International Construction Specialty Conference of the Canadian Society for Civil Engineering (ICSC) (5th : 2015)

Study of the influence of Portland cement on the properties of concrete with fly ash Rosario-Lugaro, Ámbar; Molina-Bas, Omar I.; Reyes-Pozo, Encarnación Jun 30, 2015

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
52660-Rosario-Lúgaro_A_et_al_ICSC15_075_Study_Portland_Cement.pdf [ 787.6kB ]
52660-Rosario-Lúgaro_A_et_al_ICSC15_075_Study_Portland_Cement_slides.pdf [ 1.1MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 52660-1.0076465.json
JSON-LD: 52660-1.0076465-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 52660-1.0076465-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 52660-1.0076465-rdf.json
Turtle: 52660-1.0076465-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 52660-1.0076465-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 52660-1.0076465-source.json
Full Text
52660-1.0076465-fulltext.txt
Citation
52660-1.0076465.ris

Full Text

5th International/11th Construction Specialty Conference 5e International/11e Conférence spécialisée sur la construction    Vancouver, British Columbia June 8 to June 10, 2015 / 8 juin au 10 juin 2015   STUDY OF THE INFLUENCE OF PORTLAND CEMENT ON THE PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE WITH FLY ASH Ámbar Rosario-Lugaro1, Omar I. Molina-Bas1,3 and Encarnación Reyes-Pozo2 1 Department of Civil Engineering and Surveying, Universidad de Puerto Rico, Mayagüez, Puerto Rico 2 Department of Construction Engineering, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid, Spain 3 omar.molina1@upr.edu Abstract: Concrete made with Portland cement is one of the most used construction material in the world. Engineers and scientists are always looking to improve its sustainable properties.  The durability of concrete is a determining factor in the service life of a structure. The durability of cement based materials is strongly influenced by its porous structure. Previous research has shown that the use of fly ash in concrete mixtures as partial substitution of Portland cement produces a pozzolanic reaction that changes concrete’s micro-structure. As a concrete mineral admixture, fly ash improves concrete’s mechanical properties and durability while providing economic and environmental benefits. The objective of this paper is to present the results of a study that investigated the influence of fly ash on the durability of concrete mixed with ASTM C150: Type I cements. The methodology included mixing three different ASTM C150: Type I cements with three different percentages of fly ash each for a total of 9 different combinations. Durability, physical, and mechanical properties tests were performed on the concrete samples from each mix. The results indicate that the performance of concrete with fly ash varies based on the characteristics of the cement used and the amount of fly ash used in the mixture. Based on the results of this study, it can be concluded that the best result for experimental concrete with 25% fly ash substitution were obtained with concrete Y (C3S = 55.31%), while with 50% fly ash substitution the best results were obtained with cement Z (C3S = 77.04%). These combinations increase the concrete’s durability while reducing costs and providing environmental benefits. This paper contributes to the body of knowledge by increasing the understanding of the influence of cement properties in fly ash on the durability of concrete. 1 INTRODUCTION Many concrete structures require repairs or reconstruction before reaching their expected service life.  In the United States, the annual cost of repairs to parking structures and bridges exposed to de-icing salts has been estimated in a range between 325 million and 1 billion dollars (Kelting and Laxson 2010). According to Fernández Cánovas, placing good quality concrete is the best way to protect the steel reinforcement embedded in it. To reduce the costs of repairs and replacement of structures most experts coincide that the concrete durability must be improved (Fernández Cánovas 2004). The American Concrete Institute (ACI) defines concrete durability as the ability to maintain its shape, quality, and utility under the exposure conditions for which it was design throughout their expected life span. The deterioration mechanisms such as expansion, retraction, or ionic penetration into the concrete are related to the exposure conditions (ACI 2008). Puerto Rico is an island, and the most relevant 075-1 exposure condition for concrete structures is the marine exposure, where chloride ions attack is the most aggressive. It is widely known that fly ash as a mineral addition to concrete has positive effects on the concrete durability.  Among the many benefits of using fly ash, its reaction with portlandite produces additional calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) gels (Pihlajavaara and Paroll 1995).  Calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) gels are the main responsible for cohesion and mechanical properties of concrete.  These additional C-S-H gels refine the porous network of concrete, providing additional protection against environmental exposure attacks, like the penetration of chloride ions.  At the same time the formation of these secondary C-S-H gels consumes Portlandite, which is the most leachable compound of the hydrated cement. As a result the durability of the material is considerably improved (Naik and Hossain 1994), (Lorenzo García 1993). Other benefits of using fly ash in concrete are pecuniary and environmental.  Fly ash is usually less expensive than Portland cement, making the mixture with fly ash more economical than a mixture by using Portland cement only (Federal Highway Administration 2011).  Some of the environmental benefits are the reuse of a by-product of energy production and the reduction of Portland cement production.  This last aspect is very important as with a reduction of cement production, the energy required is reduced as well as the CO2 emissions to the environment (Burden 2006). Also, the use of fly ash as an addition to concrete can help earn credits for the Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design (LEED) certification (King 2005). In general terms, the effects of fly ash in concrete are widely known, but the effects of fly ash when used with the cements available locally are unknown.  In Puerto Rico there are three brands of cement type I commercially available.  All of them comply with the specifications of ASTM C150.  Even though all of them are classified type I, each one has different chemical and physical properties.  The main objective of the present work is to better understand the influence of the durability and mechanical properties of concrete of each type of Portland cement when a partial substitution of fly ash is introduced.  2 METHODLOGY 2.1 Materials In this research, the materials utilized were those available for commercial use in Puerto Rico.  The cements used are classified as type I according to the ASTM C150.  They are distributed by Antilles Cement Corporation, Cemex Puerto Rico and Essroc San Juan.  For each one of the three cements used, a chemical and mineral composition analysis was conducted according to the standard ASTM C114.  The distribution of particle size was determined according to the standard ASTM C204.  Tables 1 and 2 summarize the mineral and chemical composition for each cement used; these were denominated X, Y and Z. The fly ash used in the study has a Type F classification according to ASTM C618, distributed in Puerto Rico by Ecológica Carmelo.  The chemical composition analysis for fly ash was made according to ASTM C114.  Table 3 shows the summary of the chemical composition of the fly ash used. The coarse aggregates used are of siliceous origin, crushed with a maximum diameter of 20 mm (3/4”).  The fine aggregates used are crushed limestone with a fineness modulus of 3.02.  The particle size analysis of aggregates was conducted in accordance with the standard ASTM C33.     075-2    Table 1: Partial mineralogical composition of used cements Mineral  composition  X Cement                                                                           Y Z C3S 74.82 55.31 77.04 C3A 5.40 11.04 8.10 Source: Cement Chemistry Laboratory, Essroc San Juan Table 2: Chemical composition of used cements  Chemical compound or property  X Cements Y  Z SiO2 19.47 20.29 18.90 AL2O3 4.54 6.40 4.75 Fe2O3 3.92 3.51 2.66 CaO 65.62 65.13 66.10 MgO 2.17 1.03 1.86 SO3 2.90 2.65 4.44 K2O 0.70 0.48 0.24 Na2O 0.10 0.12 0.45 P2O5 0.08 0.03 0.15 TiO2 0.29 0.26 0.25 SrO 0.15 0.03 0.15 ZnO 0.01 0.01 0.01 Mn2O3 0.07 0.06 0.04 LSF 105.142 97.703 109.685 Silica Ratio 2.301 2.047 2.551 Aluminium Ratio 1.159 1.826 1.788 LOI 1.65 3.13 7.12 Blaine 374 394 526 Source: Cement Chemistry Laboratory, Essroc San Juan Table 3: Chemical composition of the fly ash used  Chemical compound or property Fly Ash SiO2 53.84 AL2O3 36.64 Fe2O3 2.38 CaO 2.04 MgO 1.34 SO3 0.42 K2O 1.70 Na2O 0.47 P2O5 0.12 TiO2 0.98 SrO 0.039 ZnO 0.008 Mn2O3 0.017 LSF 1.04 075-3      2.2 Dosages The ACI Committee 211 method was used for the concrete mixture design.  The reference concrete had 426.6 kg of cement and a water/binder ratio of 0.65.  For the experimental concrete, Portland cement was substituted with fly ash by 25 and 50 percent.  Table 4 shows the material amounts required for each dosage to produce a cubic meter of concrete.  Table 4: Material dosage (kg) for 1 m3 of concrete Mixture   Cement (kg)  Fly ash (kg)  Water (kg)  Coarse Aggregate (kg) Fine Aggregate (kg) Ref (0% Fly ash) 426.6 0.0 277.3 992.4 661.6 25% Fly ash 319.9 106.7 277.3 992.4 661.6 50% Fly ash 213.3 213.3 277.3 992.4 661.6  For each Portland cement type used in the study, one reference batch and two experimental batches were mixed, reaching a total of nine batches.  In all cases a concrete mixer with 0.38 m3 of capacity was used.  Each batch had a volume of 0.11 m3 that produced 10 cylindrical specimens of 15 cm (6 in) diameter and 11 cylindrical specimens of 10 cm diameter (4 in).  The process of mixing and curing was executed according to ASTM C192. 2.3 Testing The specimens were subjected to different tests in order to characterize the concrete properties of all batches.  The mechanical behavior was characterized by the compressive strength.  In order to study the durability of the concrete rapid chloride permeability tests were conducted.  Finally, to characterize the physical properties of the porous network mercury intrusion porosimetry and air permeability tests were performed, both of them in turn directly related with concrete durability.  Table 5 summarizes the results of testing, the age of the specimens at the time of testing and the name of the standard procedure followed for each test.       Silica Ratio 1.38 Aluminium Ratio 15.39 Liquid Phase 118.79 Source: Cement’s Chemistry Laboratory, Essroc San Juan Table 5: Summary of tests, ages and test standards  Test Age of specimen at time of test (days)  Test standard  28 91 160 280  Compressive strength test X X X X ASTM C39 Rapid chloride permeability test X  X X ASTM C1202 Mercury intrusion porosimetry   X  ASTM D4404 Air permeability   X  UNE 83966 075-4    3 RESULTS The results of the rapid chloride permeability tests are shown in Figures 1 to 6.  Figures 1 to 3 show the passing charge of each concrete batch according to its percentage of fly ash substitution.  In figures 4 to 6 the results are shown in accordance to the Portland cement mineralogical composition. 010002000300040005000600070000 50 100 150 200 250 300X-0Y-0Z-0RCPT Charge (Coulomb)Age (days) 010002000300040005000600070000 50 100 150 200 250 300X-25Y-25Z-25RCPT Charge (Coulomb)Age (days) Figure 1: RCPT of concretes with cements X, Y, Z and 0% of fly ash substitution by Figure 2: RCPT of concretes with cements X, Y, Z and 25% of fly ash substitution 010002000300040005000600070000 50 100 150 200 250 300X-50Y-50Z-50RCPT Charge (Coulomb)Age (days) 010002000300040005000600070000 50 100 150 200 250 300X-0X-25X-50RCPT Charge (Coulomb)Age (days) Figure 3: RCPT of concretes with cements X, Y, Z and 50% of fly ash substitution Figure 4: RCPT of concretes with cement X 075-5 010002000300040005000600070000 50 100 150 200 250 300Y-0Y-25Y-50RCPT Charge (Coulomb)Age (days) 010002000300040005000600070000 50 100 150 200 250 300Z-0Z-25Z-50RCPT Charge (Coulomb)Age (days) Figure 5: RCPT of concretes with cement Y Figure 6: RCPT of concretes with cement Z Reference concretes show high permeability at all ages.  Experimental concretes (with fly ash) have higher resistance to chloride ion permeability, especially during a long-term period.  After analyzing the performance depending on the cement type, those mixtures with 50 % of fly ash substitution improved their resistance to chloride ion permeability in all cases, although the results in the case of cement X were a little worse. Figures 7 to 9 show the results of the compressive strength tests of concrete cylinders according to the percentage of fly ash substitution.  Figures 10 to 12 show the results according to the cement mineralogical composition.  1000200030004000500060000 50 100 150 200 250 300X-0Y-0Z-0Compressive strength (psi)Age (days) 1000200030004000500060000 50 100 150 200 250 300X-25Y-25Z-25Compressive strength (psi)Age (days) Figure 7: Compressive strength of  concretes with cements X, Y, Z and 0% of fly ash substitution Figure 8: Compressive strength of concretes with cements X, Y, Z and 25% of fly ash substitution 1000200030004000500060000 50 100 150 200 250 300X-50Y-50Z-50Compressive strength (psi)Age (days) 1000200030004000500060000 50 100 150 200 250 300X-0X-25X-50Compressive strength (psi)Age (days) Figure 9: Compressive strength of Figure 10: Compressive strength  075-6 At early ages, the reference concretes show higher compressive strength than concretes with fly ash substitution.  In all cases the best results were obtained by concretes mixed with cement Y. Concretes with 25% of fly ash substitution reach the values of compressive strength of the reference concretes as time progresses. Concretes with 50 % of fly ash substitution did not reach the values of compressive strength of the reference concrete at any age. The results of the analysis of the physical properties of the concretes are presented in figures 13 to 19. Figures 13 to 18 show the results of the mercury intrusion porosimetry tests.  The results are arranged by percentage of fly ash substitution and by cement type utilized.  Figure 19 compares the volume of accumulated intrusion in macropores and mesopores of all concrete batches.  Figure 20 shows the results of the air permeability tests.  concretes with cements  X, Y, Z and 50% of fly ash substitution of concretes with cement X 1000200030004000500060000 50 100 150 200 250 300Y-0Y-25Y-50Compressive strength (psi)Age (days) 1000200030004000500060000 50 100 150 200 250 300Z-0Z-25Z-50Compressive strength (psi)Age (days) Figure 11: Compressive strength of concretes with cement Y Figure 12: Compressive strength of concretes with cement Z 00.020.040.060.080.10.120.140.160.01 0.1 1 10 100X-0Y-0Z-0Volume of accumulated intrusion (mL/g)Pore diameter (nm) 00.020.040.060.080.10.120.140.160.01 0.1 1 10 100X-25Y-25Z-25Volume of accumulated intrusion (mL/g)Pore diameter (nm) Figure 13: Accumulated intrusion volume of concrete with cements X,Y,Z and 0% of fly ash substitution Figure 14: Accumulated intrusion volume of concrete with cements X,Y,Z and 25% of fly ash substitution 075-7  The lowest mercury intrusion volumes were obtained with concretes mixed with cement Y, as was the case in the compressive strength results.  The best result obtained was the experimental concrete with 25% of fly ash substitution of cement Y.  00.020.040.060.080.10.120.140.160.01 0.1 1 10 100X-50Y-50Z-50Volume of accumulated intrusion (mL/g)Pore diameter (nm) 00.020.040.060.080.10.120.140.160.01 0.1 1 10 100X-0X-25X-50Volume of accumulated intrusion (mL/g)Pore diameter (nm) Figure 15: Accumulated intrusion volume of concrete with cements X,Y,Z, and 50%  of fly ash substitution    Figure 16: Accumulated intrusion volume of concretes with cement X    00.020.040.060.080.10.120.140.160.01 0.1 1 10 100Y-0Y-25Y-50Volume of accumulated intrusion (mL/g)Pore diameter (nm) 00.020.040.060.080.10.120.140.160.01 0.1 1 10 100Z-0Z-25Z-50Volume of accumulated intrusion (mL/g)Pore diameter (nm) Figure 17: Accumulated intrusion volume of concretes with cement Y Figure 18: Accumulated intrusion volume of concretes with cement Z 075-8 00.020.040.060.080.10.120.14X-0 X-25 X-50 Y-0 Y-25 Y-50 Z-0 Z-25 Z-50MACROPORESMESOPORESACCUMULATED INTRUSION (mL/g)Concrete batch Figure 19: Volume of accumulated intrusion of macropores and mesopores  In all cases of concretes mixed with cement Y, both the reference and experimental concretes, obtained the lowest volume of intrusion in macropores.  The lowest volume of intrusion in macropores occurred in concretes with 50% of fly ash substitution. Figure 20 compares the permeability to air constant for all concrete batches, arranged by the percentage of substitution by fly ash.  01002003004005006007000 25 50XYZK average (m2 )Percent of cement substitution by fly ash Figure 20:  Permeability to air constant (average) of concretes with cement X,Y, Z In reference concretes, the type of cement used in the mix does not affect the air permeability.  On the experimental concretes variations were observed depending on the type of cement used for the mixture.  The behavior of the results does not coincide with other tests carried out. 075-9 4 CONCLUSION This study proves that the performance of concrete with fly ash varies based on the characteristics of the cement used and the amount of fly ash used in the mixture. Based on the results of this study, it can be concluded that the best result for experimental concrete with 25% fly ash substitution were obtained with concrete Y (C3S = 55.31%), while with 50% fly ash substitution the best results were obtained with cement Z (C3S = 77.04%). These combinations increase the concrete’s durability while reducing costs and providing environmental benefits.   The reference concretes have high permeability to chloride ions at any age. When compared by type of cement, concretes with the highest percentage of fly ash substitution performed better on the RCPT. This coincides with previous investigations. All experimental concretes improved their performance in RCPT and compressive strength test with age. Fly ash refined the porous structure of concretes.  The porosimetry results show that in experimental concretes the accumulated volume in macropores decreases and the accumulated volume in mesopores increases when compared with reference concretes.  The results show that even when all the cements used comply with type I classification according to ASTM C150, there is a tendency to performance variation of the concretes mixed with cement with different mineralogical composition. References Kelting D. and Laxson C. Adirondack Watershed Institute. «Review of Effects and Costs of Road De-icing with Recommendations for Winter Road Management in the Adirondack Park». http://www.adkwatershed.org/files/road_salt-_final_dlk.pdf (accessed February 15, 2015). Fernandez Cánovas, M. Capítulo 11: Durabilidad. In Hormigón. Madrid: Colegio de Ingenieros de Caminos, Canales y Puertos, 2004. 451-503. «Guide to Durable Concrete. ACI» Committee 232: American Concrete Institute. 2008. Pihlajavaara, SE, and Paroll, H. On the Correlation between Permeability Properties and Strength of   Concrete. Cement and Concrete Research, may, 1995. 321-328. Naik, T.R., and Hossain S. Permeability of Concrete Containing Large Amount of Fly Ash. Cement and Concrete Research, May,1994. 913-922. Lorenzo García, M.P. Influencia de dos tipos de cenizas volantes españolas en la microestructura y durabilidad de la pasta del cemento Portland hidratado. Doctoral Thesis. Madrid: Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 1993. Federal Highway Administration. US Department of Transportation Federal Highway Administration. «Fly Ash Facts for Highway Engineers». http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/PAVEMENT/recycling/fach01.cfm (accessed February 15, 2015). Burden, D. The Durability of Concrete Containing High Levels of Fly Ash. Thesis for Master in Engineering Science. University of New Brunswick, 2006. King, B. «Making Better Concrete: Guidelines to Using Fly Ash for Higher Quality, Eco-Friendly Structures» 37-39. Green Builging Press, 2005.     075-10  5th International/11th Construction Specialty Conference 5e International/11e Conférence spécialisée sur la construction    Vancouver, British Columbia June 8 to June 10, 2015 / 8 juin au 10 juin 2015   STUDY OF THE INFLUENCE OF PORTLAND CEMENT ON THE PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE WITH FLY ASH Ámbar Rosario-Lugaro1, Omar I. Molina-Bas1,3 and Encarnación Reyes-Pozo2 1 Department of Civil Engineering and Surveying, Universidad de Puerto Rico, Mayagüez, Puerto Rico 2 Department of Construction Engineering, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid, Spain 3 omar.molina1@upr.edu Abstract: Concrete made with Portland cement is one of the most used construction material in the world. Engineers and scientists are always looking to improve its sustainable properties.  The durability of concrete is a determining factor in the service life of a structure. The durability of cement based materials is strongly influenced by its porous structure. Previous research has shown that the use of fly ash in concrete mixtures as partial substitution of Portland cement produces a pozzolanic reaction that changes concrete’s micro-structure. As a concrete mineral admixture, fly ash improves concrete’s mechanical properties and durability while providing economic and environmental benefits. The objective of this paper is to present the results of a study that investigated the influence of fly ash on the durability of concrete mixed with ASTM C150: Type I cements. The methodology included mixing three different ASTM C150: Type I cements with three different percentages of fly ash each for a total of 9 different combinations. Durability, physical, and mechanical properties tests were performed on the concrete samples from each mix. The results indicate that the performance of concrete with fly ash varies based on the characteristics of the cement used and the amount of fly ash used in the mixture. Based on the results of this study, it can be concluded that the best result for experimental concrete with 25% fly ash substitution were obtained with concrete Y (C3S = 55.31%), while with 50% fly ash substitution the best results were obtained with cement Z (C3S = 77.04%). These combinations increase the concrete’s durability while reducing costs and providing environmental benefits. This paper contributes to the body of knowledge by increasing the understanding of the influence of cement properties in fly ash on the durability of concrete. 1 INTRODUCTION Many concrete structures require repairs or reconstruction before reaching their expected service life.  In the United States, the annual cost of repairs to parking structures and bridges exposed to de-icing salts has been estimated in a range between 325 million and 1 billion dollars (Kelting and Laxson 2010). According to Fernández Cánovas, placing good quality concrete is the best way to protect the steel reinforcement embedded in it. To reduce the costs of repairs and replacement of structures most experts coincide that the concrete durability must be improved (Fernández Cánovas 2004). The American Concrete Institute (ACI) defines concrete durability as the ability to maintain its shape, quality, and utility under the exposure conditions for which it was design throughout their expected life span. The deterioration mechanisms such as expansion, retraction, or ionic penetration into the concrete are related to the exposure conditions (ACI 2008). Puerto Rico is an island, and the most relevant 075-1 exposure condition for concrete structures is the marine exposure, where chloride ions attack is the most aggressive. It is widely known that fly ash as a mineral addition to concrete has positive effects on the concrete durability.  Among the many benefits of using fly ash, its reaction with portlandite produces additional calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) gels (Pihlajavaara and Paroll 1995).  Calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) gels are the main responsible for cohesion and mechanical properties of concrete.  These additional C-S-H gels refine the porous network of concrete, providing additional protection against environmental exposure attacks, like the penetration of chloride ions.  At the same time the formation of these secondary C-S-H gels consumes Portlandite, which is the most leachable compound of the hydrated cement. As a result the durability of the material is considerably improved (Naik and Hossain 1994), (Lorenzo García 1993). Other benefits of using fly ash in concrete are pecuniary and environmental.  Fly ash is usually less expensive than Portland cement, making the mixture with fly ash more economical than a mixture by using Portland cement only (Federal Highway Administration 2011).  Some of the environmental benefits are the reuse of a by-product of energy production and the reduction of Portland cement production.  This last aspect is very important as with a reduction of cement production, the energy required is reduced as well as the CO2 emissions to the environment (Burden 2006). Also, the use of fly ash as an addition to concrete can help earn credits for the Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design (LEED) certification (King 2005). In general terms, the effects of fly ash in concrete are widely known, but the effects of fly ash when used with the cements available locally are unknown.  In Puerto Rico there are three brands of cement type I commercially available.  All of them comply with the specifications of ASTM C150.  Even though all of them are classified type I, each one has different chemical and physical properties.  The main objective of the present work is to better understand the influence of the durability and mechanical properties of concrete of each type of Portland cement when a partial substitution of fly ash is introduced.  2 METHODLOGY 2.1 Materials In this research, the materials utilized were those available for commercial use in Puerto Rico.  The cements used are classified as type I according to the ASTM C150.  They are distributed by Antilles Cement Corporation, Cemex Puerto Rico and Essroc San Juan.  For each one of the three cements used, a chemical and mineral composition analysis was conducted according to the standard ASTM C114.  The distribution of particle size was determined according to the standard ASTM C204.  Tables 1 and 2 summarize the mineral and chemical composition for each cement used; these were denominated X, Y and Z. The fly ash used in the study has a Type F classification according to ASTM C618, distributed in Puerto Rico by Ecológica Carmelo.  The chemical composition analysis for fly ash was made according to ASTM C114.  Table 3 shows the summary of the chemical composition of the fly ash used. The coarse aggregates used are of siliceous origin, crushed with a maximum diameter of 20 mm (3/4”).  The fine aggregates used are crushed limestone with a fineness modulus of 3.02.  The particle size analysis of aggregates was conducted in accordance with the standard ASTM C33.     075-2    Table 1: Partial mineralogical composition of used cements Mineral  composition  X Cement                                                                           Y Z C3S 74.82 55.31 77.04 C3A 5.40 11.04 8.10 Source: Cement Chemistry Laboratory, Essroc San Juan Table 2: Chemical composition of used cements  Chemical compound or property  X Cements Y  Z SiO2 19.47 20.29 18.90 AL2O3 4.54 6.40 4.75 Fe2O3 3.92 3.51 2.66 CaO 65.62 65.13 66.10 MgO 2.17 1.03 1.86 SO3 2.90 2.65 4.44 K2O 0.70 0.48 0.24 Na2O 0.10 0.12 0.45 P2O5 0.08 0.03 0.15 TiO2 0.29 0.26 0.25 SrO 0.15 0.03 0.15 ZnO 0.01 0.01 0.01 Mn2O3 0.07 0.06 0.04 LSF 105.142 97.703 109.685 Silica Ratio 2.301 2.047 2.551 Aluminium Ratio 1.159 1.826 1.788 LOI 1.65 3.13 7.12 Blaine 374 394 526 Source: Cement Chemistry Laboratory, Essroc San Juan Table 3: Chemical composition of the fly ash used  Chemical compound or property Fly Ash SiO2 53.84 AL2O3 36.64 Fe2O3 2.38 CaO 2.04 MgO 1.34 SO3 0.42 K2O 1.70 Na2O 0.47 P2O5 0.12 TiO2 0.98 SrO 0.039 ZnO 0.008 Mn2O3 0.017 LSF 1.04 075-3      2.2 Dosages The ACI Committee 211 method was used for the concrete mixture design.  The reference concrete had 426.6 kg of cement and a water/binder ratio of 0.65.  For the experimental concrete, Portland cement was substituted with fly ash by 25 and 50 percent.  Table 4 shows the material amounts required for each dosage to produce a cubic meter of concrete.  Table 4: Material dosage (kg) for 1 m3 of concrete Mixture   Cement (kg)  Fly ash (kg)  Water (kg)  Coarse Aggregate (kg) Fine Aggregate (kg) Ref (0% Fly ash) 426.6 0.0 277.3 992.4 661.6 25% Fly ash 319.9 106.7 277.3 992.4 661.6 50% Fly ash 213.3 213.3 277.3 992.4 661.6  For each Portland cement type used in the study, one reference batch and two experimental batches were mixed, reaching a total of nine batches.  In all cases a concrete mixer with 0.38 m3 of capacity was used.  Each batch had a volume of 0.11 m3 that produced 10 cylindrical specimens of 15 cm (6 in) diameter and 11 cylindrical specimens of 10 cm diameter (4 in).  The process of mixing and curing was executed according to ASTM C192. 2.3 Testing The specimens were subjected to different tests in order to characterize the concrete properties of all batches.  The mechanical behavior was characterized by the compressive strength.  In order to study the durability of the concrete rapid chloride permeability tests were conducted.  Finally, to characterize the physical properties of the porous network mercury intrusion porosimetry and air permeability tests were performed, both of them in turn directly related with concrete durability.  Table 5 summarizes the results of testing, the age of the specimens at the time of testing and the name of the standard procedure followed for each test.       Silica Ratio 1.38 Aluminium Ratio 15.39 Liquid Phase 118.79 Source: Cement’s Chemistry Laboratory, Essroc San Juan Table 5: Summary of tests, ages and test standards  Test Age of specimen at time of test (days)  Test standard  28 91 160 280  Compressive strength test X X X X ASTM C39 Rapid chloride permeability test X  X X ASTM C1202 Mercury intrusion porosimetry   X  ASTM D4404 Air permeability   X  UNE 83966 075-4    3 RESULTS The results of the rapid chloride permeability tests are shown in Figures 1 to 6.  Figures 1 to 3 show the passing charge of each concrete batch according to its percentage of fly ash substitution.  In figures 4 to 6 the results are shown in accordance to the Portland cement mineralogical composition. 010002000300040005000600070000 50 100 150 200 250 300X-0Y-0Z-0RCPT Charge (Coulomb)Age (days) 010002000300040005000600070000 50 100 150 200 250 300X-25Y-25Z-25RCPT Charge (Coulomb)Age (days) Figure 1: RCPT of concretes with cements X, Y, Z and 0% of fly ash substitution by Figure 2: RCPT of concretes with cements X, Y, Z and 25% of fly ash substitution 010002000300040005000600070000 50 100 150 200 250 300X-50Y-50Z-50RCPT Charge (Coulomb)Age (days) 010002000300040005000600070000 50 100 150 200 250 300X-0X-25X-50RCPT Charge (Coulomb)Age (days) Figure 3: RCPT of concretes with cements X, Y, Z and 50% of fly ash substitution Figure 4: RCPT of concretes with cement X 075-5 010002000300040005000600070000 50 100 150 200 250 300Y-0Y-25Y-50RCPT Charge (Coulomb)Age (days) 010002000300040005000600070000 50 100 150 200 250 300Z-0Z-25Z-50RCPT Charge (Coulomb)Age (days) Figure 5: RCPT of concretes with cement Y Figure 6: RCPT of concretes with cement Z Reference concretes show high permeability at all ages.  Experimental concretes (with fly ash) have higher resistance to chloride ion permeability, especially during a long-term period.  After analyzing the performance depending on the cement type, those mixtures with 50 % of fly ash substitution improved their resistance to chloride ion permeability in all cases, although the results in the case of cement X were a little worse. Figures 7 to 9 show the results of the compressive strength tests of concrete cylinders according to the percentage of fly ash substitution.  Figures 10 to 12 show the results according to the cement mineralogical composition.  1000200030004000500060000 50 100 150 200 250 300X-0Y-0Z-0Compressive strength (psi)Age (days) 1000200030004000500060000 50 100 150 200 250 300X-25Y-25Z-25Compressive strength (psi)Age (days) Figure 7: Compressive strength of  concretes with cements X, Y, Z and 0% of fly ash substitution Figure 8: Compressive strength of concretes with cements X, Y, Z and 25% of fly ash substitution 1000200030004000500060000 50 100 150 200 250 300X-50Y-50Z-50Compressive strength (psi)Age (days) 1000200030004000500060000 50 100 150 200 250 300X-0X-25X-50Compressive strength (psi)Age (days) Figure 9: Compressive strength of Figure 10: Compressive strength  075-6 At early ages, the reference concretes show higher compressive strength than concretes with fly ash substitution.  In all cases the best results were obtained by concretes mixed with cement Y. Concretes with 25% of fly ash substitution reach the values of compressive strength of the reference concretes as time progresses. Concretes with 50 % of fly ash substitution did not reach the values of compressive strength of the reference concrete at any age. The results of the analysis of the physical properties of the concretes are presented in figures 13 to 19. Figures 13 to 18 show the results of the mercury intrusion porosimetry tests.  The results are arranged by percentage of fly ash substitution and by cement type utilized.  Figure 19 compares the volume of accumulated intrusion in macropores and mesopores of all concrete batches.  Figure 20 shows the results of the air permeability tests.  concretes with cements  X, Y, Z and 50% of fly ash substitution of concretes with cement X 1000200030004000500060000 50 100 150 200 250 300Y-0Y-25Y-50Compressive strength (psi)Age (days) 1000200030004000500060000 50 100 150 200 250 300Z-0Z-25Z-50Compressive strength (psi)Age (days) Figure 11: Compressive strength of concretes with cement Y Figure 12: Compressive strength of concretes with cement Z 00.020.040.060.080.10.120.140.160.01 0.1 1 10 100X-0Y-0Z-0Volume of accumulated intrusion (mL/g)Pore diameter (nm) 00.020.040.060.080.10.120.140.160.01 0.1 1 10 100X-25Y-25Z-25Volume of accumulated intrusion (mL/g)Pore diameter (nm) Figure 13: Accumulated intrusion volume of concrete with cements X,Y,Z and 0% of fly ash substitution Figure 14: Accumulated intrusion volume of concrete with cements X,Y,Z and 25% of fly ash substitution 075-7  The lowest mercury intrusion volumes were obtained with concretes mixed with cement Y, as was the case in the compressive strength results.  The best result obtained was the experimental concrete with 25% of fly ash substitution of cement Y.  00.020.040.060.080.10.120.140.160.01 0.1 1 10 100X-50Y-50Z-50Volume of accumulated intrusion (mL/g)Pore diameter (nm) 00.020.040.060.080.10.120.140.160.01 0.1 1 10 100X-0X-25X-50Volume of accumulated intrusion (mL/g)Pore diameter (nm) Figure 15: Accumulated intrusion volume of concrete with cements X,Y,Z, and 50%  of fly ash substitution    Figure 16: Accumulated intrusion volume of concretes with cement X    00.020.040.060.080.10.120.140.160.01 0.1 1 10 100Y-0Y-25Y-50Volume of accumulated intrusion (mL/g)Pore diameter (nm) 00.020.040.060.080.10.120.140.160.01 0.1 1 10 100Z-0Z-25Z-50Volume of accumulated intrusion (mL/g)Pore diameter (nm) Figure 17: Accumulated intrusion volume of concretes with cement Y Figure 18: Accumulated intrusion volume of concretes with cement Z 075-8 00.020.040.060.080.10.120.14X-0 X-25 X-50 Y-0 Y-25 Y-50 Z-0 Z-25 Z-50MACROPORESMESOPORESACCUMULATED INTRUSION (mL/g)Concrete batch Figure 19: Volume of accumulated intrusion of macropores and mesopores  In all cases of concretes mixed with cement Y, both the reference and experimental concretes, obtained the lowest volume of intrusion in macropores.  The lowest volume of intrusion in macropores occurred in concretes with 50% of fly ash substitution. Figure 20 compares the permeability to air constant for all concrete batches, arranged by the percentage of substitution by fly ash.  01002003004005006007000 25 50XYZK average (m2 )Percent of cement substitution by fly ash Figure 20:  Permeability to air constant (average) of concretes with cement X,Y, Z In reference concretes, the type of cement used in the mix does not affect the air permeability.  On the experimental concretes variations were observed depending on the type of cement used for the mixture.  The behavior of the results does not coincide with other tests carried out. 075-9 4 CONCLUSION This study proves that the performance of concrete with fly ash varies based on the characteristics of the cement used and the amount of fly ash used in the mixture. Based on the results of this study, it can be concluded that the best result for experimental concrete with 25% fly ash substitution were obtained with concrete Y (C3S = 55.31%), while with 50% fly ash substitution the best results were obtained with cement Z (C3S = 77.04%). These combinations increase the concrete’s durability while reducing costs and providing environmental benefits.   The reference concretes have high permeability to chloride ions at any age. When compared by type of cement, concretes with the highest percentage of fly ash substitution performed better on the RCPT. This coincides with previous investigations. All experimental concretes improved their performance in RCPT and compressive strength test with age. Fly ash refined the porous structure of concretes.  The porosimetry results show that in experimental concretes the accumulated volume in macropores decreases and the accumulated volume in mesopores increases when compared with reference concretes.  The results show that even when all the cements used comply with type I classification according to ASTM C150, there is a tendency to performance variation of the concretes mixed with cement with different mineralogical composition. References Kelting D. and Laxson C. Adirondack Watershed Institute. «Review of Effects and Costs of Road De-icing with Recommendations for Winter Road Management in the Adirondack Park». http://www.adkwatershed.org/files/road_salt-_final_dlk.pdf (accessed February 15, 2015). Fernandez Cánovas, M. Capítulo 11: Durabilidad. In Hormigón. Madrid: Colegio de Ingenieros de Caminos, Canales y Puertos, 2004. 451-503. «Guide to Durable Concrete. ACI» Committee 232: American Concrete Institute. 2008. Pihlajavaara, SE, and Paroll, H. On the Correlation between Permeability Properties and Strength of   Concrete. Cement and Concrete Research, may, 1995. 321-328. Naik, T.R., and Hossain S. Permeability of Concrete Containing Large Amount of Fly Ash. Cement and Concrete Research, May,1994. 913-922. Lorenzo García, M.P. Influencia de dos tipos de cenizas volantes españolas en la microestructura y durabilidad de la pasta del cemento Portland hidratado. Doctoral Thesis. Madrid: Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 1993. Federal Highway Administration. US Department of Transportation Federal Highway Administration. «Fly Ash Facts for Highway Engineers». http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/PAVEMENT/recycling/fach01.cfm (accessed February 15, 2015). Burden, D. The Durability of Concrete Containing High Levels of Fly Ash. Thesis for Master in Engineering Science. University of New Brunswick, 2006. King, B. «Making Better Concrete: Guidelines to Using Fly Ash for Higher Quality, Eco-Friendly Structures» 37-39. Green Builging Press, 2005.     075-10  STUDY OF THE INFLUENCE OF PORTLAND CEMENT ON THE PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE WITH FLY ASH Ámbar Rosario-LúgaroOmar I. Molina-BasUniversity of Puerto Rico, Mayagüez Campus Encarnación Reyes-Pozo Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, SpainTable of content• Introduction• Motivation and Objective• Work Plan• Results• ConclusionsIntroduction (1)The use of mineral admixtures as substitute ofcement in concrete is widely extended forvarious reasons. The reduction of doses ofcement in the concrete mixtures reduce thematerial costs, decreases the pollution andhelps solve the problem of the elimination ofthe "by-products".Introduction (2)• The microstructural changes motivated bythe mineral admixtures should generate amore compact concrete and a reduction inthe average size of the pores.• This can contribute to the improvement ofthe mechanical properties and durability ofconcrete.Introduction (3)• The efficacy of the use of the mineraladmixtures is complex, hard to generalizeand depends on the availability of materialsin the local markets.• This is because of variations in the physicaland chemical properties of the mineraladmixtures and the cements employeddespite their classification under the samestandard.Table of content• Introduction• Motivation and Objective• Work Plan• Results• ConclusionsMotivationMetha establishes that is too early to predict a futureof the corrosion inhibitors, reinforcement bars coatedwith epoxy, superficial caps layers and cathodicprotection, due to the fact that when compared toconcretes with fly ash or slag, the high costs of thefirsts and environmental damaging are clearly animportant disadvantage.Fernández Cánovas argue that the most appropriateway to protect the reinforcement bars is to placegood quality concrete.Objective• The effects of fly ash in concrete are widelyknown, but the effects of fly ash when used withthe cements available locally are unknown.• In Puerto Rico there are three brands of cementtype I commercially available. All of them complywith the specifications of ASTM C150. All of themare classified type I, each one has differentchemical and physical properties.ObjectiveThe main objective of the work is tobetter understand the influence of thedurability and mechanical properties ofconcrete of each type of Portland cementwhen a partial substitution of fly ash isintroduced.Table of content• Introduction• Motivation and Objective• Work Plan• Results• ConclusionsGeneral PictureConcretesAdmixturesCement: Type I• Mechanical properties • Micro-structure• Fly ash• Composition• Physical properties Work Plan: ReferenceXCementType 1C3S: 74.82C3A: 5.40Fly Ash Type F0 %YCementType 1C3S: 55.31C3A: 11.04ZCementType 1C3S: 77.04C3A: 8.10Work Plan: ReferenceXCementType 1C3S: 74.82C3A: 5.403 CementsFly Ash Type F0 %YCementType 1C3S: 55.31C3A: 11.04ZCementType 1C3S: 77.04C3A: 8.101 Fly ashWork Plan: Experimental 1XCementType 1C3S: 74.82C3A: 5.4025% FAFly Ash Type F25 %YCementType 1C3S: 55.31C3A: 11.04ZCementType 1C3S: 77.04C3A: 8.10Work Plan: Experimental 2XCementType 1C3S: 74.82C3A: 5.4050% FAFly Ash Type F50 %YCementType 1C3S: 55.31C3A: 11.04ZCementType 1C3S: 77.04C3A: 8.10Work Plan: Analysis• Pore’s structure• Mercury Intrusion Porosimetry• Durability• Rapid Chloride-ion Permeability Test• Air PermeabilityMicro-structure• Compressive strength testMechanical properties Dosages by cubic meter of concreteMixture Cement(kg)Fly ash(kg)Water(kg)CoarseAggregate(kg)FineAggregate(kg)Ref (0% Fly ash) 426.6 0.0 277.3 992.4 661.625% Fly ash 319.9 106.7 277.3 992.4 661.650% Fly ash 213.3 213.3 277.3 992.4 661.6Tests completedTestsTime Period (days) Standards28 91 160 280Compressive Strength X X X X ASTM C39 – 05Mercury Intrusion Porosimetry (MIP) X X X ASTM D4404 – 10*Rapid Chloride-ion Permeability Test (RCPT) X ASTM C1202 – 09Air Permeability X UNE 83966* Adjusted experimentallyMethodologyCement X, 25% FA Cement Y, 25% FA Cement Z, 25% FACompressive strength testMethodologySample EquipmentRapid Chloride-ion Permeability Test (RCPT)MethodologyMercury intrusion porosimetryFuente Molina 2008 [D]MethodologyAir permeabilityFuente Al –Assadi 2009 [w]Table of content• Introduction• Motivation and Objective• Work Plan• Results – Compressive strength• ConclusionsResults (1)Compressive Strength (psi)1000200030004000500060000 50 100 150 200 250 300X-0Y-0Z-0  Age (days)1000200030004000500060000 50 100 150 200 250 300X-25Y-25Z-25  Age (days)Concretes: 0% FA Concretes: 25% FAResults (1)Compressive Strength (psi)1000200030004000500060000 50 100 150 200 250 300X-0Y-0Z-0  Age (days)1000200030004000500060000 50 100 150 200 250 300X-25Y-25Z-25  Age (days)At early ages, the reference concretes show higher compressive strength than concretes with fly ash substitution.Concretes: 0% FA Concretes: 25% FAResults (2) Compressive Strength (psi)1000200030004000500060000 50 100 150 200 250 300X-0Y-0Z-0  Age (days)1000200030004000500060000 50 100 150 200 250 300X-25Y-25Z-25  Age (days)Concretes with 25% of fly ash substitution reach the values of compressive strength of the reference concretes as time progresses. Concretes: 0% FA Concretes: 25% FAResults (3) Compressive Strength (psi)1000200030004000500060000 50 100 150 200 250 300X-0Y-0Z-0  Age (days)1000200030004000500060000 50 100 150 200 250 300X-50Y-50Z-50  Age (days)Concretes: 0% FA Concretes: 50% FAResults (3) Compressive Strength (psi)1000200030004000500060000 50 100 150 200 250 300X-0Y-0Z-0  Age (days)1000200030004000500060000 50 100 150 200 250 300X-50Y-50Z-50  Age (days)Concretes with 50 % of fly ash substitution did not reach the values of compressive strength of the reference concrete at any age.Concretes: 0% FA Concretes: 50% FATable of content• Introduction• Motivation and Objective• Work Plan• Results – Mercury Intrusion Porosimetry• ConclusionsResults (1) Mercury intrusion porosimetry00.020.040.060.080.10.120.140.160.01 0.1 1 10 100X-0X-25X-50Volume of accumulated intrusion (mL/g)Pore diameter (nm)00.020.040.060.080.10.120.140.160.01 0.1 1 10 100Y-0Y-25Y-50Volume of accumulated intrusion (mL/g)Pore diameter (nm)Concretes: X Concretes: YResults (1) Mercury intrusion porosimetry00.020.040.060.080.10.120.140.160.01 0.1 1 10 100X-0X-25X-50Volume of accumulated intrusion (mL/g)Pore diameter (nm)00.020.040.060.080.10.120.140.160.01 0.1 1 10 100Y-0Y-25Y-50Volume of accumulated intrusion (mL/g)Pore diameter (nm)The lowest mercury intrusion volumes were obtained with concretes mixed with cement YConcretes: X Concretes: YResults (2) Pore distribution00.020.040.060.080.10.120.14X-0 X-25 X-50 Y-0 Y-25 Y-50 Z-0 Z-25 Z-50MACROPORESMESOPORESACCUMULATED INTRUSION (mL/g)Concrete batchResults (2) Pore distribution00.020.040.060.080.10.120.14X-0 X-25 X-50 Y-0 Y-25 Y-50 Z-0 Z-25 Z-50MACROPORESMESOPORESACCUMULATED INTRUSION (mL/g)Concrete batchThe best result obtained was the experimental concrete with 25% of fly ash substitution of cement YTable of content• Introduction• Motivation and Objective• Work Plan• Results – Rapid Chloride-ion Permeability Test• ConclusionsResults (1) Rapid Chloride-ion Permeability Test (RCPT)Concretes: 0% FA              Concretes: 25% FA 010002000300040005000600070000 50 100 150 200 250 300X-0Y-0Z-0RCPT Charge (Coulomb)Age (days)010002000300040005000600070000 50 100 150 200 250 300X-25Y-25Z-25RCPT Charge (Coulomb)Age (days)Results (1) Rapid Chloride-ion Permeability Test (RCPT)Concretes: 0% FA              Concretes: 25% FA 010002000300040005000600070000 50 100 150 200 250 300X-0Y-0Z-0RCPT Charge (Coulomb)Age (days)010002000300040005000600070000 50 100 150 200 250 300X-25Y-25Z-25RCPT Charge (Coulomb)Age (days)Reference concretes show high permeability at all ages. Experimental concretes (with fly ash) have higher resistance to chloride ion permeability, especially during a long-term period. Results (2) Rapid Chloride-ion Permeability Test (RCPT)Concretes: 0% FA             Concretes: 50% FA 010002000300040005000600070000 50 100 150 200 250 300X-0Y-0Z-0RCPT Charge (Coulomb)Age (days)010002000300040005000600070000 50 100 150 200 250 300X-50Y-50Z-50RCPT Charge (Coulomb)Age (days)Results (2) Rapid Chloride-ion Permeability Test (RCPT)Concretes: 0% FA             Concretes: 50% FA 010002000300040005000600070000 50 100 150 200 250 300X-0Y-0Z-0RCPT Charge (Coulomb)Age (days)010002000300040005000600070000 50 100 150 200 250 300X-50Y-50Z-50RCPT Charge (Coulomb)Age (days)Mixtures with 50 % of fly ash substitution improved their resistance to chloride ion permeability in all casesTable of content• Introduction• Motivation and Objective• Work Plan• Results – Air Permeability• ConclusionsResults (1) Air permeability01002003004005006007000 25 50XYZK average (m2 )Percent of cement substitution by fly ashResults (1)Air permeability01002003004005006007000 25 50XYZK average (m2 )Percent of cement substitution by fly ashConcretes variations were observed depending on the type of cement used for the mixture, and the behavior of the results does not coincide with other tests carried out.Table of content• Introduction• Motivation and Objective• Work Plan• Results – Discussion • ConclusionsConclusions• This study proves that the performance of concrete withfly ash varies based on the characteristics of the cementused and the amount of fly ash used in the mixture.• The best result for experimental concrete with 25% of flyash substitution were obtained with concrete Y (C3S =55.31%).• The best result for experimental concrete with 50% of flyash substitution were obtained with concrete Z (C3S =77.04%).Conclusions• The reference concretes have high permeability tochloride ions at any age.• The results show that even when all the cements usedcomply with type I classification according to ASTM C150, there is a tendency to performance variation of theconcretes mixed with cement with differentmineralogical composition.AcknowledgementsThe authors express their acknowledgments to the professorsAmparo Moragues Terrades, Antonio A. González Quevedo andFelipe J. Acosta Costa for their advice in the development of thisresearch. To the Essroc San Juan personnel, Eng. FranciscoBravo, Juan M. Rivera, and Eng. Rubén Segarra for their help andattention during the process of testing in their laboratories.Thanks to Monserrate Ortiz and María Aránzazu Hueso for theireffort in this project and for their teaching on laboratoryequipment management for the University of Puerto Rico –Mayagüez Campus and Universidad Politécnica de Madridrespectively.STUDY OF THE INFLUENCE OF PORTLAND CEMENT ON THE PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE WITH FLY ASH Ámbar Rosario-LúgaroOmar I. Molina-BasUniversity of Puerto Rico, Mayagüez Campus Encarnación Reyes-Pozo Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Spain

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.52660.1-0076465/manifest

Comment

Related Items