International Construction Specialty Conference of the Canadian Society for Civil Engineering (ICSC) (5th : 2015)

Evaluation of organisational context and requirements for leveraging building information models to support… Cavka, Hasan Burak; Staub-French, Sheryl; Pottinger, Rachel Jun 30, 2015

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5th International/11th Construction Specialty Conference 5e International/11e Conférence spécialisée sur la construction    Vancouver, British Columbia June 8 to June 10, 2015 / 8 juin au 10 juin 2015   EVALUATION OF ORGANISATIONAL CONTEXT AND REQUIREMENTS FOR LEVERAGING BUILDING INFORMATION MODELS TO SUPPORT HANDOVER AND OPERATIONS & MAINTENANCE  Hasan Burak. Cavka1,3, Sheryl. Staub-French1 and Rachel. Pottinger2 1 Department of Civil Engineering, University of British Columbia, Canada 2 Department of Computer Science, University of British Columbia, Canada 3 hbcavka@civil.ubc.ca  Abstract: The handover of building information upon completion of a project is a critical and challenging step for owners. It is at this stage that the owner gets all the relevant information about the facility to support operations and maintenance (O&M) over its lifecycle. However, experience has shown that this step is often given little attention and that the information that is obtained is often erroneous, incomplete or unstructured. The increasing use of Building Information Modeling by architects, engineers and contractors and the resulting models that are created during the design and construction phases are now starting to be handed over to the owner as part of the as-built facility information. While BIM has the potential to consistently represent systems and equipment with the required information to support O&M, traditional design and construction models need to be significantly reworked to make them useful for O&M tasks. In order to achieve a digital BIM-based handover process we need to understand how a model-based process aligns with a given organizational structure. This paper presents the findings from a retrospective study of a large public owner and the handover process for a high performance institutional building.  On this project, we analyzed the owner’s technical guidelines, interviewed numerous O&M personnel, analyzed the software and systems used and the associated information flows, and analyzed the building handover artifacts.  In particular, this paper focuses on the analysis of the handover BIM for mechanical systems and its compliance with the owner’s technical guidelines and user requirements with the intent of characterizing the model structure and content required to support the owner’s O&M activities.  This analysis identifies the extensive processing required to configure design and construction BIM’s to satisfy owner’s O&M needs.  For example, geometric and non-geometric content needs to be added, the models need to be re-structured to define space-equipment-system definitions and relationships, and equipment names and system definitions need to be aligned with the technology infrastructure within the organisation.  The findings suggest that in order to have a consistent and useful BIM for O&M at handover, the model structure and content should comply with the owner/user requirements and they need to be in alignment with the organisational and technological processes and infrastructures of the owner organisation. 1 INTRODUCTION The handover of asset information upon completion of a project is a critical step for owners. It is at this stage that the owner gets all the relevant information about the facility which is essential for O&M personnel to operate and maintain equipment and systems in buildings efficiently and effectively, to extend the service life of equipment, to optimize maintenance activities, to achieve energy efficiency and 251-1 to minimize labour time and downtime. We found that the current handover and operations phases suffer from numerous challenges including poor information fidelity, poor interoperability and poor maintenance. Poor information fidelity leads to issues during the operations phase there are related with not having consistent, up-to-date, and reliable data. According to East and Nisbet (2010), 30% of the content of document-based O&M manuals contains some type of errors. Gallaher et al. (2004) concluded that inefficient interoperability cost the construction industry more than $15.8 billion in 2002. Two thirds of this cost was borne by the owner and operators. According to a survey done by the Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research, %85 of complaints on comfort and high energy consumption are caused by handover and maintenance problems. Many have looked into the promises of BIM for the handover and specific uses in O&M. BIM promises can be summarised as; reducing redundant data collection and data re-entry and improve decision making (NRC, 2012), enabling better information exchange between project phases (Wu and Issa, 2012), supporting O&M functions (Fallon and Palmer 2007, Foster 2011), and improving access to information during operations (Francisco Forns-Samso D. 2010). BIM promises new approaches to the handover and organisational problems related with O&M by enabling data integration, structured information exchange, automated population of databases, facilities management information management, support organisational processes, support decision making through visualisation, evaluation of the models for compliance with the organisational requirements.  The use of Building Information Modeling (BIM) by architects, engineers and contractors is increasing and the resulting models that are created during the design and construction phases are now being provided to owners as part of the handover sequence of as-built facility information. BIM is becoming a delivery requirement for an increasing number of owner operator institutional organisations for its potential to address many of the challenges related to project delivery and handover, and to support O&M of the facility throughout its lifecycle. However the use of information models in handover and O&M is relatively new and numerous issues and challenges remain.  The reality is that implementing BIM in large owner organizations is a complex challenge. Each organisation is a complex structure of departments, processes, cultures, networks of systems and databases that are used to support processes and people from different backgrounds and with different information needs. This paper describes the results of a long-term case study of a large owner-operator institutional organisation that demonstrates the many challenges owner organizations face when considering the adoption of a new technology like BIM. We investigated the organization to better understand how BIM might impact or disrupt this large owner organization, focusing on the structure, processes, culture, work force, supporting IT systems and networks. We also analyzed numerous design models to better understand how the models being delivered were aligned with the organizational needs.  This paper will summarize the challenges of aligning a given building information model with the organisational and technological processes and infrastructures of the owner organisation. 2 RELATED RESEARCH The proposed research analyses the organisational context of BIM through the lens of functional alignment as defined by Henderson and Venkatraman (1993). Internal functional integration between business and information technology is used to understand the characterisation of organisational alignment. The functional alignment definition is extended around handover and delivery of projects. We propose integration of artifacts and requirements into the functional alignment to be able to understand the alignment in the organisational context. The owner organisations need to adapt to changing market where information management and integration are becoming increasingly important, and BIM implementation is being seen as an enabler to reach this goal. In the absence of clear strategy and cultural differences required to compete in both current market and also in a market that is changing according to the developing technologies organisations may fail to harvest benefits (Tushman and O’Reilly, 1996). This implies that organisations should develop clear strategies and consider adjustments to their cultures to be able to harvest benefits from BIM adoption. This requires an understanding of how to manage the change in the strategy and culture according that is required by BIM implementation.  In organisations, people require different sets of O&M information to perform their tasks. However, currently information required by different users is not formalised. Without such formalisation of 251-2 requirements, it gets challenging to agree on the content and structure of an handover BIM.  Liu et al. (1994), Clayton e al. (1998) and Becerik-Gerber et. al. (2012) listed the information needed for operations and maintenance as shown in Table 1. A model intended to be used for O&M ideally should represent all required data in an accurately computable way. Table 1: Information needed for O&M from the literature Liu et al. (1994) Information related to O&M O&M manuals, Equipment model/type, Equipment manufacturer, Equipment capacity, Warranty information, Condition of equipment/facility, Equipment location, Utility information, Maintenance records, Date installed, Responsible division/person, Cost of maintenance Clayton e al. (1998) Key content for maintenance and operations planning Equipment identification, Cut off locations, Distribution capacity, Design rationale Key content for major renovations and construction Wall locations, Door locations, Furniture layout, Light fixtures, Finishes, Mechanical systems, Electrical systems  Becerik-Gerber et. al. (2012) ID and Name Service Zone Group and Type  Manufacturer/Vendor Data  Specifications and Attributes  Operation & Maintenance Data Data Structure of non-geometric data requirements: - Site, Building, Floor, Room, Zone - Based on Industry Standards (Uniformat, Masterformat, or Omniclass), or Organization- Specific Categories - Manufacturer, Model, Serial Number, Acquisition Date, Vendor, Warranty Expiration Date, Warranty Usage - Specifications such as Type, Unit, Value, Lower and Upper Limits, and Description and Attributes such as Weight, Power, Energy Consumption, Spare Parts - Activity Status, Maintenance Status (e.g., Maintained, Not Maintained, Abandoned, Removed, Replaced), Maintenance History, Space Occupancy Data Wani and Gandhi (1999) proposed a procedure based method developed for evaluation of maintainability index of mechanical systems. The study identified features which characterise or ease in maintenance of a system and named them as the “maintainability attributes” (Table 2). These attributes and their correlations are used to evaluate index. Wani and Ganhi identify maintainability as the design attribute of system which facilitates the performance of various maintenance activities. The particular maintenance activities are listed as inspection, repair, replacement and diagnosis (Wani and Gandhi, 1999). However the handover and O&M specific information and modeling requirements are still yet to be identified.  251-3 Table 2: Maintainability attributes for mechanical systems and maintainability design factors Maintainability Attributes (Wani and Gandhi, 1999) Maintainability Design Factors (not all listed) (Dhillon, 2006) Design Accessibility Disassembly/ assembly Standardization Simplicity Identification Diagnosability Modularization Standardization Modular design Interchangeability Ease of removal and replacement Servicing equipment Work environment Required number of personnel Adjustments and calibrations Weight Installation Training requirements Personnel Personnel including ergonomics System environment Logistic Support Tools and test equipment Documentation 3 METHODOLOGY The research is based upon a long term analysis of an owner-operator organisation and its handover and O&M processes, requirements and artifacts. The organization studied was the University of British Columbia (UBC) as the owner organisation, and the specific building studied was the Center for Interactive research for Sustainability (CIRS). Different approaches were used for data collection during this research which are summarised in Figure 1. Figure 1: Different methods used in the research to analyse organisation, requirements and model.  We conducted interviews with the Building Operations department personnel in UBC were used to understand information requirements, available tools and processes, areas of improvement and areas 251-4 that would benefit from BIM implementation. A number of processes within UBC Building Operations were mapped to better understand people involved, information required, tools used, effort involved to complete these processes. The processes that were mapped so far are; service call management and leading steps in the field by O&M personnel, gathering data from the field for asset database for existing buildings, and getting the received records documents ready for the users. Mapping the process of gathering equipment and system data from the field helped understanding the complexity of the information collection and data entry during the operations phase. Process mapping also helped identifying the bottlenecks and inefficiencies, and also helped evaluating potential areas for BIM adoption to eliminate bottlenecks or improve the overall performance. Walkthrough of the CIRS building with the maintenance personnel was used understand the requirements of O&M personnel to perform maintenance efficiently, compared to the handed over building characteristics that hindered the performance. Walkthrough information was also used to evaluate the maintainability of CIRS mechanical systems and equipment. Shadowing of maintenance personnel was used to understand how a work request is received, what steps are taken afterwards, what kind of information is required to do the job, types of building mechanical room or equipment design characteristics that affect the performance of maintenance activities, problems with the current maintenance practices and information that is available to the O&M personnel.  Handover artifacts, owner’s Technical Guidelines and interview findings were analysed to identify requirements. The handover documents were investigated specifically to understand the characteristics of the information set for metrics like usability, reliability, consistency, accessibility. Combined with the interviews, this approach enabled evaluation of the fit between user requirements and handover artifacts and available technology that was used to manage, store, and access this information. The investigation of the Technical Guidelines documents helped understand requirements of the owner which led to a better understanding of the gap between what was required and what was delivered at the end of the construction. This also helped understanding the reasons behind the gap like owner accepting whatever delivered as part of the handover, owner not having the tools or resources to evaluate handover information for metrics like accuracy and reusability. The technology structure within the organisation was mapped to better understand the silos of organisational information, complexity of the network of tools and databases used for managing information. The design model analysis was used to evaluate the model’s fit for handover and O&M use. Model analysis was performed on the CIRS project’s final version of the model that was developed during design. The project’s handover documents were investigated to understand the characteristics of the information set for metrics like usability, reliability, consistency, accessibility. Combined with the interviews, this approach enabled evaluation of the fit between user requirements and handover artifacts and available technology that was used to manage, store, and access this information. In order to understand the complexity of the model content analysis process and the output quality, different methods of model content evaluation were used, including Revit schedules, COBie outputs (using Revit COBie Toolkit), lifecycle information management tool (Ecodomus), Navisworks visualisations and Solibri Model Checker. The goal of the model analyses was to understand the model contents, contents’ fit with O&M requirements and required model structure to create and exchange information.  4 ANALYSIS OF BIM AND ORGANIZATIONAL ALIGNMENT In the context of university campuses, there is an interest in integrated approaches for FM information management and leveraging BIM for handover and O&M. Implementation of BIM necessitates a need for developing a better understanding of the organisational context, characteristics and forces within an organisation that have an influence on the BIM adoption. BIM is a disruptive technology, which changes the way organisations are structured and the way they work. It is important to understand where the information for O&M comes from, internally and externally to an organisation and how information flows down to users. All owners have unique requirements which affect how alignment can be assessed. Building information is handed to the owner after construction and this information flows within an organisation through complex networks of IT systems, databases, and departments and is finally accessed by the user (Figure 2).  251-5 Our analysis of the organisation indicated a number of issues in the current handover and O&M practices like fragmented organisational structure. Within the observed organisation two separate groups within the organisation are responsible for projects before and after the handover. One group is responsible for the project from start to handover, and their main goal is to deliver the building on time, on budget and with quality. The operators of the buildings take over the buildings at handover but have limited influence on the previous phases. Problematic commissioning practice, not having the input of the operations personnel’s during design and construction leads to issues during operations phase. There are no processes (and requirements) defined to gather required information from the project participants to populate FM databases for O&M. Maintenance history information has been kept in the personnel memory and person-to-person communication has been the method to transfer maintenance history information. The organisation has a complex IT structure that supports the performance of FM tasks performed by departments. Non-integrated FM information leads to duplication of effort to manage, create, maintain, and update information. It also leads to information inconsistencies between different databases, and inefficiencies in tracking and monitoring maintenance activities. There is currently no process for automated population of FM databases with required information for the new buildings. The analysis of the CIRS building and the projects handover artifacts resulted in a number of compliance issues related with the quality, reusability, accuracy, timeliness, accessibility of the handover information. O&M personnel require information (Table 3) to be in different levels of detail, in a reusable format, and information visualisation depending on the O&M function. The interview data shows that while the head of mechanical maintenance project requires equipment information like performance data, manufacturer, and inventory information, a millwright is interested in system layouts within a building or equipment accessibility, information such as what equipment do, which system it belongs to or which areas it serves. Table 3: Information required by different personnel to perform O&M functions (from conducted interviews)   System Attributes Component Attributes Maintenance Information Records Information Maintenance  Personnel System visualization  System performance (commissioning information) Component performance, Replacement part, Vendor information, Serial number, Location, Cost to replace/ maintain etc. Electrical panel location, Shut off valve location, Start-up/ shut down information (sequence of operation), Maintenance history Component performance (O&M), warranty BMS Accurate system visualization  System performance (commissioning information) Location, Performance,  Commissioning, and records information Asset Mngmnt System (availability) Equipment lists, System it belongs to Cost information (to replace and/or to maintain) Maintenance history  Technical Guidelines contain owner design requirements for systems that the building design should comply with, however there are issues related to compliance of handed over artifacts and the building to the equipment design criteria such as installation requirements, equipment accessibility and clearance requirements for accessibility (Table 4). 251-7 Table 4: Examples for compliance issues identified about the handed over building and handover set Owner/User Requirements Delivered to Owner Description Technical Guidelines- Plumbing-General Requirements: Confirm that all plumbing equipment requiring frequent maintenance is readily accessible. Do not locate at ceiling height, in walls, requiring scaffolds, ladders, removal of other equipment.  The CIRS mechanical room is one of the most cramped and problematic mechanical rooms on the campus.   Pumps are installed on the ceiling and buried under a maze of pipes making it difficult to access for maintenance.  Crews will need to remove other components, use equipment (like ladders and lifts) to remove the pumps that are installed at the ceiling height. Owner requires the timely delivery of the handover information.  It is important for the building operators to have available information about the building to perform O&M functions. However handover set may not have all the required information at the time of handover. Owner requires the delivery of handover set at the end of the construction, however quality and reusability of the deliverables is depended on the project participants.  There are information inconsistencies within the handed over information set.   Much of the handover information is not searchable, scanned images that limit usability.  Model analysis was done using the perspectives of content and structure to understand the gap between design and construction BIMs and a BIM for FM, and to identify issues with current design and construction BIMs. The goal of the model analyses was to understand the fit of the model contents with O&M requirements and the required model structure to create and exchange information. Analysis of the CIRS design model resulted in identification of missing geometry, missing information related with component and systems, LOD issues and modeling problems. We indicated model content and structure related issues that have to be addressed in order to bring these models to a required FM BIM level (Table 5). Content problems consist of completeness and availability of geometric and non-geometric information within a model. The model content needs to comply with the requirements of the owner and users for specific BIM uses, and the structure is supposed to enable exchange of the right model information in a format and structure that is meaningful to the owner. Analyses also indicate that each method required model manipulation to get required information output. Besides the missing content and structure, required model manipulation necessitates a level of expertise in using the modeling software that most owners lack. Analyses indicated that the models were lacking structure that was required for exchange of O&M information, organisation of model components in a way that is aligned with users’ requirements and models were also lacking both geometric and non-geometric information. The examples are intended to illustrate the gap between a handover BIM and design/construction BIMs. 251-8  Problems like overlapping space defining model components lead to issues when assigning equipment to spaces. Solving this issue gets complicated if the building design has hard to define spaces like spaces that extend multiple floors or mezzanines. 5 CONCLUSION The handover of BIM for operations and maintenance is a complex challenge for owners. Our detailed analysis of an organisation and a specific design model indicates the extensive processing required to configure the design BIM to satisfy O&M requirements. Within the model geometric and non-geometric content needs to be added and the models need to be re-structured to enable transfer of model information in an accurate and reusable way. Spaces and room boundaries in the model should be accurate, space-equipment-system relationships need to be defined. Equipment names and system definitions need to be aligned with the organisational technology infrastructure to enable information exchange. There are also organisational issues of alignment and compliance that need to be addressed. In order to support the transition to BIM, organizations need to reshape the way they manage their facility information both before and after the building handover. There is also a need to reshape the way owner organizations function so that they are better aligned with a model-based workflow.  References Burcin Becerik-Gerber, Farrokh Jazizadeh, Nan Li and Gulben Calis. 2012. Application Areas and Data Requirements for BIM-Enabled Facilities Management. American Society of Civil Engineers. Dhillon, B. S. (2006). Maintainability, maintenance, and reliability for engineers. CRC Press. East; William E and Nicholas Nisbet. 2010. Analysis of life-cycle information exchange. Proceedings of the International Conference on Computing in Civil and Building Engineering. Nottingham University Press. Eastman, C., Lee, J. M., Jeong, Y. S., & Lee, J. K. 2009. Automatic rule-based checking of building designs. Automation in Construction, 18(8), 1011-1033. Fallon, Kristine K., and Mark E Palmer. 2007. General Buildings Information Handover Guide: Principles, Methodology and Case Studies. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), NISTIR 7417. Foster, Brigitta. 2011. BIM : Next Gen Facility Management, Design for Maintenance Strategy.  http://www.usace-isc.org/presentation/BIM%20CAD/BIM%20Next%20Gen%20FM%20-Design%20for%20Maintenance%20-%20%202011%20Approved%20version.pdf. Accessed on September 20, 2012. Francisco Forns-Samso D. 2010. Perceived value of building information modeling in facilities operations and maintenance. Master of Science Thesis. The University of New Mexico Albuquerque, New Mexico. Gallaher, Michael P.; Alan C. O’Connor, John L. Dettbarn, Jr. and Linda T. Gilday. 2004. Cost Analysis of Inadequate Interoperability in the U.S. Capital Facilities Industry. (NISTGCR 04-867; 194 p. August 2004.) Henderson, J. C., & Venkatraman, N. 1993. Strategic alignment: Leveraging information technology for transforming organizations. IBM systems journal, 32(1), 4-16. NRC. 2012. Predicting Outcomes from Investments in Maintenance and Repair for Federal Facilities. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press. Wani, M. F., & Gandhi, O. P. 1999. Development of maintainability index for mechanical systems. Reliability Engineering & System Safety, 65(3), 259-270. Wu, W., and Issa, R. R. A. 2012. BIM-enabled building commissioning and handover. Computing in Civil Engineering, 2012, 237-244. 251-10  5th International/11th Construction Specialty Conference 5e International/11e Conférence spécialisée sur la construction    Vancouver, British Columbia June 8 to June 10, 2015 / 8 juin au 10 juin 2015   EVALUATION OF ORGANISATIONAL CONTEXT AND REQUIREMENTS FOR LEVERAGING BUILDING INFORMATION MODELS TO SUPPORT HANDOVER AND OPERATIONS & MAINTENANCE  Hasan Burak. Cavka1,3, Sheryl. Staub-French1 and Rachel. Pottinger2 1 Department of Civil Engineering, University of British Columbia, Canada 2 Department of Computer Science, University of British Columbia, Canada 3 hbcavka@civil.ubc.ca  Abstract: The handover of building information upon completion of a project is a critical and challenging step for owners. It is at this stage that the owner gets all the relevant information about the facility to support operations and maintenance (O&M) over its lifecycle. However, experience has shown that this step is often given little attention and that the information that is obtained is often erroneous, incomplete or unstructured. The increasing use of Building Information Modeling by architects, engineers and contractors and the resulting models that are created during the design and construction phases are now starting to be handed over to the owner as part of the as-built facility information. While BIM has the potential to consistently represent systems and equipment with the required information to support O&M, traditional design and construction models need to be significantly reworked to make them useful for O&M tasks. In order to achieve a digital BIM-based handover process we need to understand how a model-based process aligns with a given organizational structure. This paper presents the findings from a retrospective study of a large public owner and the handover process for a high performance institutional building.  On this project, we analyzed the owner’s technical guidelines, interviewed numerous O&M personnel, analyzed the software and systems used and the associated information flows, and analyzed the building handover artifacts.  In particular, this paper focuses on the analysis of the handover BIM for mechanical systems and its compliance with the owner’s technical guidelines and user requirements with the intent of characterizing the model structure and content required to support the owner’s O&M activities.  This analysis identifies the extensive processing required to configure design and construction BIM’s to satisfy owner’s O&M needs.  For example, geometric and non-geometric content needs to be added, the models need to be re-structured to define space-equipment-system definitions and relationships, and equipment names and system definitions need to be aligned with the technology infrastructure within the organisation.  The findings suggest that in order to have a consistent and useful BIM for O&M at handover, the model structure and content should comply with the owner/user requirements and they need to be in alignment with the organisational and technological processes and infrastructures of the owner organisation. 1 INTRODUCTION The handover of asset information upon completion of a project is a critical step for owners. It is at this stage that the owner gets all the relevant information about the facility which is essential for O&M personnel to operate and maintain equipment and systems in buildings efficiently and effectively, to extend the service life of equipment, to optimize maintenance activities, to achieve energy efficiency and 251-1 to minimize labour time and downtime. We found that the current handover and operations phases suffer from numerous challenges including poor information fidelity, poor interoperability and poor maintenance. Poor information fidelity leads to issues during the operations phase there are related with not having consistent, up-to-date, and reliable data. According to East and Nisbet (2010), 30% of the content of document-based O&M manuals contains some type of errors. Gallaher et al. (2004) concluded that inefficient interoperability cost the construction industry more than $15.8 billion in 2002. Two thirds of this cost was borne by the owner and operators. According to a survey done by the Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research, %85 of complaints on comfort and high energy consumption are caused by handover and maintenance problems. Many have looked into the promises of BIM for the handover and specific uses in O&M. BIM promises can be summarised as; reducing redundant data collection and data re-entry and improve decision making (NRC, 2012), enabling better information exchange between project phases (Wu and Issa, 2012), supporting O&M functions (Fallon and Palmer 2007, Foster 2011), and improving access to information during operations (Francisco Forns-Samso D. 2010). BIM promises new approaches to the handover and organisational problems related with O&M by enabling data integration, structured information exchange, automated population of databases, facilities management information management, support organisational processes, support decision making through visualisation, evaluation of the models for compliance with the organisational requirements.  The use of Building Information Modeling (BIM) by architects, engineers and contractors is increasing and the resulting models that are created during the design and construction phases are now being provided to owners as part of the handover sequence of as-built facility information. BIM is becoming a delivery requirement for an increasing number of owner operator institutional organisations for its potential to address many of the challenges related to project delivery and handover, and to support O&M of the facility throughout its lifecycle. However the use of information models in handover and O&M is relatively new and numerous issues and challenges remain.  The reality is that implementing BIM in large owner organizations is a complex challenge. Each organisation is a complex structure of departments, processes, cultures, networks of systems and databases that are used to support processes and people from different backgrounds and with different information needs. This paper describes the results of a long-term case study of a large owner-operator institutional organisation that demonstrates the many challenges owner organizations face when considering the adoption of a new technology like BIM. We investigated the organization to better understand how BIM might impact or disrupt this large owner organization, focusing on the structure, processes, culture, work force, supporting IT systems and networks. We also analyzed numerous design models to better understand how the models being delivered were aligned with the organizational needs.  This paper will summarize the challenges of aligning a given building information model with the organisational and technological processes and infrastructures of the owner organisation. 2 RELATED RESEARCH The proposed research analyses the organisational context of BIM through the lens of functional alignment as defined by Henderson and Venkatraman (1993). Internal functional integration between business and information technology is used to understand the characterisation of organisational alignment. The functional alignment definition is extended around handover and delivery of projects. We propose integration of artifacts and requirements into the functional alignment to be able to understand the alignment in the organisational context. The owner organisations need to adapt to changing market where information management and integration are becoming increasingly important, and BIM implementation is being seen as an enabler to reach this goal. In the absence of clear strategy and cultural differences required to compete in both current market and also in a market that is changing according to the developing technologies organisations may fail to harvest benefits (Tushman and O’Reilly, 1996). This implies that organisations should develop clear strategies and consider adjustments to their cultures to be able to harvest benefits from BIM adoption. This requires an understanding of how to manage the change in the strategy and culture according that is required by BIM implementation.  In organisations, people require different sets of O&M information to perform their tasks. However, currently information required by different users is not formalised. Without such formalisation of 251-2 requirements, it gets challenging to agree on the content and structure of an handover BIM.  Liu et al. (1994), Clayton e al. (1998) and Becerik-Gerber et. al. (2012) listed the information needed for operations and maintenance as shown in Table 1. A model intended to be used for O&M ideally should represent all required data in an accurately computable way. Table 1: Information needed for O&M from the literature Liu et al. (1994) Information related to O&M O&M manuals, Equipment model/type, Equipment manufacturer, Equipment capacity, Warranty information, Condition of equipment/facility, Equipment location, Utility information, Maintenance records, Date installed, Responsible division/person, Cost of maintenance Clayton e al. (1998) Key content for maintenance and operations planning Equipment identification, Cut off locations, Distribution capacity, Design rationale Key content for major renovations and construction Wall locations, Door locations, Furniture layout, Light fixtures, Finishes, Mechanical systems, Electrical systems  Becerik-Gerber et. al. (2012) ID and Name Service Zone Group and Type  Manufacturer/Vendor Data  Specifications and Attributes  Operation & Maintenance Data Data Structure of non-geometric data requirements: - Site, Building, Floor, Room, Zone - Based on Industry Standards (Uniformat, Masterformat, or Omniclass), or Organization- Specific Categories - Manufacturer, Model, Serial Number, Acquisition Date, Vendor, Warranty Expiration Date, Warranty Usage - Specifications such as Type, Unit, Value, Lower and Upper Limits, and Description and Attributes such as Weight, Power, Energy Consumption, Spare Parts - Activity Status, Maintenance Status (e.g., Maintained, Not Maintained, Abandoned, Removed, Replaced), Maintenance History, Space Occupancy Data Wani and Gandhi (1999) proposed a procedure based method developed for evaluation of maintainability index of mechanical systems. The study identified features which characterise or ease in maintenance of a system and named them as the “maintainability attributes” (Table 2). These attributes and their correlations are used to evaluate index. Wani and Ganhi identify maintainability as the design attribute of system which facilitates the performance of various maintenance activities. The particular maintenance activities are listed as inspection, repair, replacement and diagnosis (Wani and Gandhi, 1999). However the handover and O&M specific information and modeling requirements are still yet to be identified.  251-3 Table 2: Maintainability attributes for mechanical systems and maintainability design factors Maintainability Attributes (Wani and Gandhi, 1999) Maintainability Design Factors (not all listed) (Dhillon, 2006) Design Accessibility Disassembly/ assembly Standardization Simplicity Identification Diagnosability Modularization Standardization Modular design Interchangeability Ease of removal and replacement Servicing equipment Work environment Required number of personnel Adjustments and calibrations Weight Installation Training requirements Personnel Personnel including ergonomics System environment Logistic Support Tools and test equipment Documentation 3 METHODOLOGY The research is based upon a long term analysis of an owner-operator organisation and its handover and O&M processes, requirements and artifacts. The organization studied was the University of British Columbia (UBC) as the owner organisation, and the specific building studied was the Center for Interactive research for Sustainability (CIRS). Different approaches were used for data collection during this research which are summarised in Figure 1. Figure 1: Different methods used in the research to analyse organisation, requirements and model.  We conducted interviews with the Building Operations department personnel in UBC were used to understand information requirements, available tools and processes, areas of improvement and areas 251-4 that would benefit from BIM implementation. A number of processes within UBC Building Operations were mapped to better understand people involved, information required, tools used, effort involved to complete these processes. The processes that were mapped so far are; service call management and leading steps in the field by O&M personnel, gathering data from the field for asset database for existing buildings, and getting the received records documents ready for the users. Mapping the process of gathering equipment and system data from the field helped understanding the complexity of the information collection and data entry during the operations phase. Process mapping also helped identifying the bottlenecks and inefficiencies, and also helped evaluating potential areas for BIM adoption to eliminate bottlenecks or improve the overall performance. Walkthrough of the CIRS building with the maintenance personnel was used understand the requirements of O&M personnel to perform maintenance efficiently, compared to the handed over building characteristics that hindered the performance. Walkthrough information was also used to evaluate the maintainability of CIRS mechanical systems and equipment. Shadowing of maintenance personnel was used to understand how a work request is received, what steps are taken afterwards, what kind of information is required to do the job, types of building mechanical room or equipment design characteristics that affect the performance of maintenance activities, problems with the current maintenance practices and information that is available to the O&M personnel.  Handover artifacts, owner’s Technical Guidelines and interview findings were analysed to identify requirements. The handover documents were investigated specifically to understand the characteristics of the information set for metrics like usability, reliability, consistency, accessibility. Combined with the interviews, this approach enabled evaluation of the fit between user requirements and handover artifacts and available technology that was used to manage, store, and access this information. The investigation of the Technical Guidelines documents helped understand requirements of the owner which led to a better understanding of the gap between what was required and what was delivered at the end of the construction. This also helped understanding the reasons behind the gap like owner accepting whatever delivered as part of the handover, owner not having the tools or resources to evaluate handover information for metrics like accuracy and reusability. The technology structure within the organisation was mapped to better understand the silos of organisational information, complexity of the network of tools and databases used for managing information. The design model analysis was used to evaluate the model’s fit for handover and O&M use. Model analysis was performed on the CIRS project’s final version of the model that was developed during design. The project’s handover documents were investigated to understand the characteristics of the information set for metrics like usability, reliability, consistency, accessibility. Combined with the interviews, this approach enabled evaluation of the fit between user requirements and handover artifacts and available technology that was used to manage, store, and access this information. In order to understand the complexity of the model content analysis process and the output quality, different methods of model content evaluation were used, including Revit schedules, COBie outputs (using Revit COBie Toolkit), lifecycle information management tool (Ecodomus), Navisworks visualisations and Solibri Model Checker. The goal of the model analyses was to understand the model contents, contents’ fit with O&M requirements and required model structure to create and exchange information.  4 ANALYSIS OF BIM AND ORGANIZATIONAL ALIGNMENT In the context of university campuses, there is an interest in integrated approaches for FM information management and leveraging BIM for handover and O&M. Implementation of BIM necessitates a need for developing a better understanding of the organisational context, characteristics and forces within an organisation that have an influence on the BIM adoption. BIM is a disruptive technology, which changes the way organisations are structured and the way they work. It is important to understand where the information for O&M comes from, internally and externally to an organisation and how information flows down to users. All owners have unique requirements which affect how alignment can be assessed. Building information is handed to the owner after construction and this information flows within an organisation through complex networks of IT systems, databases, and departments and is finally accessed by the user (Figure 2).  251-5 Our analysis of the organisation indicated a number of issues in the current handover and O&M practices like fragmented organisational structure. Within the observed organisation two separate groups within the organisation are responsible for projects before and after the handover. One group is responsible for the project from start to handover, and their main goal is to deliver the building on time, on budget and with quality. The operators of the buildings take over the buildings at handover but have limited influence on the previous phases. Problematic commissioning practice, not having the input of the operations personnel’s during design and construction leads to issues during operations phase. There are no processes (and requirements) defined to gather required information from the project participants to populate FM databases for O&M. Maintenance history information has been kept in the personnel memory and person-to-person communication has been the method to transfer maintenance history information. The organisation has a complex IT structure that supports the performance of FM tasks performed by departments. Non-integrated FM information leads to duplication of effort to manage, create, maintain, and update information. It also leads to information inconsistencies between different databases, and inefficiencies in tracking and monitoring maintenance activities. There is currently no process for automated population of FM databases with required information for the new buildings. The analysis of the CIRS building and the projects handover artifacts resulted in a number of compliance issues related with the quality, reusability, accuracy, timeliness, accessibility of the handover information. O&M personnel require information (Table 3) to be in different levels of detail, in a reusable format, and information visualisation depending on the O&M function. The interview data shows that while the head of mechanical maintenance project requires equipment information like performance data, manufacturer, and inventory information, a millwright is interested in system layouts within a building or equipment accessibility, information such as what equipment do, which system it belongs to or which areas it serves. Table 3: Information required by different personnel to perform O&M functions (from conducted interviews)   System Attributes Component Attributes Maintenance Information Records Information Maintenance  Personnel System visualization  System performance (commissioning information) Component performance, Replacement part, Vendor information, Serial number, Location, Cost to replace/ maintain etc. Electrical panel location, Shut off valve location, Start-up/ shut down information (sequence of operation), Maintenance history Component performance (O&M), warranty BMS Accurate system visualization  System performance (commissioning information) Location, Performance,  Commissioning, and records information Asset Mngmnt System (availability) Equipment lists, System it belongs to Cost information (to replace and/or to maintain) Maintenance history  Technical Guidelines contain owner design requirements for systems that the building design should comply with, however there are issues related to compliance of handed over artifacts and the building to the equipment design criteria such as installation requirements, equipment accessibility and clearance requirements for accessibility (Table 4). 251-7 Table 4: Examples for compliance issues identified about the handed over building and handover set Owner/User Requirements Delivered to Owner Description Technical Guidelines- Plumbing-General Requirements: Confirm that all plumbing equipment requiring frequent maintenance is readily accessible. Do not locate at ceiling height, in walls, requiring scaffolds, ladders, removal of other equipment.  The CIRS mechanical room is one of the most cramped and problematic mechanical rooms on the campus.   Pumps are installed on the ceiling and buried under a maze of pipes making it difficult to access for maintenance.  Crews will need to remove other components, use equipment (like ladders and lifts) to remove the pumps that are installed at the ceiling height. Owner requires the timely delivery of the handover information.  It is important for the building operators to have available information about the building to perform O&M functions. However handover set may not have all the required information at the time of handover. Owner requires the delivery of handover set at the end of the construction, however quality and reusability of the deliverables is depended on the project participants.  There are information inconsistencies within the handed over information set.   Much of the handover information is not searchable, scanned images that limit usability.  Model analysis was done using the perspectives of content and structure to understand the gap between design and construction BIMs and a BIM for FM, and to identify issues with current design and construction BIMs. The goal of the model analyses was to understand the fit of the model contents with O&M requirements and the required model structure to create and exchange information. Analysis of the CIRS design model resulted in identification of missing geometry, missing information related with component and systems, LOD issues and modeling problems. We indicated model content and structure related issues that have to be addressed in order to bring these models to a required FM BIM level (Table 5). Content problems consist of completeness and availability of geometric and non-geometric information within a model. The model content needs to comply with the requirements of the owner and users for specific BIM uses, and the structure is supposed to enable exchange of the right model information in a format and structure that is meaningful to the owner. Analyses also indicate that each method required model manipulation to get required information output. Besides the missing content and structure, required model manipulation necessitates a level of expertise in using the modeling software that most owners lack. Analyses indicated that the models were lacking structure that was required for exchange of O&M information, organisation of model components in a way that is aligned with users’ requirements and models were also lacking both geometric and non-geometric information. The examples are intended to illustrate the gap between a handover BIM and design/construction BIMs. 251-8  Problems like overlapping space defining model components lead to issues when assigning equipment to spaces. Solving this issue gets complicated if the building design has hard to define spaces like spaces that extend multiple floors or mezzanines. 5 CONCLUSION The handover of BIM for operations and maintenance is a complex challenge for owners. Our detailed analysis of an organisation and a specific design model indicates the extensive processing required to configure the design BIM to satisfy O&M requirements. Within the model geometric and non-geometric content needs to be added and the models need to be re-structured to enable transfer of model information in an accurate and reusable way. Spaces and room boundaries in the model should be accurate, space-equipment-system relationships need to be defined. Equipment names and system definitions need to be aligned with the organisational technology infrastructure to enable information exchange. There are also organisational issues of alignment and compliance that need to be addressed. In order to support the transition to BIM, organizations need to reshape the way they manage their facility information both before and after the building handover. There is also a need to reshape the way owner organizations function so that they are better aligned with a model-based workflow.  References Burcin Becerik-Gerber, Farrokh Jazizadeh, Nan Li and Gulben Calis. 2012. Application Areas and Data Requirements for BIM-Enabled Facilities Management. American Society of Civil Engineers. Dhillon, B. S. (2006). Maintainability, maintenance, and reliability for engineers. CRC Press. East; William E and Nicholas Nisbet. 2010. Analysis of life-cycle information exchange. Proceedings of the International Conference on Computing in Civil and Building Engineering. Nottingham University Press. Eastman, C., Lee, J. M., Jeong, Y. S., & Lee, J. K. 2009. Automatic rule-based checking of building designs. Automation in Construction, 18(8), 1011-1033. Fallon, Kristine K., and Mark E Palmer. 2007. General Buildings Information Handover Guide: Principles, Methodology and Case Studies. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), NISTIR 7417. Foster, Brigitta. 2011. BIM : Next Gen Facility Management, Design for Maintenance Strategy.  http://www.usace-isc.org/presentation/BIM%20CAD/BIM%20Next%20Gen%20FM%20-Design%20for%20Maintenance%20-%20%202011%20Approved%20version.pdf. Accessed on September 20, 2012. Francisco Forns-Samso D. 2010. Perceived value of building information modeling in facilities operations and maintenance. Master of Science Thesis. The University of New Mexico Albuquerque, New Mexico. Gallaher, Michael P.; Alan C. O’Connor, John L. Dettbarn, Jr. and Linda T. Gilday. 2004. Cost Analysis of Inadequate Interoperability in the U.S. Capital Facilities Industry. (NISTGCR 04-867; 194 p. August 2004.) Henderson, J. C., & Venkatraman, N. 1993. Strategic alignment: Leveraging information technology for transforming organizations. IBM systems journal, 32(1), 4-16. NRC. 2012. Predicting Outcomes from Investments in Maintenance and Repair for Federal Facilities. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press. Wani, M. F., & Gandhi, O. P. 1999. Development of maintainability index for mechanical systems. Reliability Engineering & System Safety, 65(3), 259-270. Wu, W., and Issa, R. R. A. 2012. BIM-enabled building commissioning and handover. Computing in Civil Engineering, 2012, 237-244. 251-10  EVALUATION OF ORGANISATIONAL CONTEXT AND REQUIREMENTS FOR LEVERAGING BUILDING INFORMATION MODELS TO SUPPORT HANDOVER AND OPERATIONS & MAINTENANCE Hasan Burak Cavka - PhD Candidate - UBCDr. Sheryl Staub-French - Associate Professor - UBCDr. Rachel Pottinger - Associate Professor - UBC5th International/11th Construction Specialty Conference Vancouver, British Columbia, June 8-10, 2015 Presented byHasan Burak Cavka, PhD Candidate, UBCOutline• Introduction and Motivation• Objective• Methodology• Case study• Conclusion1Current Practice - Handover and O&M2Poor information fidelity• 30% (estimated) of the content of document-based O&Mmanuals contains some type of errors. (East and Nisbet, 2010)• Submitted documents are less than satisfactory (East and Brodt, 2007)Poor building performance• %85 of complaints on comfort & high energy consumption  are due to handover and maintenance problems[Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research (TNO) Survey]Poor interoperability• “...the cost of inadequate interoperability in the U.S. capital facilities industry to be $15.8 billion per year.” (Gallaher et al. 2004)Current problems related to handover3Promises of BIM 4Challenges of BIM for FMAEC industry has been implementing BIM What does it take for owner organisationsto implement BIM for FM?Organisational structures?Information systems infrastructure?Processes?Processes?REQUIREMENTSDESIGN CONSTRUCTION OPERATIONSORGANISATIONInformation?Model structure?Processes?REQUIREMENTSMODELCulture?Who, what, when?Model content?5Objective6Benchmark and evaluate the current state, and the alignment between;Current design and construction model contextOwner/user requirements Organisational context• organisational breakdown• processes• information systems infrastructuresMethodology7ARTIFACTSORGANISATIONTECHNOLOGYREQUIREMENTSModel ContextOrganisational ContextWe need to understand how a model-based process aligns with a given organizational structure and processesTraditional design and construction models need to be significantly reworked to make them useful for O&M tasksAlignmentMethodology - Transition to BIM for FM8BIM as a handover artifactChallenge: Alignment and compliance problems due to the complex structure of organisations and technologies used to manage and support FM Organisational Context9Unintegrated asset databasesPoor access to informationTechnologies not supported by processesUnintegrated technologiesMaintenance information flow problemsBMS informationrepresentation issuesBuilding maintainability problemsInformation not reusableChallenge: Required compliance to O&M personnel's different sets of information in different levels of detail, format and visualisations. System Attributes Component Attributes Maintenance Information Records Information Maintenance  Personnel System visualization  System performance (commissioning information) Component performance, Replacement part, Vendor information, Serial number, Location, Cost to replace/ maintain etc. Electrical panel location, Shut off valve location, Start-up/ shut down information (sequence of operation), Maintenance history Component performance (O&M), warranty BMS Accurate system visualization  System performance (commissioning information) Location, Performance,  Commissioning, and records information Asset Mngmnt System (availability) Equipment lists, System it belongs to Cost information (to replace and/or to maintain) Maintenance history   Requirements 10What information is required?At what level?How much information is enough?Challenge: Handed over buildings and handover sets have compliance issues with the owner requirementsRequirements 11Owner/User Requirements Delivered to Owner Description Confirm that all plumbing equipment requiring frequent maintenance is readily accessible. Do not locate at ceiling height, in walls, requiring scaffolds, ladders, removal of other equipment.  Pumps are installed on the ceiling and buried under a maze of pipes making it difficult to access for maintenance.  Crews will need to remove other components, use equipment (like ladders and lifts) to remove the pumps that are installed at the ceiling height. Timely delivery of the handover information is required.  O&M personnel need the building information to perform O&M tasks. However required information may not be available at the time of handover. Quality and reusability of the handover deliverables is depended on the project participants.  Information inconsistencies within the handed over information set.   Much of the handover information is not searchable, scanned images that limit usability.   Challenge: Alignment and compliance problems related with the model content and structure.   Analysis of the model content by using a life-cycle information management tool indicated that most of the information required by the owner for the handover was not available in the model.   Modeling errors (like missing system components); (1) model component representing the air intake is not represented as one complete piece, (2) duct not attached to the AHU.  (3) LOD is not at a level to represent required AHU components tracked by the owner.  1 2 3 Model Context12Challenge: Alignment and compliance problems related with the model content and structure.  Single components (e.g. a single exhaust grill) are defined as systems in the model.   Space information is not assigned to all mechanical equipment.    System and equipment nomenclature do not indicate anything significant to the model reviewer.   Information tracked by the owner on AHU components is not available in the model. AHU component does not represent any of the AHU components inside the unit.  Component naming used in the model is not aligned with the nomenclature used in owner’s asset database.  Model Context13Challenge: Alignment and compliance problems related with the model content and structure.  Modeling errors lead to miscomputation of room areas, and room boundaries. This leads to errors when assigning equipment to spaces.   Modeling errors like duplications of created spaces or overlapping spaces impact the quality and usability of the model output.   Problems like overlapping space defining model components lead to issues when assigning equipment to spaces. This gets more complicated when defining spaces that extend multiple floors or mezzanines.  Model Context14Organisational ContextOrganizations need to • reshape the way they manage their facility information both before and after the building handover.• reshape the way they function so that they are better aligned with a model-based workflowConclusion15Model ContextExtensive processing required to configure the design BIM to satisfy O&M requirements.• Geometric and non-geometric content needs to be added to the model• Models need to be re-structured to enable transfer of model information in an accurate and reusable way. Conclusion16Requirements• Requirements need to be spelled out clearly• Owners need to be supported with the means and methods that enable evaluation of handover set’s compliance according to the requirementsConclusion16REFERENCES• East; William E and Nicholas Nisbet. 2010. Analysis of life-cycle information exchange. Proceedings of the International Conference on Computing in Civil and Building Engineering. Nottingham University Press.• East, W. E., & Brodt, W. (2007). BIM for construction handover. Journal of Building Information Modeling, 28-35.• Gallaher, Michael P.; Alan C. O’Connor, John L. Dettbarn, Jr. and Linda T. Gilday. 2004. Cost Analysis of Inadequate Interoperability in the U.S. Capital Facilities Industry. (NISTGCR 04-867; 194 p. August 2004.)• TNO (Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research). http://eetd-seminars.lbl.gov/sites/eetd-seminars.lbl.gov/files/borsboom120809a.pdf (Accessed on September 4, 2012)Thank you…17

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