualitative Health Research 15 (9): 1277–88. Huang, X., and J. Hinze. 2006. “Owner’s Role in Construction Safety.” J JCEM 132 (2): 164–73. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9364(2006)132:2(164). Javernick-Will, A., and W. Scott. 2010. “Who Needs to Know What? Institutional Knowledge and Global Projects.” JCEM 136 (5): 546–57. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)CO.1943-7862.0000035. Kleiner, B., T. Smith-Jackson, T. Mills, M. O’Brien, and E. Haro. 2008. “Design, Development, and Deployment of a Rapid Universal Safety and Health System for Construction.” J JCEM 134 (4): 273–79. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9364(2008)134:4(273). Kotter, John P., and James L. Heskett. 1992. Corporate Culture and Performance. Free Press. Krippendorff, Klaus. 2012. Content Analysis: An Introduction to Its Methodology. SAGE. Lee, D.-J. 1998. “The Effect of Cultural Distance on the Relational Exchange Between Exporters and Importers: The Case of Australian Exporters.” JOURNAL OF GLOBAL MARKETING 11 (4): 7–22. Levitt, R. 2007. “CEM Research for the Next 50 Years: Maximizing Economic, Environmental, and Societal Value of the Built Environment.” JCEM 133 (9): 619–28. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9364(2007)133:9(619). Lewis, Jeff. 2002. Cultural Studies - The Basics. SAGE Publications. Loosemore, Martin. 1999. “International Construction Management Research: Cultural Sensitivity in Methodological Design.” Construction Management & Economics 17 (5): 553–61. Maloney, W. F., and M. O. Federle. 1990. Organizational Culture in Engineering and Construction Organizations. Source Document No. 52. Austin, TX. 027-9 Martin, H., and T. Lewis. 2014. “Pinpointing Safety Leadership Factors for Safe Construction Sites in Trinidad and Tobago.” Journal of Construction Engineering and Management 140 (2): 04013046. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)CO.1943-7862.0000795. Mead, Richard. 1998. International Management. Wiley. Mohamed, S. 2003. “Scorecard Approach to Benchmarking Organizational Safety Culture in Construction.” J JCEM 129 (1): 80–88. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9364(2003)129:1(80). Molenaar, Keith, Hyman Brown, Shreve Caile, and Roger Smith. 2002. “ASSE Foundation Research - Corporate Culture: A Study of Firms with Outstanding Construction Safety” Professional Safety. 47 (7): 18. Molenaar, K., J. Park, and S. Washington. 2009. “Framework for Measuring Corporate Safety Culture and Its Impact on Construction Safety Performance.” JCEM 135 (6): 488–96. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9364(2009)135:6(488). Murdock, George Peter. 1932. “The Science of Culture.” American Anthropologist 34 (2): 200–215. National Occupational Research Agenda (NORA). 2008. “National Construction Agenda for Occupational Safety and Health Research and Practice in the U.S. Construction Sector.” NORA Construction Sector Council. http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/nora/comment/agendas/ construction/pdfs/ConstOct2008.pdf. Neumann, Birgit, and Ansgar Nünning. 2012. Travelling Concepts for the Study of Culture. Boston: De Gruyter. Nordström, Kjell A. 1994. “Is the Globe Shrinking? : Psychic Distance and the Establishment of Swedish Sales Subsidiaries during the Last 100 Years.” O’Grady, Shawna, and Henry W. Lane. 1996. “The Psychic Distance Paradox.” Journal of International Business Studies 27 (2): 309–33. Ozorhon, B., D. Arditi, I. Dikmen, and M. Birgonul. 2008. “Implications of Culture in the Performance of International Construction Joint Ventures.” JCEM 134 (5): 361–70. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9364(2008)134:5(361). Ozorovskaja, R., J. Voordijk, and C. Wilderom. 2007. “Leadership and Cultures of Lithuanian and Dutch Construction Firms.” Journal of Construction Engineering and Management 133 (11): 900–911. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9364(2007)133:11(900). Patel, D., and K. Jha. 2015. “Neural Network Model for the Prediction of Safe Work Behavior in Construction Projects.” Journal of Construction Engineering and Management 141 (1): 04014066. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)CO.1943-7862.0000922. Pheng, Low Sui, and Christopher H. Y Leong. 2000. “Cross-Cultural Project Management for International Construction in China.” International Journal of Project Management 18 (5): 307–16. doi:10.1016/S0263-7863(99)00027-7. Schein, Edgar H. 1992. Organizational Culture and Leadership. 2nd edition. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Scott, W. Richard. 2007. Institutions and Organizations: Ideas and Interests. 3rd edition. Los Angeles: SAGE Publications, Inc. Sillars, D., and R. Kangari. 2004. “Predicting Organizational Success within a Project-Based Joint Venture Alliance.” JCEM 130 (4): 500–508. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9364(2004)130:4(500). Triandis, Harry Charalambos. 1972. The Analysis of Subjective Culture. Wiley-Interscience. Trompenaars, Fons, and Charles Hampden-Turner. 2004. Managing People Across Cultures. 1 edition. Oxford: Capstone. Tsai, J., and C. Chi. 2009. “Influences of Chinese Cultural Orientations and Conflict Management Styles on Construction Dispute Resolving Strategies.” JCEM 135 (10): 955–64. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9364(2009)135:10(955). Tso, Judy. 1999. “Do You Dig Up Dinosaur Bones? Anthropology, Business, and Design.” Design Management Journal (Former Series) 10 (4): 69–74. doi:10.1111/j.1948-7169.1999.tb00279.x. Zohar, Dov, and Gil Luria. 2005. “A Multilevel Model of Safety Climate: Cross-Level Relationships Between Organization and Group-Level Climates.” Journal of Applied Psychology 90 (4): 616–28. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.90.4.616.  027-10  Culture & ConstructionLeigh Allison & Jessica KaminskyCivil and Environmental EngineeringUniversity of WashingtonVancouver, British ColumbiaJune 8 to June 10, 2015 / 8 juin au 10 juin 20155th International/11th Construction Specialty Conference5e International/11e Conférence spécialisée sur la constructionDefining Culture in Construction1Why culture and construction?– Global Market– Diverse workforce– Partnerships between companieshttp://worldofconcrete.com/http://worldofconcrete.com/2What is culture?Values Underlying AssumptionsObservable FactsVisible, but hard to interpretArtifacts & CreationsBeliefs Taken-for GrantedCollectable through surveys, but biasMeasurable with Surveys(Shein, 1984)3Research QuestionHow is culture used and definedin construction research?Image: (Mohan, 2014)41. Keyword Search in JCEM2. Import articles into Nvivo3. Code articles based on purpose statement in abstract 4. In 3 largest categories, completed full text analysis5. Identified definitions of culture6. Compared definitions of cultureResearch      MethodsAnalyze CodesCombine codes into categoriesAnalyze CodesCombine into categories523 articles98 categories identified 5Keyword Search: 523 Articles98 categories identified International Markets70 articles10 definitionsSafety62 articles17 definitionsCollaborative Working Arrangements40 articles10 definitionsResults6Data Analysis: Concept Mapping CultureThemeValues/BeliefsActionsTimePerspectiveNationalOrganizationalCorporateSafetyFieldEngineering & ConstructionSocial SciencesBusiness & Management InitiatorOrganizationMember37 unique definitions in 17 articles7Concept MapBeliefs/Values/IdeasActions/behaviorsTimeTheme:1 2 3 4 5 67 8 9 10 11 1213 14 15 16 17 1819 20 21 22 23 2425 26 27 28 29 3031 32 33 34 35 3637148Beliefs/Values/IdeasActions/behaviorsTimeTheme:1 2 3 4 5 67 8 9 10 11 1213 14 15 16 17 1819 20 21 22 23 2425 26 27 28 29 3031 32 33 34 35 3637143Concept Map9Theme:1 2 3 4 5 67 8 9 10 11 1213 14 15 16 17 1819 20 21 22 23 2425 26 27 28 29 3031 32 33 34 35 3637Beliefs/Values/IdeasActions/behaviorsTime20Concept Map10Beliefs/Values/IdeasActions/behaviorsTimeTheme:1 2 3 4 5 67 8 9 10 11 1213 14 15 16 17 1819 20 21 22 23 2425 26 27 28 29 3031 32 33 34 35 36373Concept Map11CultureThemePerspectiveNationalOrganizationalCorporateSafetyFieldEngineering & ConstructionSocial SciencesBusiness & Management InitiatorOrganizationMemberReview14320305101520Values Actions Both Time12Concept MapCultureSafety CultureOrganizational Culture Corporate CulturePerspective1 2 3 4 5 67 8 9 10 11 1213 14 15 16 17 1819 20 21 22 23 2425 26 27 28 29 3031 32 33 34 35 363715Beliefs/Values/IdeasActions/behaviorsTimeTheme:13Concept MapCultureSafety CultureOrganizational Culture Corporate CulturePerspective1 2 3 4 5 67 8 9 10 11 1213 14 15 16 17 1819 20 21 22 23 2425 26 27 28 29 3031 32 33 34 35 3637Beliefs/Values/IdeasActions/behaviorsTimeTheme:15814Concept MapCultureSafety CultureOrganizational Culture Corporate Culture1 2 3 4 5 67 8 9 10 11 1213 14 15 16 17 1819 20 21 22 23 2425 26 27 28 29 3031 32 33 34 35 3637Beliefs/Values/IdeasActions/behaviorsTimeTheme: Perspective158615Concept MapCultureSafety CultureOrganizational Culture Corporate CulturePerspective1 2 3 4 5 67 8 9 10 11 1213 14 15 16 17 1819 20 21 22 23 2425 26 27 28 29 3031 32 33 34 35 3637Beliefs/Values/IdeasActions/behaviorsTimeTheme:1586516Concept MapCulture             Safety CultureOrganizational Culture Corporate CulturePerspective1 2 3 4 5 67 8 9 10 11 1213 14 15 16 17 1819 20 21 22 23 2425 26 27 28 29 3031 32 33 34 35 3637Beliefs/Values/IdeasActions/behaviorsTimeTheme:Cultural DistanceBlame Culture1586517CultureThemePerspectiveFieldEngineering & ConstructionSocial SciencesBusiness & Management InitiatorOrganizationMemberReview14320305101520Values Actions Both Time515680510152018Concept MapCulture             Safety CultureOrganizational Culture Corporate CulturePerspective1 2 3 4 5 67 8 9 10 11 1213 14 15 16 17 1819 20 21 22 23 2425 26 27 28 29 3031 32 33 34 35 3637Beliefs/Values/IdeasActions/behaviorsTimeTheme:Cultural DistanceBlame Culture15965Member formedOrganization formedInitiator19Concept MapMember formedOrganization formed1 2 3 4 5 67 8 9 10 11 1213 14 15 16 17 1819 20 21 22 23 2425 26 27 28 29 3031 32 33 34 35 3637Cultural DistanceBlame CultureCultureSafety CultureOrganizational Culture Corporate CulturePerspectiveBeliefs/Values/IdeasActions/behaviorsTimeTheme:Initiator1720Concept MapMember formedOrganization formedInitiator1 2 3 4 5 67 8 9 10 11 1213 14 15 16 17 1819 20 21 22 23 2425 26 27 28 29 3031 32 33 34 35 3637Cultural DistanceBlame CultureCultureSafety CultureOrganizational Culture Corporate CulturePerspectiveBeliefs/Values/IdeasActions/behaviorsTimeTheme:17921CultureThemePerspectiveFieldEngineering & ConstructionSocial SciencesBusiness & Management InitiatorReview14320305101520Values Actions Both Time515680510152017905101520Member Organization22Concept MapMember formedOrganization formedInitiator1 2 3 4 5 67 8 9 10 11 1213 14 15 16 17 1819 20 21 22 23 2425 26 27 28 29 3031 32 33 34 35 3637Cultural DistanceBlame CultureCultureSafety CultureOrganizational Culture Corporate CulturePerspectiveBeliefs/Values/IdeasActions/behaviorsTimeTheme:Social SciencesBusiness & Management Field 23EngineeringConcept MapMember formedOrganization formedSocial SciencesBusiness & Management Field1 2 3 4 5 67 8 9 10 11 1213 14 15 16 17 1819 20 21 22 23 2425 26 27 28 29 3031 32 33 34 35 3637Cultural DistanceBlame CultureCultureSafety CultureOrganizational Culture Corporate CulturePerspectiveBeliefs/Values/IdeasActions/behaviorsTimeTheme:EngineeringInitiator1024Concept MapMember formedOrganization formedEngineeringSocial SciencesBusiness & Management 1 2 3 4 5 67 8 9 10 11 1213 14 15 16 17 1819 20 21 22 23 2425 26 27 28 29 3031 32 33 34 35 3637Cultural DistanceBlame Culture810CultureSafety CultureOrganizational Culture Corporate CulturePerspectiveBeliefs/Values/IdeasActions/behaviorsTimeTheme:Initiator Field 251 2 3 4 5 67 8 9 10 11 1213 14 15 16 17 1819 20 21 22 23 2425 26 27 28 29 3031 32 33 34 35 3637Concept MapMember formedOrganization formedEngineeringSocial SciencesBusiness & Management Cultural DistanceBlame Culture 19810InitiatorCultureSafety CultureOrganizational Culture Corporate CulturePerspectiveBeliefs/Values/IdeasActions/behaviorsTimeTheme:Field 2610 81905101520BusinessManagementSocial Sciences Engineering &Construction14320305101520Values Actions Both TimeCultureThemePerspectiveFieldInitiator515680510152017901020Member Organization2710 81905101520BusinessManagementSocial Sciences Engineering &Construction14320305101520Values Actions Both TimeCultureThemePerspectiveFieldInitiator515680510152017901020Member OrganizationWhat does it all mean?• C lture is travelling concept (Bal, 2002)• Concepts change as they cross…• Disciplinary boundaries• National boundaries• Historic boundaries• Different definitions lead to different results28ImplicationsImage: www.examiner.comDifferent results example• Diverse national culture makes successful IJV easier(Ozorhon et al. 2008) –Provided 7 definitions, used Hofestede’s constructMethod: Interviewed 68 Turkish construction manager in IJVsRespondents compared countries with Likert Scale• Diverse national culture makes face to face trust more difficultto form (Grimscheid & Brockmann, 2010)Definition Categories: Belief, Culture, Member, EngineeringMethod: Interviewed 35 managers in Thailand & Taiwan Created a model of trust based on responses.  29Future Research1. Clarify trends in defining of culture2. Expand to all definitions of culture in all 523 articles in JCEM3. Expand to more academic construction journals4. Analyze the effect of a definition on the methods and results of a study30Conclusions• Culture traveled across disciplinary boundaries• 37 unique definitions• Varied by:1. Theme2. Perspective3. Initiator4. Field31Thank you!Questions?Please contact me at laalliso@uw.eduImage: http://www.contentdesire.com/ References• Girmscheid, G., and C. Brockmann. 2010. “Inter- and Intraorganizational Trust in International Construction Joint Ventures.” JCEM 136 (3): 353–60. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)CO.1943-7862.0000142.• Ozorhon, B., D. Arditi, I. Dikmen, and M. Birgonul. 2008. “Implications of Culture in the Performance of International Construction Joint Ventures.” JCEM 134 (5): 361–70. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9364(2008)134:5(361).• E. H. Schein, “Coming to a new awareness of organizational culture,” Sloan Manage. Rev., vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 3–16, 1984.33

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
https://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.52660.1-0076468/manifest

Comment

Related Items