International Construction Specialty Conference of the Canadian Society for Civil Engineering (ICSC) (5th : 2015)

Design and development of 3D-CAD engine Tanaka, Shigenori; Froese, Thomas M.; Kubota, Satoshi; Nakamura, Kenji; Monobe, Kantaro Jun 30, 2015

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5th International/11th Construction Specialty Conference 5e International/11e Conférence spécialisée sur la construction    Vancouver, British Columbia June 8 to June 10, 2015 / 8 juin au 10 juin 2015   DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF 3D-CAD ENGINE Shigenori Tanaka1, 5, Thomas Froese 2, Satoshi Kubota 1, Kenji Nakamura 3 and Kantaro Monobe 4 1 Kansai University, Japan 2 University of British Columbia, Canada 3 Osaka University of Economics, Japan 4 Miyagi University, Japan 5 tanaka@res.kutc.kansai-u.ac.jp  Abstract: Civil infrastructure drawing data are normally generated by computer-aided design (CAD) software in the design phase, and are also frequently needed during the construction and maintenance phases.  An environment would be provided in which 3D construction information can efficiently and smoothly be used throughout the project lifecycle.  Then, a 3D-CAD engine should be developed and operated to create and modify 3D structure information, but Japan’s CAD venders have not had a product of the 3D-CAD software.  Therefore, the purpose of this research is to spread 3D-CAD rapidly and at low cost throughout the construction industry in Japan.  To achieve this purpose, we designed and developed a 3D-CAD engine.  Our research and development made progress step by step with the research, the outline design, the primary design, and the detailed design.  To verify the designed algorithm, we developed a prototype.  After this we developed a 3D-CAD engine, and also simple 3D-CAD software equipped with this engine. 1 INTRODUCTION It is important for the construction industry in Japan to build an environment where 3D-CAD data are used for BIM, CALS/EC, and IT-based construction to improve productivity.  The current use of 3D-CAD data in the industry is infrequent because a quality affordable 3D-CAD engine does not exist.  3D-CAD software use the kernel for modeling, which is expensive for Japanese construction CAD software companies to use their CAD software.  Such a 3D-CAD engine must be designed and developed in order to enable low-cost use and quick implementation, leading to its deployment in various stages of the life cycle of construction projects. The purpose of this project is to spread 3D-CAD rapidly and at low cost throughout the construction industry in Japan.  To achieve this purpose, we designed and developed a 3D-CAD engine.  Our research and development made progress step by step with the research (use cases, seeds, standards), the outline design (3D representation models, functional requirements), the primary design (3D data exchange specifications, user interface, user operation), and the detailed design (data model, algorithm, API functions).  To verify the designed algorithm, we developed a prototype.  After this we developed a 3D-CAD engine, and also simple 3D-CAD software equipped with this engine. Using the 3D-CAD engine that we developed, we created 3D geometric shapes by parametric modeling.  We also designed data structure in conformity with ISO10303 (STEP).  In addition, settings of diverse 321-1 attributes such as the time terms were realized.  These are the contents of our research as follows: Outline of Kaiser Project in Kansai University, Design principle of 3D-CAD engine, Data structure in the 3D-CAD engine and its relationship with ISO, and Future expansion. 2 OUTLINE OF KAISER PROJECT IN KANSAI UNIVERSITY The master plan of the project is shown in Figure 1.  The project started from the fiscal 2008.  As the product of research aid by Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (MLIT), we prepared the investigation report and the primary design document.  As the product of Kaiser Project in Kansai University, we prepared the outline design specification, the detailed design document, and the prototype.  Finally, we developed the 3D-CAD engine and the simple 3D-CAD as the final product. Research aid by Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (MLIT)・Use Case・Standardization・Existing Products・IT・Seeds and NotesInvestigation report Outline design specificationPrimary design specificationDetailed design specification・Selection of models for 3D   data representation・Functional design of the prototype of general-purpose 3D-CAD engineKaiser Project in Kansai University Kaiser Project in Kansai University・Data models, algorithm・Designing API functions・3D data exchange specifications・User interface specifications・User's operation manualResearch aid by MLITFiscal 2008Fiscal 2009Fiscal 2010-12 Final product 3D-CAD engine Simple 3D CADPrototype ・A series of reviews of the specifications using prototype Figure 1: Master Plan of Project An overview of the 3D-CAD engine is shown in Figure 2.  At the center is a 3D model.  The model is composed of a sketch, modeling operational histories, and 3D geometric shapes.  Connecting them with each other allows a 3D model to be generated.  A 3D model also maintains diverse attributes.  At the bottom are application program interfaces, which provide various features for creating, editing, and operating a 3D model, as well as for processes including volume and surface area calculation.  Moreover, using API for data conversion into drawing data, the data can be converted into the drawing data on the right.  The data can also be converted into the exchange data on the left by converting in conformity with the 3D data exchange specification. The organization of research of this project is shown in Figure 3.  The project management office plays a central part.  Participating members of the project include research institutes, IT vendors, trading companies, and CAD and GIS venders.  The total amount of the fund is 100 million yen, offered by companies such as Mitsubishi Electric, as well as MLIT. As to the operation of the project, we established the project management office, which is abbreviated to PMO.  PMO plays a key role in the project operation as shown in Figure 4.  Activities of PMO include the confirmation of budget execution, the order and inspection, the quality corrections in the project, the risk detection and direction of preventive measures, and the operation of progress meetings.  Meetings were 321-2 3.2 Modeling Techniques There are two kinds of 3D-CAD modeling: the direct modeling and the parametric modeling.  The direct modeling directly creates and edits 3D geometric shapes to make drawings.  It is easy to handle with its intuitive operation, but inefficient for making modifications.  In contrast, the parametric modeling is a technique for defining the geometric shape of a model by setting variable parameters such as coordinate and size values to the model and giving values to the parameters.  The parametric modeling is characterized by its easiness to edit because it allows the user to represent the design intent of a structure.  The 3D-CAD engine developed in this project adopted parametric modeling.  The CAD kernel is used for parametric modeling in commercial CAD software, which is expensive for Japanese CAD companies to use. 3.3 Basics of 3D Modeling There are two basics of 3D modeling: the plane view drawing using sketches, and the 3D modeling based on plane view drawing.  Regarding sketches, plane views are created to use as the foundation of CAD.  In a plane view drawing in 3D-CAD, unlike 2D-CAD, it is not necessary to draw a plane view precisely since the length and angles of elements are determined by constraints later.  After making plane view drawings, we go to the process of 3D modeling.  As an example of 3D modeling, Fig.5 and 6 show some examples of creating a plane view drawing with sketches and 3D modeling with sweep. 3.3.1 Sketch First of all, a sketch surface is made as shown in Figure 5.  On the initial state of the sketch surface, a rectangle is created.  Geometric constraints are applied to the rectangle to create a square.  In this example, a square is created by constraining all lines to have the same length, and constraining all angles between the lines to be 90 degree. Sketch surface(initial state)Making rectangle (4 lines etc.)Specify target of geometric constraintsMaking square(Constraints in same length for each linesConstraints in 90 degrees for each lines) Figure 5: Sketch Surface 3.3.2 Sweep A sweep action as shown in Figure 6 is applied to the square created with a sketch.  To make a sweep action, a sweep line is created.  A sweep line is created as a 3D geometric element.  After this, a combination of a sweep plane and a sweep line is specified, and a sweep action is executed.  Then a sweep model is generated based on the sweep surface and sweep line. 321-4 Making sketch Making sweep line(3D geometric shapes)Specify combination of sweep surface(sketch) and sweep line(3D geometric shapes)Sweep model(Shape based on sweep surface and sweep line) Figure 6: Sweep Action 3.3.3 Extrusion As to the extrusion as shown in Figure 7, someone can create an extrusion model by extruding the sketch by the specified length. Making sketch Making extrusion model Figure 7: Extrusion 3.3.4 Chamfer Figure 8 shows an example of the chamfer.  After specifying the chamfer distance, the chamfer process is performed. WholeEnlarged view Figure 8: Chamfer 321-5 3.3.5 Fillet Figure 9 shows an example of the fillet.  This generates a round surface based on the specified radius. WholeEnlarged view Figure 9: Fillet 3.3.6 Boolean Figure 10 shows an example of using the boolean.  A pipeline is connected to a pipeline to a manhole.  Figure 10: Boolean for Connecting Pipeline to Manhole 3.3.7 Example of Creating Alignment Figure 11 shows an example of creating an alignment by using the sweep.  An alignment model of road or railroad can be created by generating a cross-section using Sketch, and making a sweep action.  Figure 11: Example of Creating Road Alignments 321-6  5th International/11th Construction Specialty Conference 5e International/11e Conférence spécialisée sur la construction    Vancouver, British Columbia June 8 to June 10, 2015 / 8 juin au 10 juin 2015   DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF 3D-CAD ENGINE Shigenori Tanaka1, 5, Thomas Froese 2, Satoshi Kubota 1, Kenji Nakamura 3 and Kantaro Monobe 4 1 Kansai University, Japan 2 University of British Columbia, Canada 3 Osaka University of Economics, Japan 4 Miyagi University, Japan 5 tanaka@res.kutc.kansai-u.ac.jp  Abstract: Civil infrastructure drawing data are normally generated by computer-aided design (CAD) software in the design phase, and are also frequently needed during the construction and maintenance phases.  An environment would be provided in which 3D construction information can efficiently and smoothly be used throughout the project lifecycle.  Then, a 3D-CAD engine should be developed and operated to create and modify 3D structure information, but Japan’s CAD venders have not had a product of the 3D-CAD software.  Therefore, the purpose of this research is to spread 3D-CAD rapidly and at low cost throughout the construction industry in Japan.  To achieve this purpose, we designed and developed a 3D-CAD engine.  Our research and development made progress step by step with the research, the outline design, the primary design, and the detailed design.  To verify the designed algorithm, we developed a prototype.  After this we developed a 3D-CAD engine, and also simple 3D-CAD software equipped with this engine. 1 INTRODUCTION It is important for the construction industry in Japan to build an environment where 3D-CAD data are used for BIM, CALS/EC, and IT-based construction to improve productivity.  The current use of 3D-CAD data in the industry is infrequent because a quality affordable 3D-CAD engine does not exist.  3D-CAD software use the kernel for modeling, which is expensive for Japanese construction CAD software companies to use their CAD software.  Such a 3D-CAD engine must be designed and developed in order to enable low-cost use and quick implementation, leading to its deployment in various stages of the life cycle of construction projects. The purpose of this project is to spread 3D-CAD rapidly and at low cost throughout the construction industry in Japan.  To achieve this purpose, we designed and developed a 3D-CAD engine.  Our research and development made progress step by step with the research (use cases, seeds, standards), the outline design (3D representation models, functional requirements), the primary design (3D data exchange specifications, user interface, user operation), and the detailed design (data model, algorithm, API functions).  To verify the designed algorithm, we developed a prototype.  After this we developed a 3D-CAD engine, and also simple 3D-CAD software equipped with this engine. Using the 3D-CAD engine that we developed, we created 3D geometric shapes by parametric modeling.  We also designed data structure in conformity with ISO10303 (STEP).  In addition, settings of diverse 321-1 attributes such as the time terms were realized.  These are the contents of our research as follows: Outline of Kaiser Project in Kansai University, Design principle of 3D-CAD engine, Data structure in the 3D-CAD engine and its relationship with ISO, and Future expansion. 2 OUTLINE OF KAISER PROJECT IN KANSAI UNIVERSITY The master plan of the project is shown in Figure 1.  The project started from the fiscal 2008.  As the product of research aid by Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (MLIT), we prepared the investigation report and the primary design document.  As the product of Kaiser Project in Kansai University, we prepared the outline design specification, the detailed design document, and the prototype.  Finally, we developed the 3D-CAD engine and the simple 3D-CAD as the final product. Research aid by Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (MLIT)・Use Case・Standardization・Existing Products・IT・Seeds and NotesInvestigation report Outline design specificationPrimary design specificationDetailed design specification・Selection of models for 3D   data representation・Functional design of the prototype of general-purpose 3D-CAD engineKaiser Project in Kansai University Kaiser Project in Kansai University・Data models, algorithm・Designing API functions・3D data exchange specifications・User interface specifications・User's operation manualResearch aid by MLITFiscal 2008Fiscal 2009Fiscal 2010-12 Final product 3D-CAD engine Simple 3D CADPrototype ・A series of reviews of the specifications using prototype Figure 1: Master Plan of Project An overview of the 3D-CAD engine is shown in Figure 2.  At the center is a 3D model.  The model is composed of a sketch, modeling operational histories, and 3D geometric shapes.  Connecting them with each other allows a 3D model to be generated.  A 3D model also maintains diverse attributes.  At the bottom are application program interfaces, which provide various features for creating, editing, and operating a 3D model, as well as for processes including volume and surface area calculation.  Moreover, using API for data conversion into drawing data, the data can be converted into the drawing data on the right.  The data can also be converted into the exchange data on the left by converting in conformity with the 3D data exchange specification. The organization of research of this project is shown in Figure 3.  The project management office plays a central part.  Participating members of the project include research institutes, IT vendors, trading companies, and CAD and GIS venders.  The total amount of the fund is 100 million yen, offered by companies such as Mitsubishi Electric, as well as MLIT. As to the operation of the project, we established the project management office, which is abbreviated to PMO.  PMO plays a key role in the project operation as shown in Figure 4.  Activities of PMO include the confirmation of budget execution, the order and inspection, the quality corrections in the project, the risk detection and direction of preventive measures, and the operation of progress meetings.  Meetings were 321-2 3.2 Modeling Techniques There are two kinds of 3D-CAD modeling: the direct modeling and the parametric modeling.  The direct modeling directly creates and edits 3D geometric shapes to make drawings.  It is easy to handle with its intuitive operation, but inefficient for making modifications.  In contrast, the parametric modeling is a technique for defining the geometric shape of a model by setting variable parameters such as coordinate and size values to the model and giving values to the parameters.  The parametric modeling is characterized by its easiness to edit because it allows the user to represent the design intent of a structure.  The 3D-CAD engine developed in this project adopted parametric modeling.  The CAD kernel is used for parametric modeling in commercial CAD software, which is expensive for Japanese CAD companies to use. 3.3 Basics of 3D Modeling There are two basics of 3D modeling: the plane view drawing using sketches, and the 3D modeling based on plane view drawing.  Regarding sketches, plane views are created to use as the foundation of CAD.  In a plane view drawing in 3D-CAD, unlike 2D-CAD, it is not necessary to draw a plane view precisely since the length and angles of elements are determined by constraints later.  After making plane view drawings, we go to the process of 3D modeling.  As an example of 3D modeling, Fig.5 and 6 show some examples of creating a plane view drawing with sketches and 3D modeling with sweep. 3.3.1 Sketch First of all, a sketch surface is made as shown in Figure 5.  On the initial state of the sketch surface, a rectangle is created.  Geometric constraints are applied to the rectangle to create a square.  In this example, a square is created by constraining all lines to have the same length, and constraining all angles between the lines to be 90 degree. Sketch surface(initial state)Making rectangle (4 lines etc.)Specify target of geometric constraintsMaking square(Constraints in same length for each linesConstraints in 90 degrees for each lines) Figure 5: Sketch Surface 3.3.2 Sweep A sweep action as shown in Figure 6 is applied to the square created with a sketch.  To make a sweep action, a sweep line is created.  A sweep line is created as a 3D geometric element.  After this, a combination of a sweep plane and a sweep line is specified, and a sweep action is executed.  Then a sweep model is generated based on the sweep surface and sweep line. 321-4 Making sketch Making sweep line(3D geometric shapes)Specify combination of sweep surface(sketch) and sweep line(3D geometric shapes)Sweep model(Shape based on sweep surface and sweep line) Figure 6: Sweep Action 3.3.3 Extrusion As to the extrusion as shown in Figure 7, someone can create an extrusion model by extruding the sketch by the specified length. Making sketch Making extrusion model Figure 7: Extrusion 3.3.4 Chamfer Figure 8 shows an example of the chamfer.  After specifying the chamfer distance, the chamfer process is performed. WholeEnlarged view Figure 8: Chamfer 321-5 3.3.5 Fillet Figure 9 shows an example of the fillet.  This generates a round surface based on the specified radius. WholeEnlarged view Figure 9: Fillet 3.3.6 Boolean Figure 10 shows an example of using the boolean.  A pipeline is connected to a pipeline to a manhole.  Figure 10: Boolean for Connecting Pipeline to Manhole 3.3.7 Example of Creating Alignment Figure 11 shows an example of creating an alignment by using the sweep.  An alignment model of road or railroad can be created by generating a cross-section using Sketch, and making a sweep action.  Figure 11: Example of Creating Road Alignments 321-6  Shigenori Tanaka, Kansai Univ.Thomas Froese, UBCSatoshi Kubota, Kansai Univ.Kenji Nakamura, Osaka Univ. of EconomicsKantaro Monobe, Miyagi Univ.Kaiser Project in Kansai University-Design and development of 3D-CAD engine-Background2 ©Kaiser Project in Kansai UniversityPlaneCross-SectionLengthwise-SectionAssembling 3D-CAD data from 2D dataUtilizing digital topographic mapsStructural ModificationDelivering "Design Data" Estimation人工衛星Information-oriented constructionWork progress control systemRoad database (GIS)Delivering "GIS Data”(with execution data added)Delivering "Design Data"Three-dimensional evaluationLifecycle of 3D Construction Information34 ©Kaiser Project in Kansai UniversityPractical Uses with 3D Construction Information2Automatic MeasurementTraffic Simulation VRGPS SimulationGISAnalysisAir-conditioningAnalysis Lighting AnalysisIT Construction Temporary StructureNext-Generation ITS3D Design3D Construction InformationContents of Presentation1. Outline of Kaiser Project in Kansai University2. Design principle of 3D-CAD engine3. Data structure in the 3D-CAD engine and its relationship with ISO4. Future view5 ©Kaiser Project in Kansai University1. Outline of Kaiser Project in Kansai UniversityPurpose of the Project• To spread 3D-CAD rapidly and at low cost throughout the construction industry in Japan• To design and develop a 3D-CAD engine (like kernel)• Contents of Research and Development– Research (use cases, seeds, standards)– Outline design (3D representation models, functional requirements)– Primary design (3D data exchange specifications, UI, user operation)– Detailed design (data model, algorithm, API functions)– Development of prototype (verification of algorithm)– Main development (development of engine, simple 3D-CAD)7 ©Kaiser Project in Kansai UniversityCTI Engineering Co., Ltd. Nippon Koei Co., Ltd.Kansai Univ.Research InstituteProf. Shibasaki, Tokyo Univ.Prof. Law, Stanford Univ.Prof. Froese, UBCProf. Ma, Tsinghua Univ.PMO(Project Management Office )IT VendorMitsubishi Electric Corp.Fuji Electric Corp.Offer of intellectual propertyEMORI & Co., LTD.FirmFORUM 8 Co., Ltd.KENSETSU SYSTEM Co., Ltd.AISAN  TECHNOLOGY Co., Ltd.CAD-GIS VendorBasic technologyCore technologyGeneral technologyKansai Information Institute Co., Ltd.Participating companiesMitsubishi Electric Corp.Fuji Electric Corp.FORUM 8 Co., Ltd.KENSETSU SYSTEM Co., Ltd.AISAN TECHNOLOGY Co., Ltd.EMORI & CO., LTD.CTI Engineering Co., Ltd. Nippon Koei Co., Ltd.Kansai Information Institute Co., Ltd.Organization of Research8 ©Kaiser Project in Kansai UniversitySoftware Development and ProvisionFunding from Participating Companies9 ©Kaiser Project in Kansai UniversityOne hundred million yen• The project management office (PMO) was established.• PMO plays a key role in operating the project.• 43 Meetings over 4 years and a half.– 33 main conferences and 10 sub working meetings.– About 15 members attended each meeting, including CAD & IT vendors, construction consultants, and university researchers.Operation of the ProjectOperation of progress meetingsConfirmation of budget executionOrder / inspectionQuality corrections in the projectRisk detection and direction of preventive measuresPMO10Progress Meeting1112 ©Kaiser Project in Kansai UniversitySpecifications for system developmentPrototypedevelopment specificationDetailed design specificationPrimary design specificationOutline designspecificationInvestigationreportOverview of 3D-CAD Engine13 ©Kaiser Project in Kansai UniversityScope of the Project©Kaiser Project in Kansai University14Our ProjectIT, CAD/GISVendersCompanies of ConstructionEngineering2. Design Principle of 3D-CAD Engine Modeling Techniques• Direct modeling– Directly creating and editing 3D geometric shapes for drawing– Easy to handle with its intuitive operation, but inefficient for making modifications• Parametric modeling– A technique for defining the geometric shape of a model by setting variable parameters such as coordinate and size values to the model and giving values to the parameters– Easy to edit because it allows the user to represent the design intent of a structure– Parametric modeling saves Sketch (including constraints), Modeling Operational Histories, and 3D Geometric Shapes.©Kaiser Project in Kansai University16Basics of 3D-Modeling• Sketch– Plan view drawing used as the foundation for CAD.– Unlike 2D CAD, it isn't necessary to draw precisely since the length and angles of elements are determined by constraints later.– Lines, curves, circles, circular arcs, ellipses, parabolas, hyperbolas, NURBS curves, and clothoid curves• 3D-Modeling– Extrusion, rotation, sweep, ruled, and mesh etc.17 ©Kaiser Project in Kansai UniversitySee examples of plan view drawing with sketches and 3D-Modeling with sweep.Example of 3D-Modeling (1)18 ©Kaiser Project in Kansai UniversitySketch surface(initial state)Making rectangle (4 lines etc.)Specify target of geometric constraintsMaking square(Constraints in same length for each linesCo straints in 90 degrees for each li )Example of 3D-Modeling (2)19 ©Kaiser Project in Kansai UniversityMaking sketch Making sweep line(3D geometric shapes)Specify combination of sweep surface(sketch) and sweep line(3D geometric shapes)Sweep model(Shape based on sweep surface and sweep line)Example of Extrusion©Kaiser Project in Kansai University20Making sketch Making extrusion modelExample of Chamfer©Kaiser Project in Kansai University21WholeEnlarged viewExample of Fillet©Kaiser Project in Kansai University22WholeEnlarged viewExample of Boolean©Kaiser Project in Kansai University23Making sketch Making extrusion model Specify Boolean surface(──Nodal line of specified surface and model)Making Boolean model(Cutting by specified surface)Making Boolean modelby specifying another surfaceView of other sideExample of Pipeline using Boolean©Kaiser Project in Kansai University24Connecting a pipeline to a manholeExample of Creating Road Alignments using Sweep25 ©Kaiser Project in Kansai University• An alignment model of road or railroad can be created by creating a cross-section using Sketch, and making a Sweep action.Example of Structures26 ©Kaiser Project in Kansai UniversityMaking civil engineering structures by prototype system– Gravity retaining wall– Earth cut section– PC girder– RC pile– Arch dametc.Arch dam (example)PC girder(example)「3D-CAD Engine」Completed in December 20123. Data Structure in the 3D-CAD Engine and its Relationship with ISOData Structure in the 3D-CAD Engine andits Relationship with ISO 10303 (STEP)28 ©Kaiser Project in Kansai UniversityAssembly Process29 ©Kaiser Project in Kansai UniversityAssembly modelingCreating a Bridge from several assembly graphicsBridge pier (without beams) .kspBridge superstructure.kspCreating Roads on Terrains with Point Cloud Data30 ©Kaiser Project in Kansai University• Read point cloud data to generate a terrain• Create a road there, and connect it with the bridge created previously4. Future ViewFuture Vision of KENSETSU SYSTEM Co.Ltd.• Planning to introduce the 3D-CAD engine into Dekispart and SiTECH 3D 32Plan viewProfile viewCross Section view4D 5D3D3D-CAD engineDekispartConstruction IT system leading to the future• Planning to efficiently construct 3D spaces by introducing the 3D-CAD engine into different applicationsFuture vision of FORUM 8 Co., Ltd.3次元CADエンジン3D-CAD studioCAD for 3D bar arrangement33Construction information newspaperThank you for your attentionPublished Technical Know-how

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