International Construction Specialty Conference of the Canadian Society for Civil Engineering (ICSC) (5th : 2015)

QR-coded clash-free drawings : an integrated system of BIM and augmented reailty to improve construction… Zaki, Tarek M.; Khalil, Cherif A. Jun 30, 2015

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
52660-Zaki_T_et_al_ICSC15_187_Qr_Coded_Clash.pdf [ 1.46MB ]
52660-Zaki_T_et_al_ICSC15_187_Qr_Coded_Clash_slides.pdf [ 1.69MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 52660-1.0076363.json
JSON-LD: 52660-1.0076363-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 52660-1.0076363-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 52660-1.0076363-rdf.json
Turtle: 52660-1.0076363-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 52660-1.0076363-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 52660-1.0076363-source.json
Full Text
52660-1.0076363-fulltext.txt
Citation
52660-1.0076363.ris

Full Text

5th International/11th Construction Specialty Conference 5e International/11e Conférence spécialisée sur la construction    Vancouver, British Columbia June 8 to June 10, 2015 / 8 juin au 10 juin 2015   QR-CODED CLASH-FREE DRAWINGS: AN INTEGRATED SYSTEM OF BIM AND AUGMENTED REAILTY TO IMPROVE CONSTRUCTION PROJECT VISUALIZATION Tarek M. Zaki1,2 and Cherif A. Khalil1  1 The American University in Cairo, Egypt 2 tarekzaki@aucegypt.edu Abstract: Design coordination problems are considered as one of the causes of driving project delays. The current normal practice in the Egyptian construction industry is highly dependent on using the traditional 2D CAD software to design and issue construction drawings. The main problem with 2D drawings is that they fail to properly visualize the design intent of the project, hence consuming project time in resolving design coordination problems and in some cases may lead to abortive works. Therefore, this research proposes a workflow that integrates both Building Information Modeling (BIM) and Augmented Reality (AR) using commercially available software to address these problems. The proposed workflow integrates the use of BIM in the design process to produce fully coordinated clashes-free 3D models. Later, each exported 2D drawing from this model is imprinted with a unique Quick Response Code (QR-Code). An application reads the QR code using a smart device’s camera and then the clash-free model is displayed on its screen. Users can transform, manipulate or use section planes to easily visualize the design intent behind the produced drawings. A case study was conducted on a project originally designed using a BIM platform to test the applicability of the proposed workflow. Results demonstrated the potential features of integrating a system of BIM and AR to improve the visualization of the design intent after the production of 2D clash-free drawings and improve the design coordination/communication problems. 1 INTRODUCTION Visual simulation has emerged from the field of computer science, providing planning and analysis tools for the engineering processes by creating dynamic virtual scenes; hence, providing environments where experimentation can be done without the committing real resources or endangering the operational safety. BIM represents the development and use of computer-generated n-dimensional models to simulate the planning, design, construction and operation of a building (Azhar et al. 2008), while AR is the superimposition of computer-generated images over a user’s interface of the real world. In other words, AR allows users to explore and navigate the real world with the virtual objects or models superimposed/blended inside the real view (Behzadan and Kamat 2006). The applications of BIM and AR promise a breakthrough in the way projects are designed, constructed and operated. Even though this technology has been around for some time, developing countries like Egypt are still not familiar with their powerful capabilities. The current on-going practice in the Egyptian construction industry uses 2D-CAD software to generate design and construction drawings. Unfortunately, a few numbers of firms deploy the use of BIM software in their early design stages and use very limited features.  BIM is currently used only to (1) design the basic building form as a whole then layout views are generated on 2D-CAD drawings for 187-1 each building trade and (2) to export the 3D models to other software specialized in rendering for client presentations. On the other hand, the concept of AR is new and its applications are unexplored and even unknown to many Egyptian construction professionals.  Design coordination and visualization problems are considered to be of the major issues that negatively affect construction projects. Design problems generate seeds for variations and design changes which delay the progress of the works and in some cases may lead to abortive works. Although the design and construction teams do their best endeavors to produce coordinated drawings, failure to coordinate between the different parties and visualize the building components off the 2D CAD drawings remains a problem that needs to be tackled.  2 PREVIOUS STUDIES BIM has been around for over two decades; however, it only started to become very popular by the beginning of this century as it showed serious potentials in developing and revolutionizing the design and construction processes in the Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) industry. Previous studies have investigated how the use of BIM tools affect projects in all its stages. Haymaker and Fischer (2001) reported statistics based on 32 major projects where BIM was adopted and the results show that the cost estimation accuracy increased by 3%, up to 7% reduction in the project time and up to 40% elimination of unbudgeted change. Later, a survey was conducted by Azhar et al. (2008) to track the productivity gain by the use of BIM in construction projects. Results showed that the productivity gain ranged from 20% to 30% more, in addition to reduction in Request for Information (RFI) and change orders by a factor of 10% or more.  Another survey was conducted by Becerik-Geber and Rice (2010) for the uses of BIM in the construction industry. The results of their survey concluded that the current top uses of BIM are visualization, clash detection and as-built models. BIM could also facilitate resolving coordination problems using clash detection engines. The 3D coordination process could start right after the model is created in order to detect geometric interferences and clearance interference.  Wu and Chiu (2010) proposed a workspace conflict detection and analysis system using Bentley Microstation software. They created a plugin extension to identify design, damage, safety and congestion conflicts on site. However, Gaungbin et al. (2011) conducted an experiment on 3 software; Autodesk Navisworks, Bentley Interference Manger and Solibri Model checker. The experiment concluded that Autodesk Navisworks’s clash detection module was the best among the rest of software.  Conclusions could be drawn from previous studies that adopting BIM throughout a project’s lifecycle has improved the ways projects were designed and constructed.  Concerning the use of AR in construction, few studies were conducted on the integration of BIM with AR in building design and construction. Wang and Dunston (2006) used AR as an assistant viewer for standard CAD drawings in order to perform a conflict detection tasks. They investigated the time and cost benefits realized when using AR vs using a standard approach (CAD) to solve the conflict in the drawings. Shin and Dunston (2011) used AR to perform construction inspection tasks, more specifically inspecting a steel column using AR and compare it to the conventional inspection techniques. They developed an AR system composed of a backpack processor that includes a GPS and a helmet with built-in glasses that transposes the model on the glasses screen. The results of the experiment they conducted showed that the device they used to perform inspection satisfied standard tolerance and required faster and simpler setup, hence it was considered promising inspection tool. Zollmann et al. (2014) discussed in details the technicalities behind transposing a 3D system in the physical environment, which permits monitoring and documenting the onsite construction project progress. 187-2 Gheisari et al. (2014) explored the use of BIM and AR for facilities management. The research highlighted the benefits realized to the facility management professionals when using BIM, and indicated that its integration with a handheld mobile augmented reality device (MAR), enhances the current practices for facility management. After reviewing some of the previous studies conclusions can be drawn that: (1) BIM has proven to improve the ways projects are designed and constructed, (2) implementing AR required the use of electronic devices or tools in order to develop the required system and (3) the integration of BIM and AR in resolving design coordination issues was not tackled thoroughly in literature. Moreover, given the fact that construction projects in Egypt face delays and cost overruns mainly due to design and construction miscoordination, the objective of this paper is to introduce the Egyptian market to an approach considering the use of a BIM and AR in solving coordination problems since the early design stages. The proposed approach provides a simple and cost efficient visualization approach for the project team to tackle the design/shopdrawings complexity and hence increasing the productivity of the project team. 3 THE METHODOLOGY In order to identify the major problems that negatively impact the progress of any construction project, a number of 40 expert interviews were conducted with industry professionals with experiences ranging from 10 to 20 years in the construction industry profession (including project managers, construction managers, design managers, design team leaders from different trades and site superintendents). The interviewees were required to identify the major problems that negatively affect construction projects. The results generated a number of identified problems which were sorted, grouped, complied and presented as a percentage scale. For example, the “design complexity” problem (complex building geometries, sophisticated mechanical and electrical systems, etc.) was identified by 34 interviewer which resulted in 34/40 = 85%. All the interview results are presented in the form of a bar chart to give a visual presentation as shown in Figure 1.  Figure 1: Compiled expert interviews results The interview results revealed that the design coordination is major a problem that negatively affect the progress of the construction project. This is due to the fact that, coordination between the different trades requires extensive engineering works, which delays the related construction work progress. The design complexity came in second place with a score of 85%. Some experts highlighted that complex designs are difficult to be visualized using the current 2D CAD drawings being used, which results in constructability problems. The communication problems came in third place with a score of 83%. The results from the expert interviews were used to formulate a workflow that facilitates design management and resolves the coordination problems from the early project stages. 187-3 3.1.1 Clashes Identification and Reporting The process starts by generating a multi-model by amending all the design trades’ models (Architecture, Structure, MEP and Civil). Then, the Design Manager or the BIM coordinator (the reviewer) starts reviewing the model and plans the interference tests. The Clash detective helps in identifying, inspecting and reporting interference clashes between the different design trades in a complied 3D model. The main objective of clashes detection compared to the traditional design coordination practice is to eliminate the tedious and error-prone manual design review of multiple 2D drawings while reading all of the dispersed information to end up with a complete coordinated model. Typically, clash detection is an iterative process and is dependent on the reviewer’s experience in observing the clashes; thus, a batch of tests needs to be conducted in order to make sure that the model is clash free, such process could take days to complete or even months depending on the project complexity and the number of design trades involved. After running the required tests, the clash results are generated and the reviewer could generate a clash report based on these results. Clash reports are very handy as they can define clashes in the model by their number, status, type, date found, clash point (coordinates of the clash in the model (x,y,z), item 1 ID and type, item 2 ID and type and the name of the test. The reviewer could then send this clash report by mail to the design team leader in order to fix the clashes in the report. Once the design leader and his team are done fixing the clashes, the reviewer refreshes the model on and checks if there are more clashes occurring. Clash testing runs until all clashes are resolved i.e. the model is almost clash free.  3.1.2 Model Walkthrough Another step that should follow the clash detection process is the model walkthrough. A model walkthrough can be performed by generating a third-person avatar to walk inside the coordinated model. The main function of the model walkthrough after concluding the clash detection test is to spot the design errors or any further coordination problems by the reviewer’s visual inspection that the clash detection test fails to spot and require the reviewers’ visual inspection to be detected; hence, model walkthrough can be considered as complementary to the clashes identification process. 3.1.3 Imprinting Drawings with QR-Codes The final step is to implement the AR part by creating unique QR-Codes and markers that resembles each drawing or sheet produced. Each marker should have a unique model attached to it. The purpose of the marker is to enable the end user to superimpose the design intent off the basic 2D drawing.  In order to do that, for each construction drawing a QR-code is added; which when detected by a camera (smartphone/tablet camera) superimposes the 3D AR view off the drawing. The proposed position for each QR-Code is to be located within the drawing’s title block or below each drawing in its canvas. It is important to note that the superimposed model can also be a 4D model or a video that illustrates to the users how to construct or assemble the model in consideration. The superimposed AR model could be viewed from each drawing either using a smartphone or a tablet with AR-ready software that reads QR codes.  4 CASE STUDY A case study was used to test the applicability of the proposed workflow. Three commercially available software were used; (1) Autodesk™ Revit™ 2013 was used to design the BIM, (2) Autodesk™ Navisworks™ Manage™ 2013 was used to review and resolve the design coordination problems and (3) AR-Media™ for Apple™ iPad™ was used for generating the unique QR-Codes and superimpose the models on the screen. The reason for selecting Autodesk products is due to their popularity in the Egyptian market, even though their full capabilities are not taken advantage of by most firms or professionals. The case study was on an administrative building in a hospital project designed originally designed with Autodesk™ Revit™. The Administration building is a single story building that serves the hospital. The building is composed of administration offices, clerk cubicles space, large storage hall, a dinning lounge, 187-5 kitchenette and mechanical room and a number of toilets. The building’s exterior is cased with concrete precast panels and lined with gypsum wall cladding from the inside; the partitioning is mainly insulated gypsum board along with some glass storefronts. The perspective view and the ground floor plan for the building are shown in Figure 3.    Figure 3: (Left) building perspective view, (Right) ground level layout First each design discipline team leader exported their Revit models to the Navisworks™ file format and forwarded them to the reviewer (hereafter called the Design Manager [DM]) who compiled and generated a multi-model as shown in Figure 4. The different design disciplines that were used in this case study were: Architecture, Structure, Electrical, Plumbing, Firefighting and HVAC, which means that 6 BIMs were amended in one multi-model.  Figure 4: The multi-model on the Navisworks™ software interface Second, the DM executed the clash detection module and specified the batch of tests that were required to be performed. Three clash tests were used in this case which were: (1) Arch vs HVAC, (2) Arch vs 187-6 Plumbing and (3) Arch vs Firefighting. The generated results showed that there were 18, 39 and 18 clashes respectively in each of the three defined tests. Selecting the clash number from the clash detection module determines its location and the two elements intersecting as shown in Figure 5. For example, in Clash [7] the DM found that the HVAC pipes were intersecting one of the storefront glass panels inside the model. The DM assigned this clash to the HVAC Piping Team leader with a comment saying “review the placing level of the pipes”.  Figure 5: An output from Arch vs HVAC test showing clash [7] for example where a HVAC pipe and a glass panel intersect  Next, all the resulted clashes from all tests were exported in the form of a clash report. In general, the DM can define all the required fields that are necessary to be shown in the report. In this case, the DM chose the following fields: a picture of the clash, a location of the clash (model coordinates), the clashing elements and the person assigned to resolve the clash as shown in the Figure 6.   Figure 6 - A sample clash report including comments to the assigned person to fix the clash Since this building was considered to be not that complex and small in size, each of the design discipline trades were given 3 days as a review time to fix their clashes. The DM refreshed model after such review period and re-ran the tests again to review the pending, approved or newly identified clashes.  After almost resolving 95% of the clashes in the multi-model, the DM generated a third-person avatar and performed a walkthrough inside the model. After some time walking with the avatar inside the model and visually inspecting the all the model elements some problems were spotted. For example, it was noticed 187-7  Figure 9: A screenshot from the superimposed 3D view off the 2D QR-code enabled drawing 5 RESULTS  The application of the proposed approach has demonstrated its effectiveness in design coordination and visualization in many ways. First for the design team, it assisted in resolving most of the design conflicts by testing the hard and soft interferences of the model elements from different trades using the clash detection module. The conflicts were easily communicated to each reviewer via the clash reports. The avatar walkthrough has also assisted in identifying some design problems that were difficult to be detected using the clash detection module; such as errors in the dimensions of the men’s toilet doors, the storefront partition for one of the spaces being misplaced in a wrong level, etc.). Although the time spent in resolving the coordination issues was longer compared to the traditional method, the proposed workflow has proven to be much more systematic and efficient. Having a fully coordinated model has facilitated the production of the shopdrawings from the model with minimal requirement for the extensive engineering works that are usually performed in the traditional design coordination process. Thus, applying clash detection from the early design stages helped in minimizing the design errors which usually propagate to changes in the drawings and could generate seeds for variations and claims during the construction phase of the project. Second, the application of the AR has also improved the visualization of the design intent for the whole team. For instance, during the constructability session the construction manager identified some issues in the fixation details of the exterior precast wall casing. These issues were easily communicated to the design team leaders to propose other alternatives and to further elaborate on the design requirements. Clients easily communicated their requirements within the session which was made very clear to the project team. Thus, the application of AR has proven its effectiveness in visualizing the project intent from the 2D drawings and improved the communication between all the team members.   6 CONCULSION Design coordination problems are considered as one of the major causes driving project delays. The current normal practice in the Egyptian construction industry is dependent on using the traditional 2D CAD drawings that fail to visualize the design intent, hence consuming project time in resolving design coordination problems. The integration of BIM and AR technologies reveal promising results in tackling the design coordination and visualization problem. In this paper a systematic workflow was proposed that 187-9 integrates the use of BIM in the design process to produce fully coordinated clashes-free models and imprinted the generated 2D drawings with QR-Codes. A case study was conducted on a project originally designed using a BIM platform to test the applicability of the proposed workflow. The proposed workflow has shown a number of outcomes. Contractors could generate automatic shopdrawings from the BIM software used and therefore, minimize the number of technical personnel deployed to produce the shopdrawings on site (compared to the traditional approach when using CAD drawings) which shall help in minimizing the direct and indirect costs on the project. Similarly, the Engineer could minimize deploying technical personnel to review the shopdrawings and therefore, minimizing direct and overhead costs.  Applying AR to superimpose the 3D model of the construction drawing at hand provided an innovative approach for implementing AR in construction without being involved in complex coding or buying expensive software. Using a commercially available software makes the process much easier. The application of AR with the drawings helped to better understand the design intent behind the drawing. Consequently, the project team effectively communicated the design.  To conclude, the proposed approach provides a simple and a cost efficient method for improved project visualization for the project’s team to tackle the design/shopdrawings complexity and hence increases the productivity of the project team. References Azhar, S., Nadeem, A., Mok, J. Y., and Leung, B. H. 2008. Building Information Modeling (BIM): A new paradigm for visual interactive modeling and simulation for construction projects. In Proceedings of the First International Conference on Construction in Developing Countries, Department of Civil Engineering, NED University of Engineering & Technology, Karachi, Pakistan, 435-446. Becerik-Gerber, B., and Rice, S. 2010. The perceived value of building information modeling in the US building industry. Journal of information technology in Construction, 15(2): 185-201. Behzadan, A. H., and Kamat, V. R. 2006. Animation of construction activities in outdoor augmented reality. In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computing and Decision Making in Civil and Building Engineering (ICCCBE-XI), Montreal, QB, Canada. Gheisari, M., Goodman, S., Schmidt, J., Williams, G., and Irizarry, J. 2014. Exploring BIM and Mobile Augmented Reality Use in Facilities Management. In Construction Research Congress 2014 Construction in a Global Network, ASCE, 1941-1950. Guangbin, W., Wei, L., and Xuru, D. 2011. Exploring the High-efficiency Clash Detection between Architecture and Structure. In Proceedings of 2011 International Conference on Information Management and Engineering (ICIME), Toronto, Canada. Haymaker, J., & Fischer, M. 2001. Challenges and benefits of 4D modeling on the Walt Disney Concert Hall Project. Center for Integrated Facility Engineering, Stanford University. CA, USA  Shin, D. H., and Dunston, P. S. 2009. Evaluation of augmented reality in steel column inspection. Automation in Construction, 18(2): 118-129. Wang, X., and Dunston, P. S. 2006. Potential of augmented reality as an assistant viewer for computer-aided drawing. Journal of computing in civil engineering, 20(6): 437-441. Wu, I. C., and Chiu, Y. 2010. 4D Workspace conflict detection and analysis system. In Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Construction Applications of Virtual Reality, Sendai, Miyagi, Japan. Zollmann, S., Hoppe, C., Kluckner, S., Poglitsch, C., Bischof, H., and Reitmayr, G. 2014. Augmented Reality for Construction Site Monitoring and Documentation. Proceedings of the IEEE, 102(2): 137-154.    187-10  5th International/11th Construction Specialty Conference 5e International/11e Conférence spécialisée sur la construction    Vancouver, British Columbia June 8 to June 10, 2015 / 8 juin au 10 juin 2015   QR-CODED CLASH-FREE DRAWINGS: AN INTEGRATED SYSTEM OF BIM AND AUGMENTED REAILTY TO IMPROVE CONSTRUCTION PROJECT VISUALIZATION Tarek M. Zaki1,2 and Cherif A. Khalil1  1 The American University in Cairo, Egypt 2 tarekzaki@aucegypt.edu Abstract: Design coordination problems are considered as one of the causes of driving project delays. The current normal practice in the Egyptian construction industry is highly dependent on using the traditional 2D CAD software to design and issue construction drawings. The main problem with 2D drawings is that they fail to properly visualize the design intent of the project, hence consuming project time in resolving design coordination problems and in some cases may lead to abortive works. Therefore, this research proposes a workflow that integrates both Building Information Modeling (BIM) and Augmented Reality (AR) using commercially available software to address these problems. The proposed workflow integrates the use of BIM in the design process to produce fully coordinated clashes-free 3D models. Later, each exported 2D drawing from this model is imprinted with a unique Quick Response Code (QR-Code). An application reads the QR code using a smart device’s camera and then the clash-free model is displayed on its screen. Users can transform, manipulate or use section planes to easily visualize the design intent behind the produced drawings. A case study was conducted on a project originally designed using a BIM platform to test the applicability of the proposed workflow. Results demonstrated the potential features of integrating a system of BIM and AR to improve the visualization of the design intent after the production of 2D clash-free drawings and improve the design coordination/communication problems. 1 INTRODUCTION Visual simulation has emerged from the field of computer science, providing planning and analysis tools for the engineering processes by creating dynamic virtual scenes; hence, providing environments where experimentation can be done without the committing real resources or endangering the operational safety. BIM represents the development and use of computer-generated n-dimensional models to simulate the planning, design, construction and operation of a building (Azhar et al. 2008), while AR is the superimposition of computer-generated images over a user’s interface of the real world. In other words, AR allows users to explore and navigate the real world with the virtual objects or models superimposed/blended inside the real view (Behzadan and Kamat 2006). The applications of BIM and AR promise a breakthrough in the way projects are designed, constructed and operated. Even though this technology has been around for some time, developing countries like Egypt are still not familiar with their powerful capabilities. The current on-going practice in the Egyptian construction industry uses 2D-CAD software to generate design and construction drawings. Unfortunately, a few numbers of firms deploy the use of BIM software in their early design stages and use very limited features.  BIM is currently used only to (1) design the basic building form as a whole then layout views are generated on 2D-CAD drawings for 187-1 each building trade and (2) to export the 3D models to other software specialized in rendering for client presentations. On the other hand, the concept of AR is new and its applications are unexplored and even unknown to many Egyptian construction professionals.  Design coordination and visualization problems are considered to be of the major issues that negatively affect construction projects. Design problems generate seeds for variations and design changes which delay the progress of the works and in some cases may lead to abortive works. Although the design and construction teams do their best endeavors to produce coordinated drawings, failure to coordinate between the different parties and visualize the building components off the 2D CAD drawings remains a problem that needs to be tackled.  2 PREVIOUS STUDIES BIM has been around for over two decades; however, it only started to become very popular by the beginning of this century as it showed serious potentials in developing and revolutionizing the design and construction processes in the Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) industry. Previous studies have investigated how the use of BIM tools affect projects in all its stages. Haymaker and Fischer (2001) reported statistics based on 32 major projects where BIM was adopted and the results show that the cost estimation accuracy increased by 3%, up to 7% reduction in the project time and up to 40% elimination of unbudgeted change. Later, a survey was conducted by Azhar et al. (2008) to track the productivity gain by the use of BIM in construction projects. Results showed that the productivity gain ranged from 20% to 30% more, in addition to reduction in Request for Information (RFI) and change orders by a factor of 10% or more.  Another survey was conducted by Becerik-Geber and Rice (2010) for the uses of BIM in the construction industry. The results of their survey concluded that the current top uses of BIM are visualization, clash detection and as-built models. BIM could also facilitate resolving coordination problems using clash detection engines. The 3D coordination process could start right after the model is created in order to detect geometric interferences and clearance interference.  Wu and Chiu (2010) proposed a workspace conflict detection and analysis system using Bentley Microstation software. They created a plugin extension to identify design, damage, safety and congestion conflicts on site. However, Gaungbin et al. (2011) conducted an experiment on 3 software; Autodesk Navisworks, Bentley Interference Manger and Solibri Model checker. The experiment concluded that Autodesk Navisworks’s clash detection module was the best among the rest of software.  Conclusions could be drawn from previous studies that adopting BIM throughout a project’s lifecycle has improved the ways projects were designed and constructed.  Concerning the use of AR in construction, few studies were conducted on the integration of BIM with AR in building design and construction. Wang and Dunston (2006) used AR as an assistant viewer for standard CAD drawings in order to perform a conflict detection tasks. They investigated the time and cost benefits realized when using AR vs using a standard approach (CAD) to solve the conflict in the drawings. Shin and Dunston (2011) used AR to perform construction inspection tasks, more specifically inspecting a steel column using AR and compare it to the conventional inspection techniques. They developed an AR system composed of a backpack processor that includes a GPS and a helmet with built-in glasses that transposes the model on the glasses screen. The results of the experiment they conducted showed that the device they used to perform inspection satisfied standard tolerance and required faster and simpler setup, hence it was considered promising inspection tool. Zollmann et al. (2014) discussed in details the technicalities behind transposing a 3D system in the physical environment, which permits monitoring and documenting the onsite construction project progress. 187-2 Gheisari et al. (2014) explored the use of BIM and AR for facilities management. The research highlighted the benefits realized to the facility management professionals when using BIM, and indicated that its integration with a handheld mobile augmented reality device (MAR), enhances the current practices for facility management. After reviewing some of the previous studies conclusions can be drawn that: (1) BIM has proven to improve the ways projects are designed and constructed, (2) implementing AR required the use of electronic devices or tools in order to develop the required system and (3) the integration of BIM and AR in resolving design coordination issues was not tackled thoroughly in literature. Moreover, given the fact that construction projects in Egypt face delays and cost overruns mainly due to design and construction miscoordination, the objective of this paper is to introduce the Egyptian market to an approach considering the use of a BIM and AR in solving coordination problems since the early design stages. The proposed approach provides a simple and cost efficient visualization approach for the project team to tackle the design/shopdrawings complexity and hence increasing the productivity of the project team. 3 THE METHODOLOGY In order to identify the major problems that negatively impact the progress of any construction project, a number of 40 expert interviews were conducted with industry professionals with experiences ranging from 10 to 20 years in the construction industry profession (including project managers, construction managers, design managers, design team leaders from different trades and site superintendents). The interviewees were required to identify the major problems that negatively affect construction projects. The results generated a number of identified problems which were sorted, grouped, complied and presented as a percentage scale. For example, the “design complexity” problem (complex building geometries, sophisticated mechanical and electrical systems, etc.) was identified by 34 interviewer which resulted in 34/40 = 85%. All the interview results are presented in the form of a bar chart to give a visual presentation as shown in Figure 1.  Figure 1: Compiled expert interviews results The interview results revealed that the design coordination is major a problem that negatively affect the progress of the construction project. This is due to the fact that, coordination between the different trades requires extensive engineering works, which delays the related construction work progress. The design complexity came in second place with a score of 85%. Some experts highlighted that complex designs are difficult to be visualized using the current 2D CAD drawings being used, which results in constructability problems. The communication problems came in third place with a score of 83%. The results from the expert interviews were used to formulate a workflow that facilitates design management and resolves the coordination problems from the early project stages. 187-3 3.1.1 Clashes Identification and Reporting The process starts by generating a multi-model by amending all the design trades’ models (Architecture, Structure, MEP and Civil). Then, the Design Manager or the BIM coordinator (the reviewer) starts reviewing the model and plans the interference tests. The Clash detective helps in identifying, inspecting and reporting interference clashes between the different design trades in a complied 3D model. The main objective of clashes detection compared to the traditional design coordination practice is to eliminate the tedious and error-prone manual design review of multiple 2D drawings while reading all of the dispersed information to end up with a complete coordinated model. Typically, clash detection is an iterative process and is dependent on the reviewer’s experience in observing the clashes; thus, a batch of tests needs to be conducted in order to make sure that the model is clash free, such process could take days to complete or even months depending on the project complexity and the number of design trades involved. After running the required tests, the clash results are generated and the reviewer could generate a clash report based on these results. Clash reports are very handy as they can define clashes in the model by their number, status, type, date found, clash point (coordinates of the clash in the model (x,y,z), item 1 ID and type, item 2 ID and type and the name of the test. The reviewer could then send this clash report by mail to the design team leader in order to fix the clashes in the report. Once the design leader and his team are done fixing the clashes, the reviewer refreshes the model on and checks if there are more clashes occurring. Clash testing runs until all clashes are resolved i.e. the model is almost clash free.  3.1.2 Model Walkthrough Another step that should follow the clash detection process is the model walkthrough. A model walkthrough can be performed by generating a third-person avatar to walk inside the coordinated model. The main function of the model walkthrough after concluding the clash detection test is to spot the design errors or any further coordination problems by the reviewer’s visual inspection that the clash detection test fails to spot and require the reviewers’ visual inspection to be detected; hence, model walkthrough can be considered as complementary to the clashes identification process. 3.1.3 Imprinting Drawings with QR-Codes The final step is to implement the AR part by creating unique QR-Codes and markers that resembles each drawing or sheet produced. Each marker should have a unique model attached to it. The purpose of the marker is to enable the end user to superimpose the design intent off the basic 2D drawing.  In order to do that, for each construction drawing a QR-code is added; which when detected by a camera (smartphone/tablet camera) superimposes the 3D AR view off the drawing. The proposed position for each QR-Code is to be located within the drawing’s title block or below each drawing in its canvas. It is important to note that the superimposed model can also be a 4D model or a video that illustrates to the users how to construct or assemble the model in consideration. The superimposed AR model could be viewed from each drawing either using a smartphone or a tablet with AR-ready software that reads QR codes.  4 CASE STUDY A case study was used to test the applicability of the proposed workflow. Three commercially available software were used; (1) Autodesk™ Revit™ 2013 was used to design the BIM, (2) Autodesk™ Navisworks™ Manage™ 2013 was used to review and resolve the design coordination problems and (3) AR-Media™ for Apple™ iPad™ was used for generating the unique QR-Codes and superimpose the models on the screen. The reason for selecting Autodesk products is due to their popularity in the Egyptian market, even though their full capabilities are not taken advantage of by most firms or professionals. The case study was on an administrative building in a hospital project designed originally designed with Autodesk™ Revit™. The Administration building is a single story building that serves the hospital. The building is composed of administration offices, clerk cubicles space, large storage hall, a dinning lounge, 187-5 kitchenette and mechanical room and a number of toilets. The building’s exterior is cased with concrete precast panels and lined with gypsum wall cladding from the inside; the partitioning is mainly insulated gypsum board along with some glass storefronts. The perspective view and the ground floor plan for the building are shown in Figure 3.    Figure 3: (Left) building perspective view, (Right) ground level layout First each design discipline team leader exported their Revit models to the Navisworks™ file format and forwarded them to the reviewer (hereafter called the Design Manager [DM]) who compiled and generated a multi-model as shown in Figure 4. The different design disciplines that were used in this case study were: Architecture, Structure, Electrical, Plumbing, Firefighting and HVAC, which means that 6 BIMs were amended in one multi-model.  Figure 4: The multi-model on the Navisworks™ software interface Second, the DM executed the clash detection module and specified the batch of tests that were required to be performed. Three clash tests were used in this case which were: (1) Arch vs HVAC, (2) Arch vs 187-6 Plumbing and (3) Arch vs Firefighting. The generated results showed that there were 18, 39 and 18 clashes respectively in each of the three defined tests. Selecting the clash number from the clash detection module determines its location and the two elements intersecting as shown in Figure 5. For example, in Clash [7] the DM found that the HVAC pipes were intersecting one of the storefront glass panels inside the model. The DM assigned this clash to the HVAC Piping Team leader with a comment saying “review the placing level of the pipes”.  Figure 5: An output from Arch vs HVAC test showing clash [7] for example where a HVAC pipe and a glass panel intersect  Next, all the resulted clashes from all tests were exported in the form of a clash report. In general, the DM can define all the required fields that are necessary to be shown in the report. In this case, the DM chose the following fields: a picture of the clash, a location of the clash (model coordinates), the clashing elements and the person assigned to resolve the clash as shown in the Figure 6.   Figure 6 - A sample clash report including comments to the assigned person to fix the clash Since this building was considered to be not that complex and small in size, each of the design discipline trades were given 3 days as a review time to fix their clashes. The DM refreshed model after such review period and re-ran the tests again to review the pending, approved or newly identified clashes.  After almost resolving 95% of the clashes in the multi-model, the DM generated a third-person avatar and performed a walkthrough inside the model. After some time walking with the avatar inside the model and visually inspecting the all the model elements some problems were spotted. For example, it was noticed 187-7  Figure 9: A screenshot from the superimposed 3D view off the 2D QR-code enabled drawing 5 RESULTS  The application of the proposed approach has demonstrated its effectiveness in design coordination and visualization in many ways. First for the design team, it assisted in resolving most of the design conflicts by testing the hard and soft interferences of the model elements from different trades using the clash detection module. The conflicts were easily communicated to each reviewer via the clash reports. The avatar walkthrough has also assisted in identifying some design problems that were difficult to be detected using the clash detection module; such as errors in the dimensions of the men’s toilet doors, the storefront partition for one of the spaces being misplaced in a wrong level, etc.). Although the time spent in resolving the coordination issues was longer compared to the traditional method, the proposed workflow has proven to be much more systematic and efficient. Having a fully coordinated model has facilitated the production of the shopdrawings from the model with minimal requirement for the extensive engineering works that are usually performed in the traditional design coordination process. Thus, applying clash detection from the early design stages helped in minimizing the design errors which usually propagate to changes in the drawings and could generate seeds for variations and claims during the construction phase of the project. Second, the application of the AR has also improved the visualization of the design intent for the whole team. For instance, during the constructability session the construction manager identified some issues in the fixation details of the exterior precast wall casing. These issues were easily communicated to the design team leaders to propose other alternatives and to further elaborate on the design requirements. Clients easily communicated their requirements within the session which was made very clear to the project team. Thus, the application of AR has proven its effectiveness in visualizing the project intent from the 2D drawings and improved the communication between all the team members.   6 CONCULSION Design coordination problems are considered as one of the major causes driving project delays. The current normal practice in the Egyptian construction industry is dependent on using the traditional 2D CAD drawings that fail to visualize the design intent, hence consuming project time in resolving design coordination problems. The integration of BIM and AR technologies reveal promising results in tackling the design coordination and visualization problem. In this paper a systematic workflow was proposed that 187-9 integrates the use of BIM in the design process to produce fully coordinated clashes-free models and imprinted the generated 2D drawings with QR-Codes. A case study was conducted on a project originally designed using a BIM platform to test the applicability of the proposed workflow. The proposed workflow has shown a number of outcomes. Contractors could generate automatic shopdrawings from the BIM software used and therefore, minimize the number of technical personnel deployed to produce the shopdrawings on site (compared to the traditional approach when using CAD drawings) which shall help in minimizing the direct and indirect costs on the project. Similarly, the Engineer could minimize deploying technical personnel to review the shopdrawings and therefore, minimizing direct and overhead costs.  Applying AR to superimpose the 3D model of the construction drawing at hand provided an innovative approach for implementing AR in construction without being involved in complex coding or buying expensive software. Using a commercially available software makes the process much easier. The application of AR with the drawings helped to better understand the design intent behind the drawing. Consequently, the project team effectively communicated the design.  To conclude, the proposed approach provides a simple and a cost efficient method for improved project visualization for the project’s team to tackle the design/shopdrawings complexity and hence increases the productivity of the project team. References Azhar, S., Nadeem, A., Mok, J. Y., and Leung, B. H. 2008. Building Information Modeling (BIM): A new paradigm for visual interactive modeling and simulation for construction projects. In Proceedings of the First International Conference on Construction in Developing Countries, Department of Civil Engineering, NED University of Engineering & Technology, Karachi, Pakistan, 435-446. Becerik-Gerber, B., and Rice, S. 2010. The perceived value of building information modeling in the US building industry. Journal of information technology in Construction, 15(2): 185-201. Behzadan, A. H., and Kamat, V. R. 2006. Animation of construction activities in outdoor augmented reality. In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computing and Decision Making in Civil and Building Engineering (ICCCBE-XI), Montreal, QB, Canada. Gheisari, M., Goodman, S., Schmidt, J., Williams, G., and Irizarry, J. 2014. Exploring BIM and Mobile Augmented Reality Use in Facilities Management. In Construction Research Congress 2014 Construction in a Global Network, ASCE, 1941-1950. Guangbin, W., Wei, L., and Xuru, D. 2011. Exploring the High-efficiency Clash Detection between Architecture and Structure. In Proceedings of 2011 International Conference on Information Management and Engineering (ICIME), Toronto, Canada. Haymaker, J., & Fischer, M. 2001. Challenges and benefits of 4D modeling on the Walt Disney Concert Hall Project. Center for Integrated Facility Engineering, Stanford University. CA, USA  Shin, D. H., and Dunston, P. S. 2009. Evaluation of augmented reality in steel column inspection. Automation in Construction, 18(2): 118-129. Wang, X., and Dunston, P. S. 2006. Potential of augmented reality as an assistant viewer for computer-aided drawing. Journal of computing in civil engineering, 20(6): 437-441. Wu, I. C., and Chiu, Y. 2010. 4D Workspace conflict detection and analysis system. In Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Construction Applications of Virtual Reality, Sendai, Miyagi, Japan. Zollmann, S., Hoppe, C., Kluckner, S., Poglitsch, C., Bischof, H., and Reitmayr, G. 2014. Augmented Reality for Construction Site Monitoring and Documentation. Proceedings of the IEEE, 102(2): 137-154.    187-10  Eng. Tarek Zaki, MSc. CandidateEng. Cherif Khalil, MSc.ICSC15 - The CSCE International Construction Specialty Conference, Vancouver, June 7 - 10, 2015THE AMERICAN UNIVERSITY IN CAIRO, EGYPTJune 08, 2015OUTLINE Introduction Methodology1. Problem Identification2. Study Objective3. Proposed Workflow4. Case Study Implementation Results Conclusion2INTRODUCTIONB I M  : Building Information Modeling The more Information the more reliable A type of nD CAD Commercially available software worldwideA R : Augmented Reality Superimposing objects stored digitally onto the Real WorldReal EnvironmentsVirtual EnvironmentsAugmented RealityTracking Device (GPS) Imprinted QR CodeThe applications of BIM and AR promise a paradigm shift in AEC industry3Problems Identification• Conducting expert Interviews with industry professionalsStudy Objectives• Formulating the study objectives from interview resultsProposing Workflow• Developing a systematic workflow that integrates BIM & ARTesting & Validation• Implementing on a case study and reviewing the outcomes and resultsMETHODOLOGY41. PROBLEMS IDENTIFICATIONDirect Interviews with 40 experts from the industry (10-20 yrs.) to identify the current practice in Egypt: Contractors and Consultants Project, Construction and Design Managers Design Team Leaders and Site Super IntendantsThe major problems that drive project delays 117.5%32.5%55.0%65.0%82.5%85.0%92.5%0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%Climate ConditionsSkilled LaborResources AvailabilityChange OrdersCommunication ProblemsDesign ComplexityDesign Coordination Problems51. PROBLEMS IDENTIFICATIONDevelop a systematic workflow that combines BIM and AR to solve the design problems and improve visualization from early project stagesThe current use of BIM in Design and Construction2The current use of AR in Design and Construction3• 2D CAD software for design and construction drawings• Design coordination on 2D CAD, problems with congested MEP zones• BIM to generate building forms, basic 3D models and rendering• AR is an unknown and unexplored2. STUDY OBJECTIVE63. DEVELOPED WORKFLOWQR-CODE GeneratorCombining BIM Models from all trades to a Multi-ModelBIM CoordinationClash DetectionWalkthrough123Two-step process:1. Clashes identification and reporting2. Model walkthroughGenerate QR Codes for all coordinated drawingsView the superimposed model using a smartphone’s camera74. CASE STUDY: INTRODUCTION• Administration Building for Hospital Project in Cairo, Egypt• Originally designed using Autodesk® Revit® 1. Architecture2. Structure3. Mechanical: Plumbing4. Mechanical: Firefighting5. Mechanical: HVAC• Used tools1. Autodesk® Navisworks® Manage 2. QR-Code Generator3. Tablet / Smartphone8CASE STUDY: TEAM COMPOSITIONDesign ManagerDesign Manager: Performs clash detection and reports to design trades Performs model walkthrough and reports to design trades Advises on the generation of QR-Codes on the final coordinated drawings9CASE STUDY: WORKFLOW IMPLEMENTATIONAmend All Models in a Multi-ModelSpecify and Run Clash Detection TestsNew ClashesReport & SendMore TestsAvatar WalkthroughRedline & ReportImprint QR Codes on Coordinated DrawingsYESNOYESNO(Assign Clash) (Clashes Report)10CASE STUDY: WORKFLOW IMPLEMENTATIONLayer Management, Section Planes, Scaling, Rotating, Dimensioning11CASE STUDY: RESULTS: CLASH DETECTIONClash Test Detected Snapshot ResolvedArch vs HVAC 19 19Arch vs Plumbing 51 51Str vs HVAC 4 412CASE STUDY: RESULTS: AVATAR WALKTHROUGHAC unit misplaced Chilled water pipes below false ceilingFloating soak-away box Floating entrance stair structure Men toilet door dimensions13CASE STUDY: RESULTS: AUGMENTED REALITYLayer Management Perspective ViewingSection planes Sectioning, Scaling and Rotating 14CASE STUDY: RESULTSFor Design Team:• Coordination problems were easily communicated to all the design team• Conflicts were resolved in an efficient and systematic way• Avatar walkthrough determined some design errorsFor Constructability Review Team:• Visualization improved• Construction method was easily selected• Construction safety considerations were noted• Model manipulation and review was made easy using the tablet’s screen15CONCLUSION Design coordination problems are one of the major driving project delays BIM offers detection of coordination and design problems from early project stages AR offers improved project visualization in real time Integration of BIM and AR proved effectiveness in terms of:Minimizing design errors minimize delays and probable change orders Contractor/Engineer could minimize number of personnel deployed to create/review shop drawings, especially onsite Constructability and safety review sessions made easy Easy to implement, an integration of commercially available software and devices16

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
https://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.52660.1-0076363/manifest

Comment

Related Items