International Construction Specialty Conference of the Canadian Society for Civil Engineering (ICSC) (5th : 2015)

Framing construction uses of virtual information models Jiang, Li; Leicht, Robert M.; Messner, John I. Jun 30, 2015

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5th International/11th Construction Specialty Conference 5e International/11e Conférence spécialisée sur la construction    Vancouver, British Columbia June 8 to June 10, 2015 / 8 juin au 10 juin 2015   FRAMING CONSTRUCTION USES OF VIRTUAL INFORMATION MODELS Li Jiang1, 2, Robert M. Leicht1 and John I. Messner1 1 Department of Architectural Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, PA, USA 2 luj122@psu.edu Abstract: Digital models incorporating 3D geometry and information attributes are becoming a standard for industrial facility and commercial building design. Despite the advancements in technologies to develop design models there is an opportunity to better leverage models within facility construction processes. The current work aims to identify the breadth of construction needs for using information models, and develop an approach to improve information accessibility to support construction. With a thorough literature review, the current work identifies the state-of-art workflows in using design content to support construction tasks. The existing gaps of using models for construction uses have also been captured, indicating the opportunities of better leveraging model content throughout construction process. Discussion of how a planning approach and implementation guidelines will be developed to advance model uses in construction will help conclude the paper.  1 INTRODUCTION Digital models incorporating 3D geometry and information attributes are becoming a standard for industrial facility and commercial building design. Depending on the technology, a variety of model uses have been developed to serve particular purposes for project stakeholders, such as designers and contractors, across project phases. Practitioners have acknowledged the benefits of adopting the data-enriched models in integrating design and construction (Eastman et al., 2011). Regardless, challenges remain in better leveraging models within facility construction processes. Current practices frequently require significant design content remodeling or revision for construction, such as the creation of detailed fabrication models and coordination models adding details required for construction. Moreover, there is a need for a comprehensive understanding of construction information requirements that are not presently available, but could be delivered via a model. This presents an opportunity to create coordinated industry guidelines and a process for leveraging model content through the construction phase.   As an initial step, this paper focuses beyond the implementation of models for commercial building projects, and aims to identify the breadth of construction needs for using information models. A thorough review of recent academic publications has been conducted to capture the state-of-the-art construction modeling. The existing gaps of using models for construction uses have been revealed, indicating the opportunities of better leveraging model content throughout construction process. The need of developing a planning approach and implementation guidelines to advance model uses in construction is discussed as well. 190-1 2 BACKGROUND Information modeling has been adopted in the architectural, engineering, and construction (A/E/C) industry since late 1980’s. Focusing on commercial building projects, Kreider and Messner (2013) defined a building information model use as “a method of applying Building Information Modeling (BIM) during a facility’s lifecycle to achieve one or more specific objectives.” There have been many efforts on listing BIM uses, documented in publications (Eastman et al., 2011), industry guides (Department of Veterans Affairs, 2010), and other industry efforts (Computer Integrated Construction Research Program, 2010). None of them are completely comprehensive or generated by a consistent methodology. Regardless, according to the BIM Project Execution Planning Guide (Computer Integrated Construction Research Program, 2010), which is the most widely adopted for BIM uses, there are 9 of 25 defined uses that can be adopted to support the construction. Among them, 3D coordination was reported in an online survey as the most frequently used BIM use and perceived as the highest beneficial use; while the others, digital fabrication, in particular, was considered as very beneficial, yet not used frequently (Kreider et al., 2010).    One of the main reasons to explain the challenges during adoption is managerial (AGC, 2005). There is a need to standardize the process and to define the guidelines for using the models along with the embedded information to facilitate construction process (Azhar et al., 2011). Driven by the managerial challenges, Kreider (2013) applied a methodology and generated a model use taxonomy for BIM implementation, which has also been approved for adoption in the National BIM Standard – US, Version 3 (still awaiting publication). The primary components of a BIM Use are shown in Figure 1, with five different purposes identified as “Gather,” “Generate,” “Analyze,” “Communicate,” and “Realize.” The ontology that applied in this study provides an effective methodology to categorize BIM Uses and also allows for future expansion of BIM Uses.    Figure 1: The components of a BIM Use (Kreider, 2013)  Therefore, this paper employs the ontology to capture the state-of-the-art model use and identifies the gaps and areas to potentially expand modeling implementation in the future. To avoid the challenges related to the perception of BIM’s application to be specific to a category of facilities, more broad language is used here by John Messner to define the “Model Use” as: “a method or strategy of applying digital modeling during a project lifecycle to achieve one or more specific objectives.” 3 METHODOLOGY A review of recent academic research on the development and implementation of construction modeling has been applied to capture the leading model use and identify potential construction needs for future modeling implementation. Seven journals and five conferences were targeted as sources (Table 1). “Virtual model” and “construction” were used as key words to search the targeted journal publications and conference proceedings for relevant papers. With a total number of 53, Figure 2 shows the number of relevant papers in each 5-year period of the past two decades.   Through the literature review, matrices are used to capture the current model uses and to reveal the opportunities of future model uses to support construction tasks. In the current work, three types of matrices have been plotted: • Model Use Technology verses Construction Task: to capture the construction tasks that can be supported by model uses leveraging emerging technologies.    190-2 • Model Use Technology verses Model Use Purpose: to capture the purposes of existing model uses in construction. • Construction Task verses Model Use Purpose: to capture the construction tasks that have modeling supported in different purposes.  In addition to capture the existing model use, the three matrices are expected to reveal the gap of model uses in construction, indicating opportunities of leveraging technologies and model information to facilitate construction operations. The next two sections will discuss the review results, starting with the description of the matrix components.   Table 1: Publications of major construction journals and conferences for review Source NameASCE Journal of Computing in Civil EngineeringASCE Journal of Construction Engineering and ManagementElsevier Journal of Automation in Construction Journal of Information Technology in ConstructionASCE Journal of Architectural EngineeringCanadian Journal of Civil EngineeringElsevier Journal of Advanced Engineering InformaticsInternational Society for Computing in Civil and Building Engineering (ISCCBE) ConferenceInternational Symposium on Automation and Robotics in Construction (ISARC)International Council for Research and Innovation in Building and Construction (CIB) W78 ConferenceeWork and eBusiness in Architecutre, Engineering and Construction: ECPPMAnuual Conference of the International Group for Lean Construction (IGLC)JournalConference                                                                                                        Figure 2: Academic publications reviewed during the period of 1994-2014 4 DIMENSIONS OF MODEL USE MATRIX Three dimensions are used to develop the model use matrix and to capture construction modeling uses: model use technology, construction task, and model use purpose.  4.1 Model Use Technology The first dimension of model use matrix is “model use technology,” to capture the emerging technologies being leveraged for model use in the construction industry. Anderson and Schaan (2001) categorized the advanced technologies into five high-level groups: communications, on-site plant and equipment, materials and systems, systems, and design. Fenn (2010) mapped out a number of potentially transformative technologies, from augmentation to tablets, depending on the time to and the impacts on the mainstream adoption of each. In the current study, seven different types of models use technologies are categorized and summarized: • Simulating technology: it described as the technology to create a model that behaves or operates like a given system with a set of controlled input (Anderson and Schaan, 2001). • Business management tools: it includes all the systems and applications used by organizations to cope with the planning and management of expenses, process, resources, documents, field administration, and communication (Neelamkavil, 2009). Example tools can be Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP), and document management systems. • Geographic information system (GIS): GIS is defined as a computer system “capable of storing, editing, processing, and presenting geographical data and information as maps” (Campbell and Shin, 190-3 2011). GIS applications allow users to query and analyze spatial information, edit geographical data in maps, and present the results of all these operations.  • Positioning systems (or tracking systems): it describes the usage of technology to determine or track the location of an object during construction (Grau et al., 2009). Related technology includes Global Positioning System (GPS), Radio-frequency (RF) Technology, and Ultra-wideband (UWB). • Imaging technology: it indicates the application of technology that is used to capture, process, and preserve images to support construction operations, such as 3D video rage imaging, photogrammetry, laser scanning, and augmented reality (Turkan et al., 2013). • Mobile technology: this technology provides support for small, handheld computing devices with a display screen, such as mobile phones and tablets, to be used by mobile workers to view, input, and transmit information (Kondratova, 2004).  • Robotics: it indicates the application of robots to support and even automate construction operations (Neelamkavil, 2009). 4.2 Construction Task The second dimension of the matrix is “construction tasks,” to capture the construction activities that can be supported by model uses. Preliminary investigation of construction tasks was based on the schedule-based control structure approach (Halpin et al., 1987), also named as work breakdown structure (WBS). As the first level of breakdown structure, those following categories can be subdivided into the level of detail as needed. The planning and management tasks throughout the construction process are considered as a separate category listed as follows: • Construction planning & management: it describes the activities related to planning and management before and throughout construction, including construction scheduling and planning, progress monitoring, resource tracking and management, safety, and coordination activities. • Procurement: it describes the acquisition of resources needed to transform a design to a physical facility, from purchasing to manufacturing/fabrication, and delivery to the construction site.  • Civil engineering activities: here it is considered as site development tasks based on hydraulic, environmental and geotechnical engineering, like surveying, drilling, boring, pavement, etc. • Excavation & Foundation: it describes the construction tasks for excavation and foundation construction. • Frame Erection: the erection of structural frame/components is the focus of this category. • Assembly & Installation: it describes the construction assembly and installation tasks at site.  • Engineering Systems: it refers to the construction activities related to mechanical, electrical, and plumbing (MEP) systems.  • Enclosure & Finishes: it indicates the construction of building envelope and finishing work. • Quality Assurance/Quality Control (QA/QC): activities that help to inspect and control the quality of construction belong to this category. 4.3 Model Use Purpose Another dimension that used to plot the matrix is model uses purposes. According to Kreider (2013), there are five categories and eighteen subcategories of model uses purposes in the industry (Figure 3): • Gather: to collect or organize facility information, covering the sub-purposes such as “Qualify,” “Monitor,” “Capture,” and “Quantify.” • Generate: to create or author information about the facility, covering the sub-purposes such as “Prescribe,” “Size,” and “Arrange.”  • Analyze: to examine elements of the facility to gain a better understanding of the elements, covering the sub-purposes such as “Coordinate,” “Forecast,” and “Validate.” • Communicate: to present information about a facility in a method in which it can be shared or exchanged, covering the sub-purposes such as “Visualize,” “Draw,” “Transform,” and “Document.” • Realize: to make or control a physical element using facility information, covering the sub-purposes such as “Fabricate,” “Assemble,” “Control,” and “Regulate.” 190-4 acknowledged. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this paper are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Construction Industry Institute.  References Associated General Contractors of America (AGC). 2005. The Contractor’s Guide to BIM, 1st ed. AGC Research Foundation, Las Vegas, NV. Anderson, F., and Susan S. 2001. Innovation, Advanced Technologies and Practices in the Construction and Related Industries: National Estimates. Statistics Canada/National Research Council of Canada, Canada.  Astour, H., and Franz, V. 2014. BIM- and Simulation-Based Site Layout Planning. Compt. Civil Bldg. Eng., ASCE, 291-298. Azhar, S., Hein, M., and Sketo, B. 2008. Building Information Modeling (BIM): Benefits, Risks, and Challenges. Proceedings of the 44th ASC Annual Conference, 2-5. Bai, Y. 2007. Intelligent Painting Process Planner for Robotic Bridge Painting. J. Constr. Eng. M., ASCE, 133 (4): 335–42. Bosché, F., Guillemet, A., Turkan, Y., Haas, C. T., and Haas, R. 2013. Tracking the Built Status of MEP Works: Assessing the Value of a Scan-vs.-BIM System. J. Comput. Civil Eng., ASCE, 28 (4):  Campbell, J., and Shin, M. 2011. Essentials of Geographic Information Systems.  Caldas, C., and Goodrum, P. 2010. Construction Robotics: The Dream vs. Reality. White Paper #125. Construction Industry Institute (CII), Austin, TX, Retrieved February 3, 2015, from https://www.construction-institute.org/scriptcontent/btsc-pubs/CII-BTSC-125.doc, Chu, B., Jung, K., Lim, M., and Hong, D. 2013. Robot-Based Construction Automation: An Application to Steel Beam Assembly (Part I). Automat. Constr., 32: 46–61. Computer Integrated Construction Research Program. 2010. BIM Project Execution Planning Guide - Version 2.0. The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA. Department of Veterans Affairs. 2010. The VA BIM Guide. Department of Veterans Affairs. Washington, DC, USA. Eastman, C., Teicholz, P., Sacks, R., and Liston, K. 2011. BIM Handbook: A Guide to Building Information Modeling for Owners, Managers, Designers, Engineers and Contractors. Wiley, Hoboken NJ. Fenn, J. 2010. Hype Cycle for Emerging Technologies, 2010. Gartner Research, Retrieved 7 (24): 2012. Grau, D., Caldas, C. H., Haas, C. T., Goodrum, P. M. and Gong, J. 2009. Assessing the Impact of Materials Tracking Technologies on Construction Craft Productivity. Automat. Constr., ASCE, 18 (7): 903–11. Ha, Q., Santos, M., Nguyen, Q., Rye, D., and Durrant-Whyte, H. 2002. Robotic Excavation in Construction Automation. Robot. Automat. Mag., IEEE, 9 (1): 20–28. Halpin, D.W., Escalona, A.L., and Szmurlo, P.M. 1987. Work Packaging for Project Control. Source Doc. 28, Construction Industry Institute, Austin, TX. Hammad, A., Zhang, C., Al-Hussein, M., and Cardinal, G. 2007. Equipment Workspace Analysis in Infrastructure Projects. Can. J. Civil Eng., CSCE, 34 (10): 1247–56. Kang, S., and Miranda, E. 2006. Planning and Visualization for Automated Robotic Crane Erection Processes in Construction. Automat. Constr., ASCE, 15 (4): 398–414. Kim, K., and Teizer, J. 2014. Automatic Design and Planning of Scaffolding Systems Using Building Information Modeling. Advanced Engineering Informatics, Elsevier, 28 (1): 66-80. Kondratova, I. 2004. Voice and multimodal technology for the mobile worker. Itcon, Special Issue Mobile Computing in Construction, 9: 345-353. Kreider, R.G., Messner, J., and Dubler, C. 2010. Determining the Frequency and Impact of Applying BIM for Different Purposes on Projects. Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Innovation in Architectural, Engineering, and Construction (AEC), June, 9-11. Kreider, R. G. and Messner, J. 2013. The Uses of BIM: Classifying and Selecting BIM Uses. Version 0.9, September, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA. Kreider, R.G. 2013. An Ontology of the Uses of Building Information Modeling. The Pennsylvania State University. 190-8 Neelamkavil, J. 2009. Automation in the prefab and modular construction industry. Proceedings of 26th Symposium on Construction Robotics ISARC, June 24-27, Austin, TX.   Said, H., and El-Rayes, K. 2014. Automated Multi-Objective Construction Logistics Optimization System. Automat. Constr., ASCE, 43: 110–22. Shen, X., Lu, M., and Chen, W. 2010. Tunnel-Boring Machine Positioning during Microtunneling Operations through Integrating Automated Data Collection with Real-Time Computing. J. Constr. Eng. M., ASCE, 137 (1): 72–85. Taylor, J., and Bernstein, P. 2009. Paradigm Trajectories of Building Information Modeling Practice in Project Networks. J. Manage. Eng., ASCE, 25 (2), 69-76. Turkan, Y., Bosché, F., Haas, C., and Haas, R. 2013. Tracking Secondary and Temporary Concrete Construction Objects Using 3D Imaging Technologies. Comput. Civil Eng. (2013): 749-756.  190-9  5th International/11th Construction Specialty Conference 5e International/11e Conférence spécialisée sur la construction    Vancouver, British Columbia June 8 to June 10, 2015 / 8 juin au 10 juin 2015   FRAMING CONSTRUCTION USES OF VIRTUAL INFORMATION MODELS Li Jiang1, 2, Robert M. Leicht1 and John I. Messner1 1 Department of Architectural Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, PA, USA 2 luj122@psu.edu Abstract: Digital models incorporating 3D geometry and information attributes are becoming a standard for industrial facility and commercial building design. Despite the advancements in technologies to develop design models there is an opportunity to better leverage models within facility construction processes. The current work aims to identify the breadth of construction needs for using information models, and develop an approach to improve information accessibility to support construction. With a thorough literature review, the current work identifies the state-of-art workflows in using design content to support construction tasks. The existing gaps of using models for construction uses have also been captured, indicating the opportunities of better leveraging model content throughout construction process. Discussion of how a planning approach and implementation guidelines will be developed to advance model uses in construction will help conclude the paper.  1 INTRODUCTION Digital models incorporating 3D geometry and information attributes are becoming a standard for industrial facility and commercial building design. Depending on the technology, a variety of model uses have been developed to serve particular purposes for project stakeholders, such as designers and contractors, across project phases. Practitioners have acknowledged the benefits of adopting the data-enriched models in integrating design and construction (Eastman et al., 2011). Regardless, challenges remain in better leveraging models within facility construction processes. Current practices frequently require significant design content remodeling or revision for construction, such as the creation of detailed fabrication models and coordination models adding details required for construction. Moreover, there is a need for a comprehensive understanding of construction information requirements that are not presently available, but could be delivered via a model. This presents an opportunity to create coordinated industry guidelines and a process for leveraging model content through the construction phase.   As an initial step, this paper focuses beyond the implementation of models for commercial building projects, and aims to identify the breadth of construction needs for using information models. A thorough review of recent academic publications has been conducted to capture the state-of-the-art construction modeling. The existing gaps of using models for construction uses have been revealed, indicating the opportunities of better leveraging model content throughout construction process. The need of developing a planning approach and implementation guidelines to advance model uses in construction is discussed as well. 190-1 2 BACKGROUND Information modeling has been adopted in the architectural, engineering, and construction (A/E/C) industry since late 1980’s. Focusing on commercial building projects, Kreider and Messner (2013) defined a building information model use as “a method of applying Building Information Modeling (BIM) during a facility’s lifecycle to achieve one or more specific objectives.” There have been many efforts on listing BIM uses, documented in publications (Eastman et al., 2011), industry guides (Department of Veterans Affairs, 2010), and other industry efforts (Computer Integrated Construction Research Program, 2010). None of them are completely comprehensive or generated by a consistent methodology. Regardless, according to the BIM Project Execution Planning Guide (Computer Integrated Construction Research Program, 2010), which is the most widely adopted for BIM uses, there are 9 of 25 defined uses that can be adopted to support the construction. Among them, 3D coordination was reported in an online survey as the most frequently used BIM use and perceived as the highest beneficial use; while the others, digital fabrication, in particular, was considered as very beneficial, yet not used frequently (Kreider et al., 2010).    One of the main reasons to explain the challenges during adoption is managerial (AGC, 2005). There is a need to standardize the process and to define the guidelines for using the models along with the embedded information to facilitate construction process (Azhar et al., 2011). Driven by the managerial challenges, Kreider (2013) applied a methodology and generated a model use taxonomy for BIM implementation, which has also been approved for adoption in the National BIM Standard – US, Version 3 (still awaiting publication). The primary components of a BIM Use are shown in Figure 1, with five different purposes identified as “Gather,” “Generate,” “Analyze,” “Communicate,” and “Realize.” The ontology that applied in this study provides an effective methodology to categorize BIM Uses and also allows for future expansion of BIM Uses.    Figure 1: The components of a BIM Use (Kreider, 2013)  Therefore, this paper employs the ontology to capture the state-of-the-art model use and identifies the gaps and areas to potentially expand modeling implementation in the future. To avoid the challenges related to the perception of BIM’s application to be specific to a category of facilities, more broad language is used here by John Messner to define the “Model Use” as: “a method or strategy of applying digital modeling during a project lifecycle to achieve one or more specific objectives.” 3 METHODOLOGY A review of recent academic research on the development and implementation of construction modeling has been applied to capture the leading model use and identify potential construction needs for future modeling implementation. Seven journals and five conferences were targeted as sources (Table 1). “Virtual model” and “construction” were used as key words to search the targeted journal publications and conference proceedings for relevant papers. With a total number of 53, Figure 2 shows the number of relevant papers in each 5-year period of the past two decades.   Through the literature review, matrices are used to capture the current model uses and to reveal the opportunities of future model uses to support construction tasks. In the current work, three types of matrices have been plotted: • Model Use Technology verses Construction Task: to capture the construction tasks that can be supported by model uses leveraging emerging technologies.    190-2 • Model Use Technology verses Model Use Purpose: to capture the purposes of existing model uses in construction. • Construction Task verses Model Use Purpose: to capture the construction tasks that have modeling supported in different purposes.  In addition to capture the existing model use, the three matrices are expected to reveal the gap of model uses in construction, indicating opportunities of leveraging technologies and model information to facilitate construction operations. The next two sections will discuss the review results, starting with the description of the matrix components.   Table 1: Publications of major construction journals and conferences for review Source NameASCE Journal of Computing in Civil EngineeringASCE Journal of Construction Engineering and ManagementElsevier Journal of Automation in Construction Journal of Information Technology in ConstructionASCE Journal of Architectural EngineeringCanadian Journal of Civil EngineeringElsevier Journal of Advanced Engineering InformaticsInternational Society for Computing in Civil and Building Engineering (ISCCBE) ConferenceInternational Symposium on Automation and Robotics in Construction (ISARC)International Council for Research and Innovation in Building and Construction (CIB) W78 ConferenceeWork and eBusiness in Architecutre, Engineering and Construction: ECPPMAnuual Conference of the International Group for Lean Construction (IGLC)JournalConference                                                                                                        Figure 2: Academic publications reviewed during the period of 1994-2014 4 DIMENSIONS OF MODEL USE MATRIX Three dimensions are used to develop the model use matrix and to capture construction modeling uses: model use technology, construction task, and model use purpose.  4.1 Model Use Technology The first dimension of model use matrix is “model use technology,” to capture the emerging technologies being leveraged for model use in the construction industry. Anderson and Schaan (2001) categorized the advanced technologies into five high-level groups: communications, on-site plant and equipment, materials and systems, systems, and design. Fenn (2010) mapped out a number of potentially transformative technologies, from augmentation to tablets, depending on the time to and the impacts on the mainstream adoption of each. In the current study, seven different types of models use technologies are categorized and summarized: • Simulating technology: it described as the technology to create a model that behaves or operates like a given system with a set of controlled input (Anderson and Schaan, 2001). • Business management tools: it includes all the systems and applications used by organizations to cope with the planning and management of expenses, process, resources, documents, field administration, and communication (Neelamkavil, 2009). Example tools can be Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP), and document management systems. • Geographic information system (GIS): GIS is defined as a computer system “capable of storing, editing, processing, and presenting geographical data and information as maps” (Campbell and Shin, 190-3 2011). GIS applications allow users to query and analyze spatial information, edit geographical data in maps, and present the results of all these operations.  • Positioning systems (or tracking systems): it describes the usage of technology to determine or track the location of an object during construction (Grau et al., 2009). Related technology includes Global Positioning System (GPS), Radio-frequency (RF) Technology, and Ultra-wideband (UWB). • Imaging technology: it indicates the application of technology that is used to capture, process, and preserve images to support construction operations, such as 3D video rage imaging, photogrammetry, laser scanning, and augmented reality (Turkan et al., 2013). • Mobile technology: this technology provides support for small, handheld computing devices with a display screen, such as mobile phones and tablets, to be used by mobile workers to view, input, and transmit information (Kondratova, 2004).  • Robotics: it indicates the application of robots to support and even automate construction operations (Neelamkavil, 2009). 4.2 Construction Task The second dimension of the matrix is “construction tasks,” to capture the construction activities that can be supported by model uses. Preliminary investigation of construction tasks was based on the schedule-based control structure approach (Halpin et al., 1987), also named as work breakdown structure (WBS). As the first level of breakdown structure, those following categories can be subdivided into the level of detail as needed. The planning and management tasks throughout the construction process are considered as a separate category listed as follows: • Construction planning & management: it describes the activities related to planning and management before and throughout construction, including construction scheduling and planning, progress monitoring, resource tracking and management, safety, and coordination activities. • Procurement: it describes the acquisition of resources needed to transform a design to a physical facility, from purchasing to manufacturing/fabrication, and delivery to the construction site.  • Civil engineering activities: here it is considered as site development tasks based on hydraulic, environmental and geotechnical engineering, like surveying, drilling, boring, pavement, etc. • Excavation & Foundation: it describes the construction tasks for excavation and foundation construction. • Frame Erection: the erection of structural frame/components is the focus of this category. • Assembly & Installation: it describes the construction assembly and installation tasks at site.  • Engineering Systems: it refers to the construction activities related to mechanical, electrical, and plumbing (MEP) systems.  • Enclosure & Finishes: it indicates the construction of building envelope and finishing work. • Quality Assurance/Quality Control (QA/QC): activities that help to inspect and control the quality of construction belong to this category. 4.3 Model Use Purpose Another dimension that used to plot the matrix is model uses purposes. According to Kreider (2013), there are five categories and eighteen subcategories of model uses purposes in the industry (Figure 3): • Gather: to collect or organize facility information, covering the sub-purposes such as “Qualify,” “Monitor,” “Capture,” and “Quantify.” • Generate: to create or author information about the facility, covering the sub-purposes such as “Prescribe,” “Size,” and “Arrange.”  • Analyze: to examine elements of the facility to gain a better understanding of the elements, covering the sub-purposes such as “Coordinate,” “Forecast,” and “Validate.” • Communicate: to present information about a facility in a method in which it can be shared or exchanged, covering the sub-purposes such as “Visualize,” “Draw,” “Transform,” and “Document.” • Realize: to make or control a physical element using facility information, covering the sub-purposes such as “Fabricate,” “Assemble,” “Control,” and “Regulate.” 190-4 acknowledged. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this paper are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Construction Industry Institute.  References Associated General Contractors of America (AGC). 2005. The Contractor’s Guide to BIM, 1st ed. AGC Research Foundation, Las Vegas, NV. Anderson, F., and Susan S. 2001. Innovation, Advanced Technologies and Practices in the Construction and Related Industries: National Estimates. Statistics Canada/National Research Council of Canada, Canada.  Astour, H., and Franz, V. 2014. BIM- and Simulation-Based Site Layout Planning. Compt. Civil Bldg. Eng., ASCE, 291-298. Azhar, S., Hein, M., and Sketo, B. 2008. Building Information Modeling (BIM): Benefits, Risks, and Challenges. Proceedings of the 44th ASC Annual Conference, 2-5. Bai, Y. 2007. Intelligent Painting Process Planner for Robotic Bridge Painting. J. Constr. Eng. M., ASCE, 133 (4): 335–42. Bosché, F., Guillemet, A., Turkan, Y., Haas, C. T., and Haas, R. 2013. Tracking the Built Status of MEP Works: Assessing the Value of a Scan-vs.-BIM System. J. Comput. Civil Eng., ASCE, 28 (4):  Campbell, J., and Shin, M. 2011. Essentials of Geographic Information Systems.  Caldas, C., and Goodrum, P. 2010. Construction Robotics: The Dream vs. Reality. White Paper #125. Construction Industry Institute (CII), Austin, TX, Retrieved February 3, 2015, from https://www.construction-institute.org/scriptcontent/btsc-pubs/CII-BTSC-125.doc, Chu, B., Jung, K., Lim, M., and Hong, D. 2013. Robot-Based Construction Automation: An Application to Steel Beam Assembly (Part I). Automat. Constr., 32: 46–61. Computer Integrated Construction Research Program. 2010. BIM Project Execution Planning Guide - Version 2.0. The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA. Department of Veterans Affairs. 2010. The VA BIM Guide. Department of Veterans Affairs. Washington, DC, USA. Eastman, C., Teicholz, P., Sacks, R., and Liston, K. 2011. BIM Handbook: A Guide to Building Information Modeling for Owners, Managers, Designers, Engineers and Contractors. Wiley, Hoboken NJ. Fenn, J. 2010. Hype Cycle for Emerging Technologies, 2010. Gartner Research, Retrieved 7 (24): 2012. Grau, D., Caldas, C. H., Haas, C. T., Goodrum, P. M. and Gong, J. 2009. Assessing the Impact of Materials Tracking Technologies on Construction Craft Productivity. Automat. Constr., ASCE, 18 (7): 903–11. Ha, Q., Santos, M., Nguyen, Q., Rye, D., and Durrant-Whyte, H. 2002. Robotic Excavation in Construction Automation. Robot. Automat. Mag., IEEE, 9 (1): 20–28. Halpin, D.W., Escalona, A.L., and Szmurlo, P.M. 1987. Work Packaging for Project Control. Source Doc. 28, Construction Industry Institute, Austin, TX. Hammad, A., Zhang, C., Al-Hussein, M., and Cardinal, G. 2007. Equipment Workspace Analysis in Infrastructure Projects. Can. J. Civil Eng., CSCE, 34 (10): 1247–56. Kang, S., and Miranda, E. 2006. Planning and Visualization for Automated Robotic Crane Erection Processes in Construction. Automat. Constr., ASCE, 15 (4): 398–414. Kim, K., and Teizer, J. 2014. Automatic Design and Planning of Scaffolding Systems Using Building Information Modeling. Advanced Engineering Informatics, Elsevier, 28 (1): 66-80. Kondratova, I. 2004. Voice and multimodal technology for the mobile worker. Itcon, Special Issue Mobile Computing in Construction, 9: 345-353. Kreider, R.G., Messner, J., and Dubler, C. 2010. Determining the Frequency and Impact of Applying BIM for Different Purposes on Projects. Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Innovation in Architectural, Engineering, and Construction (AEC), June, 9-11. Kreider, R. G. and Messner, J. 2013. The Uses of BIM: Classifying and Selecting BIM Uses. Version 0.9, September, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA. Kreider, R.G. 2013. An Ontology of the Uses of Building Information Modeling. 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Charles and Elinor Matts Professor of Architectural EngineeringFraming Construction Uses of Virtual Information ModelsPresented by: Li JiangGraduate StudentContributors: Robert M. Leicht, PhD.Assistant Professor of Architectural Engineering2015 CSCE 5th International / 11th Construction Specialty ConferenceJune 8-10, 20152015-11-09Research ObjectiveTo capture the state-of-the-art model use and identify future construction needsThis work focuses beyond the implementation of models for commercial building projects, and aims to identify the breadth of construction needs for using information models.A Model Use is defined as:“a method or strategy of applying digital modeling during a project lifecycle to achieve one or more specific objectives.”Challenges remain in better leveraging models within facility construction processes. This presents an opportunity to create coordinated industry guidelines and a process for leveraging model content through the construction phase. Research MotivationTo better leverage models within facility construction processesResearch MotivationTo better capture current model uses and also allow expansion for future needsResearch MethodologyAn ontology to categorize current model uses and expand model uses for future needs(Kreider, 2013)Research Methodology Process of collecting and interpreting data model use technologyconstruction task model use purpose model use purposeconstruction task12 Framing Construction Uses of ModelingEstablished an approach to capture the current leading model uses and identify future opportunitiesLiterature ReviewReviewed recent academic research and industry practices on construction model usesmodel use technologyResearch Methodology A literature review of the development and implementation of construction modelingSource NameASCE Journal of Computing in Civil EngineeringASCE Journal of Construction Engineering and ManagementElsevier Journal of Automation in Construction Journal of Information Technology in ConstructionASCE Journal of Architectural EngineeringCanadian Journal of Civil EngineeringElsevier Journal of Advanced Engineering InformaticsInternational Society for Computing in Civil and Building Engineering (ISCCBE) ConferenceInternational Symposium on Automation and Robotics in Construction (ISARC)International Council for Research and Innovation in Building and Construction (CIB) W78 ConferenceeWork and eBusiness in Architecutre, Engineering and Construction: ECPPMAnuual Conference of the International Group for Lean Construction (IGLC)JournalConference“virtual model” & “construction” Search3 41828earlier than 2000 2000 - 2005 2006 - 2010 2011 - 2014No. of PublicationsYearTotal: 53http://plantingacorns.com/construction-trends/robotics-in-construction/Results – Dimensions of Model Use MatrixTo capture the current model uses and identify future construction needsDimension 01: Model Use TechnologySimulation technologyPositioning systems (or tracking systems)Imaging technologyGeographic information system (GIS)Business management toolsMobile technologyRoboticshttp://newyork.construction.com/features/archive/2009/09_F2_3-DView.asphttp://arikamlani.com/pages/portfolio.htmlhttp://bimsurveys.eu/?page_id=6589http://www.cadalyst.com/gis/bim-vs-gis-14381http://prosoftaec.blogspot.com/2012/10/view-navisworks-models-on-your-tablet.htmlhttp://www.roboticsbusinessreview.com/article/from_bim_to_build_roboticization_and_the_automated_jobsite/construction_buildingResults – Dimensions of Model Use MatrixTo capture the current model uses and identify future construction needsDimension 02: Construction TaskConstruction planning & managementProcurementCivil engineering activitiesExcavation and foundationFrame erectionAssembly and installationEngineering systems Enclosure and finishesQuality Assurance/Quality Control (QA/QC) (CII, 1987)Results – Dimensions of Model Use MatrixTo capture the current model uses and identify future construction needsDimension 03: Model Use PurposeGather: “to collect or organize facility information;”Generate: “to create or author information about the facility;”Analyze: “to examine elements of the facility to gain a better understanding of the elements;”Communicate: “to present information about a facility in a method in which it can be shared or exchanged;”Realize: “to make or control a physical element using facility information.”(Kreider, 2013)Results – Model Use Matrices  Model use technologies supporting different construction tasksConstruction taskModel use technologyResults – Model Use Matrices  Model uses with different purposes and technologies Model use technologyModel use purposehttp://plantingacorns.com/construction-trends/robotics-in-construction/p//w.com/article/from_bim_to_build_roboticization_and_the_automated_jobsite/construction_buildingResults – Model Use Matrices  Construction tasks supported by different model use purposesConstruction taskModel use purposeConclusions & Next Steps…Need of implementation guidelines for progressive model use adoptionModel Uses IdentifiedCase StudiesCompleteGuidelines DevelopedInitial Publication Submission2014 2015 2016NovIdentify Case StudiesFuture Uses DefinedValidation of GuidelinesAnnual Conference Report OutJul.Aug.Jan.Feb.Oct.Aug.http://www.3dcadservicesindia.comhttp://www.autodesk.com/ http://www.neoformix.com/blog.html http://webteachertools.com/wtt/course/view.php?id=1034http://nrccps.org/information-dissemination/publications/http://www.cpvtconf.com/en/Acknowledgements

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