International Construction Specialty Conference of the Canadian Society for Civil Engineering (ICSC) (5th : 2015)

Road maintenance information management system based on product data model considering disaster use Kubota, Satoshi Jun 30, 2015

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5th International/11th Construction Specialty Conference 5e International/11e Conférence spécialisée sur la construction    Vancouver, British Columbia June 8 to June 10, 2015 / 8 juin au 10 juin 2015   ROAD MAINTENANCE INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM BASED ON PRODUCT DATA MODEL CONSIDERING DISASTER USE Satoshi Kubota Kansai University, Japan skubota@kansai-u.ac.jp Abstract: Maintenance management is an essential operation that should be carried out effectively for maintaining, repairing, and rehabilitating highways and roads. It is necessary to accumulate information produced during the entire life cycle of roads in order to analyze problems and find solutions within a temporal sequence and to maintain them strategically and effectively. In road maintenance site, the administrators and engineers want to refer and utilize the road ledger and its drawings. It is difficult to carry and use the ledgers, because they are paper based documents. The primary objective of this study is to develop the product data models, which systematic information is defined for accumulating, exchanging, and sharing in civil infrastructure. And, this paper proposed a road maintenance information management system to collect, accumulate, share, and utilize the information considering disaster use. It is used in maintenance and disaster site by tablet PC. Road data models are effective for building an environment where the various data generated in a construction enterprise are used in an integrated manner. The constructed road data model has structural and work information. Structural information includes road structures such as bridges, carriageways, sidewalks, and road furniture. Inspections, repair judgments, repair of pavement, and construction of pavement are defined as work information. And, disaster information was added in structural information. The location-based expressions ‘GM_Point’, ‘GM_Surface’, and ‘GM_Polygon’ are defined to connect the road data model to spatial information. The proposed system was evaluated the usability and capability in road maintenance. 1 INTRODUCTION Roads are networks that connect social infrastructure and accommodate the delivery of emergency services. Because of the importance of roads, they should be safe and kept in good condition. Maintenance management is an essential operation that should be carried out effectively for maintaining, repairing, and rehabilitating roads. It is important that the maintenance process is effective and that the quality of inspection is ensured. Cost-effective and high-quality maintenance depend on reliable inspection and condition assessment information (Osama 2003). Furthermore, reliable maintenance information influences management systems (Thompson et al. 2003). Existing management systems do not use standardized information, and cannot exchange, share, and reuse information. In order to carry out effective road maintenance, it is necessary to construct a system where the latest and highest-quality road information can be used and shared, thereby facilitating road planning, design, construction, inspection, and repair. The primary objective of this research is to facilitate the sharing of road maintenance information with project participants. A fundamental requirement of such a system is the ability to support the modeling 318-1 and management of design and construction information and to enable the exchange of such information among different project disciplines in an effective and efficient manner. A Web GIS -based maintenance information management system is proposed using smart devices such as smartphone and tablet PC, and a prototype system is developed and evaluated for an actual road maintenance project. The system has the function of reference of road ledger using smart devices. The information is standardized by constructing a conceptual data model. Conceptual data models for road maintenance are constructed for use in the proposed system. 2 ROAD DATA MODELS Road data models are constructed so that information within the information management system can be shared among those involved in the management of roads. A road data model is defined as the product data model of a road structure to which attribute information is added in order to link the model to the spatial data infrastructure. Product data models of social infrastructure facilities are made by various organizations and research institutions (Stumpf et al., 1996; Karim and Adeli, 1999; Hastings et al., 2003; Chau et al., 2004; El-Diraby et al., 2005; Owolabi et al., 2006; Halfawy and Froese, 2007). However, the attributes defined in these data models, and in the data model schemas, are different from the attributes and schemas for road data models. If the same information is stored in accordance with different data models, this could lead to problems with information compatibility in the future. Data models that have already been constructed by various methods are difficult to standardize into a uniform format. Therefore, according to the objectives of the various social infrastructure facilities, standardizing the functions that must be fulfilled by the data models, and the types and items of information to be maintained, can be considered. Road data models can be classified into two types: geometry information models and business information models. Geometry information models contain information associated with the constituent parts of roads. Business information models contain information necessary for road management work, as well as the results of information analysis produced as the result of such work. Interoperability and compatibility are important for the exchange and sharing of road information. It is, therefore, useful to define the rules of information exchange and sharing using existing standards and specifications. In constructing the geometry information models, design and dimensional information was extracted from the models. This includes information regarding the composition of the particular structures, information from the design and construction stages, and information that should be stored for future road management work. Information regarding the structure composition includes information for roads, slopes, bridges, tunnels, and ancillary items. Information from the design and construction stage includes design documents, numerical calculations, and as-built drawings. Information that should be stored includes the results of work such as inspection, repair, or strengthening of structures. In constructing the business information models, the information resulting from construction, inspection, detailed inspection, and repair and strengthening was extracted. Information resulting from construction includes initial inspection results. Information resulting from inspection includes determination as well as inspection outlines and inspection results. Information resulting from detailed inspections includes detailed inspection outlines and detailed inspection results. Information resulting from repairs and strengthening includes the outlines of repairs and strengthening, as well as the results of the repairs and strengthening. Information on the geometric shape and attitude of items such as roads, buildings, and rivers has been generated from a wide variety of construction projects. This information should be shared and utilized by project participants. The road data model is a concept for sharing and utilizing information collected over the life-cycle of a construction project. The road data model is a method for analyzing the situation and solving the problem. Construction stakeholders and computer software can share and utilize the standardized information by using the road data model, as shown in Figure 1. The road data model has information from documents, CAD data, drawings, design calculations, and other sources which can be used by those involved in a construction project.  The road data model is shown in Figure 2 the location- based expressions ‘GM_Point’, ‘GM_Surface’, and ‘GM_Polygon’ are defined to connect the road data model to map information. The information 318-2 management system was developed based on the proposed idea. Road data models are constructed so that information within the information management system can be shared among those involved in the management of roads. ConstructionManagementSystemCADDesign SystemQuantity SurveySystemStructureAnalysis SystemMaintenanceSystemProject ManagersDesign EngineersMaintenanceEngineersRoaddata model Figure 1: Interoperability of project information using the road data model StructuralinformationRoadNameStart time:TM_InstantLocation:GM_PolygonCarriagewayShapeCategoryLaneFrontage roadDesign info.Construction* 1Bridge Sidewalk RoadfurnitureWorkinformationInspectionInspectionresultLocationCategoryElementsInspectiondayPavementRepairdecisionAttachment Traffic accidentdataRepair resultPavementCategoryMaterialThickness ofbase courseCategoryMaterialThickness ofbase courseShapeCategoryDesign info.ConstructionCategoryDesign info.ConstructionNameCategoryLengthDesign info.ConstructionLightingShapeCategoryLocationPavement Figure 2: Road data model 3 SYSTEM DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT 3.1 Design principles In maintenance, the management system with high accuracy is necessary, so analyzed information in life-cycle should be accumulated. This system is used in each phase of design, construction, inspection, soundness evaluation, deterioration forecast, and maintenance plan. The database of system has the role to support the each stage of life-cycle. For operating the management system, standardized information should be accumulated and shared based on product data models on considering a long-term service stage of concrete highway bridges. The concept of model oriented management system is shown in Figure 3. It is difficult to define unitary the information used in various existing systems and databases 318-3 because of feasibility and operation. Standardized information can be exchanged and shared by exchanging the maintenance information through the product data models in maintenance management system and databases. A road maintenance information management system was designed based on following design principles. (1) Uniform management of road maintenance data: Road maintenance information such as inspections, repair decisions, and repair work should be uniformly managed. Data is collected in a database and the system is used to retrieve the information. The system has a map interface, through which road administrators can gain an overall view of road damage and repair locations. (2) In disaster use: The system can be used for confirming the site situation when power blackout and network disconnect are occurred in wide-scale disaster. (3) The system is developed which has the functions of handwriting input, posting photos and reference of road ledger data. Business DBMaintenance planInspection planDeterioration judgeInspection dataRepair dataDesignConstructionDesign and constructionStructure DBDesign dataConstruction dataSoundness evaluationMaintenance databaseMaintenance systemInspectionPlanningDeteriorationSoundness evaluationRepair and reinforcementServices for citizensProduct data model Figure 3: The concept of model oriented management system 3.2 System architecture A road maintenance information management system was constructed to allow those engaged in road maintenance to collect, store, share, and use information. As shown in Figure 4, the four-dimensional information management system consists of a spatial data infrastructure, a road database, road data models, a model library, a common system interface, system sharing functions, and a road application system. The system is structured so that new information items and system functions can be added in the future using the common system interface and road data models. 318-4 Road DatabaseDesign Construction MaintenanceRoad Application SystemSystem Sharing FunctionsCommon System InterfaceRoad Data Model Model Library・・・Spatial Data InfrastructureRetrieving Registration Updating Management Figure 4: The concept of information management The spatial data infrastructure is a skeletal collection of land features formed from nine basic items, such as terrain and administration data, for all national land. It includes fundamental map data consisting of spatial attributes that include geographical information, location information, and three-dimensional spatial information including elevation. The road database stores all information generated during the life cycle of a road in the form of road data models. Road data models enable the exchanging and sharing of road information among those involved in road maintenance. The road data models were defined by specifying the functions required for carrying out road management, extracting and defining the information to satisfy those functions, and by producing diagrams of the attributes of that information, associations between the information, and the structure of the inheritance hierarchy. The common system interface provides functions for sending and receiving requests and results for the management system and model library, the road database, and the spatial data infrastructure, as well as sending, receiving, and displaying data. The system sharing functions allow the sharing of information with social infrastructure systems, and allow data searching, registration, updating, and management. The road application system provides a management functions of maintenance information. In the future, the system will include various functions for road management, such as an inspection support function, a degradation diagnostic function, and a pavement management function. The proposed information management system is access through the Internet. The system architecture is shown in Figure 5. The system was consisted of a server with database, PC of road administrator for referring road ledger data, and tablet PC in use of site. The system is used for confirming the site situation when power blackout and network disconnect are occurred in wide-scale disaster. 318-5  Figure 8: Screen of offline use  Figure 8: Example of the notation on drawing or photograph 4 EVALUATION OF THE PROPOSED SYSTEM The system was used to evaluate usability, smoothness of information flow, application capability, and usefulness. The demonstration data was about 211 MB of data on 550 pages of road ledger drawings in local government. The system operated normally without error. The results of the evaluation show that users rated the performance of the system as average or good. In terms of application capability, the system could possibly be practical for use in road maintenance. The system can be used to retrieve and use past road maintenance information, which can be difficult to find in offices and computers. However, the system has a few problems limiting its practical use. The system can be used to refer a site situation by road ledger data and drawings, notations, and photographs. The road administrators can share the information stored in the database with workers carrying out maintenance operations. The data model has an environment for exchanging, sharing, and utilizing road maintenance information in road maintenance operation. The system, because it handles historical information, is applicable to road work management. There are barriers to implement the proposed system in a municipal or state road maintenance department where ontology and vernacular are different from those in the proposed system. Accordingly, the system would need to be modified to account for such difference and differences in departmental culture. 318-8 5 CONCLUSIONS In this paper, a road maintenance information management system for storing, controlling, sharing, and using road ledger data and drawings, notations, and photographs in inspection was proposed, and a prototype system was developed. The system consists of a spatial data infrastructure, a road database, road data models, a common system interface, a system-sharing functions, and an application system. The road data model was constructed based on product data model concept. A prototype system was developed using tablet PC and evaluated in actual use. The system has the functions of retrieving road ledger data and drawings, reference, input of inspection results, and submission of photographs. The main contribution of this study is a significant effort to extend the applicability of product data model. The system approach is based on a road data model. The system handles inspection and road ledger data, and can be used for maintenance management of road work. It is necessary to update the road data model in order to use these data in the process of maintenance operations. The proposed system has a data model framework that can be applied to road asset management, earthquake disaster reconstruction management, road buried objects management, and other types of structural maintenance. Acknowledgements This research was supported by the Japan Construction Information Center (No. 2012-2). References Chau, K., Anson, M., and Zhang, J. 2004. Four-dimensional visualization of construction scheduling and site utilization. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, ASCE, 130(4), 598-606. El-Diraby, T., Lima, C., and Feis, B. 2005. Domain taxonomy for construction concepts: toward a formal ontology for construction knowledge. Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering, ASCE, 19(4), 394-406. Halfawy, M.M.R. and Froese, T.M. 2007. Component-based framework for implementing integrated architecture/engineering/construction project systems. Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering, ASCE, 21(6), 441-452. Hastings, J., Kibiloski, J., Fischer, M., Haymaker, J., and Liston, K. 2003. Modeling to support construction planning of the Stata Center project. Leadership Management Engineering, ASCE, 3(2), 86-90. Karim, A., and Adeli, H. 1999. “OO information model for construction project management.” Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, ASCE, 125(5), 361-367. Osama, A. and Hussien, T.A. 2003. As-Built Information Model for Bridge Maintenance, Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering, ASCE, 17(2), 105-112. Owolabi, A., Anumba, C.J., El-Hamalawi, A. and Harper C. 2006. Development of an industry foundation classes assembly viewer. Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering, ASCE, 20(2), 121-131. Stumpf, A., Ganeshan, R., Chin, S. and Liu, L. 1996. Object-oriented model for integrating construction product and process information. Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering, ASCE, 10(3), 204-212. Thompson, P.D., Sobanjo, J.O. ,and Kerr, R. 2003. Florida DOT Project-Level Bridge Management Models, Journal of Bridge Engineering, ASCE, 8(6), 345-352.  318-9  5th International/11th Construction Specialty Conference 5e International/11e Conférence spécialisée sur la construction    Vancouver, British Columbia June 8 to June 10, 2015 / 8 juin au 10 juin 2015   ROAD MAINTENANCE INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM BASED ON PRODUCT DATA MODEL CONSIDERING DISASTER USE Satoshi Kubota Kansai University, Japan skubota@kansai-u.ac.jp Abstract: Maintenance management is an essential operation that should be carried out effectively for maintaining, repairing, and rehabilitating highways and roads. It is necessary to accumulate information produced during the entire life cycle of roads in order to analyze problems and find solutions within a temporal sequence and to maintain them strategically and effectively. In road maintenance site, the administrators and engineers want to refer and utilize the road ledger and its drawings. It is difficult to carry and use the ledgers, because they are paper based documents. The primary objective of this study is to develop the product data models, which systematic information is defined for accumulating, exchanging, and sharing in civil infrastructure. And, this paper proposed a road maintenance information management system to collect, accumulate, share, and utilize the information considering disaster use. It is used in maintenance and disaster site by tablet PC. Road data models are effective for building an environment where the various data generated in a construction enterprise are used in an integrated manner. The constructed road data model has structural and work information. Structural information includes road structures such as bridges, carriageways, sidewalks, and road furniture. Inspections, repair judgments, repair of pavement, and construction of pavement are defined as work information. And, disaster information was added in structural information. The location-based expressions ‘GM_Point’, ‘GM_Surface’, and ‘GM_Polygon’ are defined to connect the road data model to spatial information. The proposed system was evaluated the usability and capability in road maintenance. 1 INTRODUCTION Roads are networks that connect social infrastructure and accommodate the delivery of emergency services. Because of the importance of roads, they should be safe and kept in good condition. Maintenance management is an essential operation that should be carried out effectively for maintaining, repairing, and rehabilitating roads. It is important that the maintenance process is effective and that the quality of inspection is ensured. Cost-effective and high-quality maintenance depend on reliable inspection and condition assessment information (Osama 2003). Furthermore, reliable maintenance information influences management systems (Thompson et al. 2003). Existing management systems do not use standardized information, and cannot exchange, share, and reuse information. In order to carry out effective road maintenance, it is necessary to construct a system where the latest and highest-quality road information can be used and shared, thereby facilitating road planning, design, construction, inspection, and repair. The primary objective of this research is to facilitate the sharing of road maintenance information with project participants. A fundamental requirement of such a system is the ability to support the modeling 318-1 and management of design and construction information and to enable the exchange of such information among different project disciplines in an effective and efficient manner. A Web GIS -based maintenance information management system is proposed using smart devices such as smartphone and tablet PC, and a prototype system is developed and evaluated for an actual road maintenance project. The system has the function of reference of road ledger using smart devices. The information is standardized by constructing a conceptual data model. Conceptual data models for road maintenance are constructed for use in the proposed system. 2 ROAD DATA MODELS Road data models are constructed so that information within the information management system can be shared among those involved in the management of roads. A road data model is defined as the product data model of a road structure to which attribute information is added in order to link the model to the spatial data infrastructure. Product data models of social infrastructure facilities are made by various organizations and research institutions (Stumpf et al., 1996; Karim and Adeli, 1999; Hastings et al., 2003; Chau et al., 2004; El-Diraby et al., 2005; Owolabi et al., 2006; Halfawy and Froese, 2007). However, the attributes defined in these data models, and in the data model schemas, are different from the attributes and schemas for road data models. If the same information is stored in accordance with different data models, this could lead to problems with information compatibility in the future. Data models that have already been constructed by various methods are difficult to standardize into a uniform format. Therefore, according to the objectives of the various social infrastructure facilities, standardizing the functions that must be fulfilled by the data models, and the types and items of information to be maintained, can be considered. Road data models can be classified into two types: geometry information models and business information models. Geometry information models contain information associated with the constituent parts of roads. Business information models contain information necessary for road management work, as well as the results of information analysis produced as the result of such work. Interoperability and compatibility are important for the exchange and sharing of road information. It is, therefore, useful to define the rules of information exchange and sharing using existing standards and specifications. In constructing the geometry information models, design and dimensional information was extracted from the models. This includes information regarding the composition of the particular structures, information from the design and construction stages, and information that should be stored for future road management work. Information regarding the structure composition includes information for roads, slopes, bridges, tunnels, and ancillary items. Information from the design and construction stage includes design documents, numerical calculations, and as-built drawings. Information that should be stored includes the results of work such as inspection, repair, or strengthening of structures. In constructing the business information models, the information resulting from construction, inspection, detailed inspection, and repair and strengthening was extracted. Information resulting from construction includes initial inspection results. Information resulting from inspection includes determination as well as inspection outlines and inspection results. Information resulting from detailed inspections includes detailed inspection outlines and detailed inspection results. Information resulting from repairs and strengthening includes the outlines of repairs and strengthening, as well as the results of the repairs and strengthening. Information on the geometric shape and attitude of items such as roads, buildings, and rivers has been generated from a wide variety of construction projects. This information should be shared and utilized by project participants. The road data model is a concept for sharing and utilizing information collected over the life-cycle of a construction project. The road data model is a method for analyzing the situation and solving the problem. Construction stakeholders and computer software can share and utilize the standardized information by using the road data model, as shown in Figure 1. The road data model has information from documents, CAD data, drawings, design calculations, and other sources which can be used by those involved in a construction project.  The road data model is shown in Figure 2 the location- based expressions ‘GM_Point’, ‘GM_Surface’, and ‘GM_Polygon’ are defined to connect the road data model to map information. The information 318-2 management system was developed based on the proposed idea. Road data models are constructed so that information within the information management system can be shared among those involved in the management of roads. ConstructionManagementSystemCADDesign SystemQuantity SurveySystemStructureAnalysis SystemMaintenanceSystemProject ManagersDesign EngineersMaintenanceEngineersRoaddata model Figure 1: Interoperability of project information using the road data model StructuralinformationRoadNameStart time:TM_InstantLocation:GM_PolygonCarriagewayShapeCategoryLaneFrontage roadDesign info.Construction* 1Bridge Sidewalk RoadfurnitureWorkinformationInspectionInspectionresultLocationCategoryElementsInspectiondayPavementRepairdecisionAttachment Traffic accidentdataRepair resultPavementCategoryMaterialThickness ofbase courseCategoryMaterialThickness ofbase courseShapeCategoryDesign info.ConstructionCategoryDesign info.ConstructionNameCategoryLengthDesign info.ConstructionLightingShapeCategoryLocationPavement Figure 2: Road data model 3 SYSTEM DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT 3.1 Design principles In maintenance, the management system with high accuracy is necessary, so analyzed information in life-cycle should be accumulated. This system is used in each phase of design, construction, inspection, soundness evaluation, deterioration forecast, and maintenance plan. The database of system has the role to support the each stage of life-cycle. For operating the management system, standardized information should be accumulated and shared based on product data models on considering a long-term service stage of concrete highway bridges. The concept of model oriented management system is shown in Figure 3. It is difficult to define unitary the information used in various existing systems and databases 318-3 because of feasibility and operation. Standardized information can be exchanged and shared by exchanging the maintenance information through the product data models in maintenance management system and databases. A road maintenance information management system was designed based on following design principles. (1) Uniform management of road maintenance data: Road maintenance information such as inspections, repair decisions, and repair work should be uniformly managed. Data is collected in a database and the system is used to retrieve the information. The system has a map interface, through which road administrators can gain an overall view of road damage and repair locations. (2) In disaster use: The system can be used for confirming the site situation when power blackout and network disconnect are occurred in wide-scale disaster. (3) The system is developed which has the functions of handwriting input, posting photos and reference of road ledger data. Business DBMaintenance planInspection planDeterioration judgeInspection dataRepair dataDesignConstructionDesign and constructionStructure DBDesign dataConstruction dataSoundness evaluationMaintenance databaseMaintenance systemInspectionPlanningDeteriorationSoundness evaluationRepair and reinforcementServices for citizensProduct data model Figure 3: The concept of model oriented management system 3.2 System architecture A road maintenance information management system was constructed to allow those engaged in road maintenance to collect, store, share, and use information. As shown in Figure 4, the four-dimensional information management system consists of a spatial data infrastructure, a road database, road data models, a model library, a common system interface, system sharing functions, and a road application system. The system is structured so that new information items and system functions can be added in the future using the common system interface and road data models. 318-4 Road DatabaseDesign Construction MaintenanceRoad Application SystemSystem Sharing FunctionsCommon System InterfaceRoad Data Model Model Library・・・Spatial Data InfrastructureRetrieving Registration Updating Management Figure 4: The concept of information management The spatial data infrastructure is a skeletal collection of land features formed from nine basic items, such as terrain and administration data, for all national land. It includes fundamental map data consisting of spatial attributes that include geographical information, location information, and three-dimensional spatial information including elevation. The road database stores all information generated during the life cycle of a road in the form of road data models. Road data models enable the exchanging and sharing of road information among those involved in road maintenance. The road data models were defined by specifying the functions required for carrying out road management, extracting and defining the information to satisfy those functions, and by producing diagrams of the attributes of that information, associations between the information, and the structure of the inheritance hierarchy. The common system interface provides functions for sending and receiving requests and results for the management system and model library, the road database, and the spatial data infrastructure, as well as sending, receiving, and displaying data. The system sharing functions allow the sharing of information with social infrastructure systems, and allow data searching, registration, updating, and management. The road application system provides a management functions of maintenance information. In the future, the system will include various functions for road management, such as an inspection support function, a degradation diagnostic function, and a pavement management function. The proposed information management system is access through the Internet. The system architecture is shown in Figure 5. The system was consisted of a server with database, PC of road administrator for referring road ledger data, and tablet PC in use of site. The system is used for confirming the site situation when power blackout and network disconnect are occurred in wide-scale disaster. 318-5  Figure 8: Screen of offline use  Figure 8: Example of the notation on drawing or photograph 4 EVALUATION OF THE PROPOSED SYSTEM The system was used to evaluate usability, smoothness of information flow, application capability, and usefulness. The demonstration data was about 211 MB of data on 550 pages of road ledger drawings in local government. The system operated normally without error. The results of the evaluation show that users rated the performance of the system as average or good. In terms of application capability, the system could possibly be practical for use in road maintenance. The system can be used to retrieve and use past road maintenance information, which can be difficult to find in offices and computers. However, the system has a few problems limiting its practical use. The system can be used to refer a site situation by road ledger data and drawings, notations, and photographs. The road administrators can share the information stored in the database with workers carrying out maintenance operations. The data model has an environment for exchanging, sharing, and utilizing road maintenance information in road maintenance operation. The system, because it handles historical information, is applicable to road work management. There are barriers to implement the proposed system in a municipal or state road maintenance department where ontology and vernacular are different from those in the proposed system. Accordingly, the system would need to be modified to account for such difference and differences in departmental culture. 318-8 5 CONCLUSIONS In this paper, a road maintenance information management system for storing, controlling, sharing, and using road ledger data and drawings, notations, and photographs in inspection was proposed, and a prototype system was developed. The system consists of a spatial data infrastructure, a road database, road data models, a common system interface, a system-sharing functions, and an application system. The road data model was constructed based on product data model concept. A prototype system was developed using tablet PC and evaluated in actual use. The system has the functions of retrieving road ledger data and drawings, reference, input of inspection results, and submission of photographs. The main contribution of this study is a significant effort to extend the applicability of product data model. The system approach is based on a road data model. The system handles inspection and road ledger data, and can be used for maintenance management of road work. It is necessary to update the road data model in order to use these data in the process of maintenance operations. The proposed system has a data model framework that can be applied to road asset management, earthquake disaster reconstruction management, road buried objects management, and other types of structural maintenance. Acknowledgements This research was supported by the Japan Construction Information Center (No. 2012-2). References Chau, K., Anson, M., and Zhang, J. 2004. Four-dimensional visualization of construction scheduling and site utilization. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, ASCE, 130(4), 598-606. El-Diraby, T., Lima, C., and Feis, B. 2005. Domain taxonomy for construction concepts: toward a formal ontology for construction knowledge. Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering, ASCE, 19(4), 394-406. Halfawy, M.M.R. and Froese, T.M. 2007. Component-based framework for implementing integrated architecture/engineering/construction project systems. Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering, ASCE, 21(6), 441-452. Hastings, J., Kibiloski, J., Fischer, M., Haymaker, J., and Liston, K. 2003. Modeling to support construction planning of the Stata Center project. Leadership Management Engineering, ASCE, 3(2), 86-90. Karim, A., and Adeli, H. 1999. “OO information model for construction project management.” Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, ASCE, 125(5), 361-367. Osama, A. and Hussien, T.A. 2003. As-Built Information Model for Bridge Maintenance, Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering, ASCE, 17(2), 105-112. Owolabi, A., Anumba, C.J., El-Hamalawi, A. and Harper C. 2006. Development of an industry foundation classes assembly viewer. Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering, ASCE, 20(2), 121-131. Stumpf, A., Ganeshan, R., Chin, S. and Liu, L. 1996. Object-oriented model for integrating construction product and process information. Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering, ASCE, 10(3), 204-212. Thompson, P.D., Sobanjo, J.O. ,and Kerr, R. 2003. Florida DOT Project-Level Bridge Management Models, Journal of Bridge Engineering, ASCE, 8(6), 345-352.  318-9  Road Maintenance Information Management System Based on Product Data Model Considering Disaster UseSatoshi KubotaKansai UniversityJune 10, 2015Outline Background and Objective Product Data Model Concept Construction of Road Data Model Proposal of Information Management SystemSystem ArchitectureFunctionsPractical Use and Evaluation Conclusion2Background A fundamental requirement of infrastructure management system is to support the modeling and management of the life cycle information. Cost-effective and high-quality maintenance depend on reliable inspection and condition assessment information. Reliable maintenance information influences management systems. In order to carry out effective road maintenance, it is necessary to construct a system where the latest and high-quality road information can be used and shared.3Objective Development of a framework for sharing of road maintenance information with project participantsA web GIS-based maintenance information management system is proposed using mobile devices. A prototype system is developed and evaluated for an actual road maintenance project. The information is standardized by constructing a product data model.4Product data model 3D information and attributes should be standardized based on international de jure standards for exchanging and sharing. Interoperability and compatibility are important in developing a platform for sharing information. Product data model is defined by its method of representing shape and attribute information over the lifecycle of structures.5defining and systematizingProduct data modelUsage of Product Data Model PDM is the framework which should be exchanged and shared among information systems and project participants.Productdata modelConstructionManagementSystemCAD systemDesignSystemEstimationSystemStructuralAnalysisSystemMaintenanceSystemProjectManagerDesignEngineerMaintenanceEngineer6State objectives and scopeSetting of objectivesSetting of scopeAnalyze the present workExtraction of issue and proposal of solutionOrganization of business processVisualization of business processConstruct product data modelExtraction and organization of informationConstruction of the product data modelCreate schemasConstruct utilization platformUtilization scenario (to-be business process)Utilization system(visualization of information flow)Modify product data modelExtract the required functionProductDataModelBusiness DBMaintenance planInspection planDeterioration judgeInspection dataRepair dataDesignConstructionDesign and constructionStructure DBDesign dataConstruction dataSoundness evaluationMaintenance databaseMaintenance systemInspectionPlanningDeteriorationSoundness evaluationRepair and reinforcementServices for citizensProduct data modelConcept of model oriented systemStandardized information can be exchanged and shared through the product data model in maintenance management systems and databases.Road data model9Road data model has data on geometry, spatial relationships,and attributes.GeometryinformationRoad+Name+Start time:TM_Instant+Location:GM_Polygon* 1Bridge Sidewalk AttachmentBusinessinformationInspectionInspectionresult+Location+Category+Elements+InspectiondayPavementJudgment ofRepairAttachment Traffic accidentdataRepair result+Category+Material+Thickness ofbase course+Geometry+Category+Design info.+Construction+Category+Design information+Construction information+GeometricalDescribedBy: GM_Point+StartTime: TM_Instant+EndTIme: TM_Instant+Name+Category+Length+Design info.+ConstructionLighting+Geometry+Category+LocationPavementOutline of the Information Management SystemDatabaseRoadMaintenanceRoadConstructionRiverMaintenanceApplication SystemsSystem Sharing FunctionsCommon InterfacesProduct Data Model Model Library・・・Spatial Data InfrastructureRetrieving Registration Updating Management10Road maintenance information management Uniform management of road maintenance data The system has a map interface, through which road administrators can gain an overall view of road damage and repair locations. In disaster use The system can be used for the site situation when power blackout and network disconnect are occurred in wide and large-scale disaster. 11The Great East Japan Earthquakehttp://gendai.ismedia.jpSystemArchitecture12RetrievingReferenceInspection InputPhotos postRetrievingReferenceInspection InputPhotos postPhotos, Drawings,Inspection data,Road ledgerInformationInformation portal serverInternetGIS ServerGPSSiteOnlineOfflineFunctions FunctionsRoad administratorDatabaseMaintenanceInformationLedger dataLocation dataSystem functions Retrieving road ledger data and drawings Reference Input of inspection results Submission of photographsUsage in online and offline In large scale disaster, power blackout and network disconnect are occurred13Retrieving road ledger data and drawings The function of retrieving road ledger data and drawings is used by location point of GPS and road name. The location is shown by marker of Web API on the map.  A road administrator updates and stores road ledger data.14Reference Function The road administrators can refer the road ledger data and drawings using tablet PC.  The drawings were converted from PDF files to PNG files. The each PNG file is about 400 KB.There are 1500 drawings in the system.15DrawingsNotationPhotographsWrite on drawingsEntry of photographsInput of inspection results The users can write the inspection results and notation on the road ledger drawing or photograph.16Submission of photographs The photographs are submitted by inspectors when they patrol the managed road.17Evaluation of the system The system was used to evaluate Usability smoothness of information flow application capability usefulness The demonstration data was about 211 MB of data on 550 pages in local government. The system operated normally without error. The system can be used to refer a site situation by road ledger data and drawings, notations, and photographs. The system could possibly be practical for use in road maintenance.18Evaluation of the system The data model has an environment for exchanging, sharing, and utilizing information in road maintenance operation. The system, because it handles historical information, is applicable to road work management. There are barriers to implement the proposed system in a municipal road maintenance department where ontology and vernacular are different. Accordingly, the system would need to be modified to account for such difference and differences in departmental culture.19Conclusions A road maintenance information management system for using road ledger was proposed and developed.  The main contribution of this study is a significant effort to extend the applicability of product data model. The proposed system has a data model framework that can be applied to road asset managementearthquake disaster reconstruction management road buried objects managementother types of structural maintenance20

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