International Conference on Engineering Education for Sustainable Development (EESD) (7th : 2015)

Integration of green design and manufacturing for sustainability in undergraduate engineering curriculum Jha, Nand K. Jun 30, 2015

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INTEGRATION OF GREEN DESIGN AND MANUFACTURING FOR SUSTAINABILITY IN UNDERGRADUATE ENGINEERING CURRICULUM Nand K Jha Manhattan College, Riverdale, New York nand.jha@manhattan.edu Abstract: Green design and manufacturing promises reduction in materials, energy use, disposal fees, and reduced pollution. Products should be designed keeping in mind the aspects of disassembly and recycling. Engineering curriculum has to catch up with the needs of society in general for sustainability considerations. The end-of-life considerations including recycling and reuse should be integrated in engineering curriculum. The selection of suitable materials, processes, and geometry that satisfies specified and implied green functional requirements should be goal of mechanical design. A curriculum revision and development of two separate courses on Green Design and Sustainable Manufacturing are being proposed. Engineers need an understanding of whole systems, life cycle, and end of life utility of the product and they have been emphasized in the new courses being developed. This is in consistent with National Science Foundation (NSF) objective as well as the requirements of American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME). At Manhattan College, we plan to modify the undergraduate curriculum to include sustainability considerations in mechanical component design and manufacturing courses. 1 INTRODUCTION The path towards sustainable engineering education is obvious and the engineering professors should recognize and communicate the epic nature of the sustainability discourse. The engineering education community needs to include sustainable engineering in curriculum. Unfortunately, few engineering schools have made major updates to their courses and curricula over the past few decades. However, making such updates is thwarted by the significant amount of time needed to make changes, the challenge of inserting new material into already crowded courses and curricula, and the lack of a sense of priority about such changes. We need to include in our courses topics such as life cycle assessment, concepts in renewable energy, and methods of waste minimization. Leading institutions in the United States have recognized that sustainable development should have a prominent role in engineering education and practice.  The criteria used to accredit engineering education programs have also recognized this need. The Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET) requirements for program outcomes and assessment, identifies that besides the knowledge in math, science, engineering principles, and problem-solving, engineering graduates should possess the ability to: function on multidisciplinary teams, communicate effectively, and understand professional and ethical responsibility. A review of courses offered within and outside the School of Engineering show varying ways and to varying degrees inclusion of sustainability. The World Commission on Environment and Development suggests that sustainable development should meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. A Venn diagram for sustainable development is presented below. For sustainability the social, environmental, and economic development must be integrated and balanced. The core of the Venn diagram is sustainable, which should guarantee balance environment and economic development, along with equitability of society and the economic development. The environmental degradation due to economic activities must be bearable for society in general.   EESD’15    The 7th International Conference on Engineering Education for Sustainable Development Vancouver, Canada, June 9 to 12, 2015  043-1    Figure 1: Venn diagram for sustainable development   Figure 2: Requirements for sustainability education Our attempt should be to integrate green design and manufacturing within the framework of sustainability in engineering curriculum whichever way the faculty decides.  Enhancing the sustainability of manufactured product is a critical subject for the coming generation of engineers. It would result in reduced materials requirements, reduction in energy use, reduced disposal fees, reduced pollution and finally fewer problems for society in general. The aspects of disassembly and recycling should be included in product design. It would help to reduce toxic and otherwise harmful emissions to the environment causing global warming, and ensure sustainability. We should advance the following goals in engineering curriculum for sustainable future: 1. Reduce the use of resources including materials, energy, and water etc., 2. Reduce toxic and otherwise harmful emissions to the environment causing global warming, 3.Manage renewable resources to insure sustainability, 4. Quality and durability: Longer-lasting and better-functioning products will be replaced less frequently, reducing the materials requirements in future, 5. Design for reuse and recycling The topics on ecology, environmental effect on engineering design and manufacturing, economics of environmental degradation, depletion of energy, depletion of material and global warming would be of great importance to both engineering students and practicing engineers. National Science Foundation (NSF) has established a section to encourage sustainability research and education under the Science, Engineering, and Education for Sustainability (SEES) program.  The Center for Sustainable Engineering (CSE) is a partnership among five universities: Syracuse University (lead institution), Arizona State University, Carnegie-Mellon University, Georgia Institute of Technology, and the University of Texas at Austin. There is unwillingness or lack of response among universities to integrate or include sustainability in their curriculum; it may be due to ignorance.  Some engineering schools have ‘bolted-on’ sustainability in their existing curriculum requiring minimal change in their curriculum. However, some schools have reformed and included sustainability as ``built-in'' to the system.  2 PROJECT PLANS I propose to develop a series of courses on Design and Manufacturing for Sustainability (DMS) or Green Design and Manufacturing for Sustainability (GDMS). These courses would be useful for graduate and undergraduate curriculum. The course will be prepared for a future where Green Design and Manufacturing has zero net impact on the environment. These courses will present traceable information (topics) which are critical to product designers and manufacturing engineers so that they can incorporate sustainability in their occupation and comply with international regulations. The template of a course is presented below in Fig.3. The courses will emphasize on the integration of cost, recyclables, and or reuse during the design and manufacturing stages. For sustainability the life cycle cost consideration is critical and it is included the course.    043-2 Example for disassembly:  The time to disassemble (Yi et al., 2003) the screw will depend on the length of the screw, which depends upon the thickness of two parts assembled. If the nominal diameter of the screw is 0.125”, then there are 40 threads/inch (UNC) threads or 44 threads/inch (UNF) threads. The time to unscrew the screw is 44(140) =1960TMU=70.56 s. If we assume there 15 screws in this assembly of two steel plates, disassembly time= 15(70.56) s+15 (34.7) (.036) s = 1077.138 s=17.9523 min. Steel plates of 24’’x24’’x1/2’ of 81.2 lbs. are considered. Plates are heavy items and to move those to recycle or reuse bins need help of one more person and both hands have to be used. It is getting control over an object with the hand or fingers and placing the object in a new location. In MTM-1 (Yi et al., 2003), these steps are: Reach, Grasp, and Move. If we take predetermined tomes from tables 3, 7, &4; time for moving one plate is = (23.2+2.0+22.7)=48TMU for moving the plate by 30” However, these plates are heavy of 81.2 lbs., the time elements modified for weight =1.5 x48x81.2 =5846.4 TMU= 210.4704 s =3.5 min. For both the plates, the time to move them would be 7 min. Therefore, the total time for disassembly would be, .min25718 =+=ydisassemblT which seems to be reasonable time to unscrew all 15 screws with flathead screw driver and move the plates about 30” from the workbench.  We assume only 25% of the screws are reusable and rest have to be recycled. The degree of difficulty is the relative degree of disassembly of the nuts & screws, which is normally in the range from 1.5 – 2.0. The time of disassembly should be multiplied by the degree of difficulty (dod) factor to accurately estimate the disassembly time. By assuming 25% screws are reused and rest 75% are recycled after shredding, the following steps are taken in estimating the end-of-life (EOL) or the recycling & reuse benefits;  Reuse value = Cost of component ($) – Miscellaneous cost ($)      The miscellaneous cost is composed of collection plus reprocessing costs and it is zero here. Therefore, Reuse value= $per part reused x # of parts reused = $3.00 (here for illustration $ per part is assumed as $1.00, which not true in market). Remanufacture value represents the value of component after disassembly the parts are reprocessed or refurbished before reusing them. The remanufacturing cost sometimes may involve machining, cleaning, removing paint, or cleaning for any corrosion on the part.   Remanufacture value = $per component x # of components – remanufacture cost/component x # of components = $3.00-$0.10 x 3 = $2.70. Primary recycle value here consists of 12 screws and two steel plates. The primary recycles value: Primary recycle value = # of screws x weight/screw x cost of recycled material + # of steel plates disassembled x weight per plate x cost of per pound of material reused = 12 x 0.0625 lb/screw x $0.50/lb + 2 x 81.2 lbs. /plate x $ 0.20/lb = $ 32.9 (Here screws are of alloy steel and plates are of cast iron).  The shredding cost ( )sC  needs to be accounted for in the EOL cost as well.  ))(( sWtSshCsC = =hourly shredding cost/hr. x # of hours used to shred one lb of material x weight of shredded material. The shredding cost is estimated as; =sC  $30/hr. x 1/2 hr. /lb x163.15 =$2,447.25 The shredding cost seems very high and recycling may be uneconomical.  After shredding material is reprocessed & sent at the entering point of production process.  Embodied energy in recycling: The value of embodied energy in the recycling (Gunoor et al., 1999) is estimated now. The total material of alloy steel and cast iron are 0.72 lbs. and 162.4 lbs. respectively.  The embodied energy of fresh material used in production or manufacturing process; Embodied energy of fresh material = (0.72 lbs. x 0.454 kg/lb x 35 MJ/kg) + (162.4 lbs. x 0.454 x 17 MJ/kg) x 948 Btu = (11.5 + 1253.5) x 948 = 1.2 x 106 Btu   The energy required to process recycled the materials: Embodied energy for recycled material = (0.72 x 0.454 x 10 MJ/kg + 162.4 x 0.454 x 5.2 MJ/kg) x 948 = (3.3 + 383.5) x 948 = 0.37 x 106 Btu 043-4 The energy saved = (1.2 – 0.37) x 106=0.83 x 106 Btu. The savings in terms of dollars could be estimated. Normally energy drawn from electric grid, coal, or heavy oil, etc. differ in price but everyone had different environmental impact in terms of carbon footprint, which is supposed to be main cause of global warning. The energy price is used here as $0.035 /MJ and so the savings in terms of dollars = (0.83 x 106/9.48) x $ 0.035/MJ =$ 31.00.  Carbon footprint estimation: Carbon footprint of fresh material = (0.72 x 0.454 x (2.125 kg/kg) + 162.4 x 0.454 x (1.1 kg/kg)) = (0.7 + 81.1) = 81.8 ~ 82 kg of CO2 is emitted in atmosphere when we use fresh materials in this process. The Carbon foot print of recycled materials = (0.72 x 0.6 kg/kg + 162.4 x 0.31 kg/kg) x 0.454 = 23 kg. This shows that there is reduction of (82-23) kg =59 kg of CO2. For this small disassembly process, the reduction in terms carbon footprint is very significant or quantifiable.   Economics of End-of-Life in Design for Disassembly (DfD): The estimated life cost consists of the manufacture, assembly, maintenance, remanufacture and recycling costs as determined by the choice of fastening or joining method. The recycling cost represents (Feldman et al., 2001) the expense of material separation, and not material reprocessing. The assembly and disassembly costs are estimated using time required for disassembly and assembly of various fastening and joining methods.   Recycling Cost: The cost of separating parts made of different materials.   ∑==kiricir WRC1.  ,     where Cr is cost of material recovery equivalent to the product of cost of material recovery ( )iRc  and weight of material recovered ( iWr ). k represents types of material recovered, like, copper, steel, etc.  Repair and maintenance Cost: The repair and  maintenance cost consists of disassembly and reassembly expenses, which represents time required for disassembly and reassembly at field labor rate, and the expected cost of part and fastener replacement due to damage incurred during disassembly and assembly. ∑=∑−==njgmiijTCdaRMC1 1,       where daC is the hourly cost of assembly and disassembly and m is # of same type of joint, n is # of different types of joints or fasteners, and g is # of fasteners that contact same type of material.  Remanufacture Cost: The remanufacture cost imposed by the fastening method also consists of expenses related to disassembly, reassembly and the probability of part and fastening method failure.  In general, the remanufacture cost is modeled as follows: ( ) ( ) ppefdapefdaffadrm CppppppCphTTC ...( −++++=  Crm = Remanufacture cost, Td = Disassembly time, Ta = Assembly time, h = Labor rate ($/hr), fp = Probability of fastener failure in disassembly and assembly, Cf = Cost of fastener failure, dap  = Probability of part failure in disassembly/ assembly, pep = Probability of part failure in fastening-method extraction, Cp = Cost of part failure. The probability of part damage during disassembly is defined to be zero, i.e. 043-5 0=pdp . The probability of fastener damage in disassembly, i.e. 1=fp  and the general remanufacture cost reduces to: Crm = (Td + Ta )h + Cf + pep  Cp .    If the part cannot be repaired, the consequential cost is part replacement cost. In such cases, 0=fp  and 0=pep . The new cost equation for remanufacturing is: Crm = (Td + Ta) h + pdp  Cp.   The remanufacture cost will include disassembly and the consequential cost of part and fastener failure. For Pf = 1 and Ppe = 1, the general remanufacture cost reduces to: Crm= (Td + Ta )h + Cf + Cp .            2.3 Cost/ Benefit Analysis of Recycling The recycling cost: cDrCsCdCoC +++=  , Where =oC cost of recycling, =dC cost of disassembly, =sC cost of shredding, =rC cost of material recovery, =cD  and cost of dumping. The cost of disassembly is estimated as; ∑=∑−==njgmiijTdbCdC 1 1,   where =dbC hourly cost of disassembly, m = # of same type of fasteners in the product, n = # of different type of fasteners such as screw, etc., g = # of fasteners that contact parts of the same or compatible materials. The shredding cost is estimated as; ))(( sWtSshCsC = ,   where =shC  hourly shredding cost, =tS time to shred 1 ton of material, =sW weight of shredding materials, tons. The cost of recovery ( )rC  naturally increases with amount and type of material recovered. The cost of material recovery may be written as; ∑==kiricir WRC1. ,  =ciR cost material recover per ton of type i material (i may be steel, plastics, etc.) and =riW weight of i material recovered, k is number of different type of materials in the product. The cost of dumping (Dc) is estimated as; ).( dcc WdD = ,   where cd is cost of dumping of one ton of material, and =dW weight in tons of dumped material. Lee et al  2001, has selected B-C method for analyzing the disassembly design. It has been defined as Recycling B-C method and presented as cDrCsCdCrEmRpRTotalCostitTotalBenefcbR +++++==/ ,  =pR revenue from used parts, =mR the revenue from recovered materials, and =rE energy saving benefit of emission reduction and calculated as; ∑=∑==yihjjEcjEmiEsrE1 1)( ,  =iEs  energy saving of recycled material of type i, =jEm  type j emission reduction, =jEc extemality cost of type j emission, h = number of types of emissions such as 2SO , particulates etc., x = number of reusable parts disassembled in a product, y = number of types of recycled material in a product. The revenue from used parts ( pR ) is calculated as; ∑==xiip PuR1,   =iPu revenue from usable parts. The revenue from the recovered material; ∑==yiiPmRm1,    =iPm revenue from type i recycled material. The profit obtained from recycling is; Recycling Profit = Total Recycling revenue – Total recycling cost, i.e. )()( crsdrmp DCCCERRRP +++−++= ,   =RP is recycling profit. The breakeven point (BEP) can also be calculated to find amount of materials (tons) which must be recycled for profit. The second module is presented below.  Example of Recycling A hypothetical example for the recycling of materials from disassembly of a system (Lee et al., 2001 & Kroll et al., 1999) is presented. The system parts are made essentially of copper and steel, although 043-6 some other materials are there but they have to be dumped as it could not be recycled. Total weight of the system is about 24 tons. There are 3 (m=3) similar joints but only 2 (n=2) different types of fasteners. However, among the 3 similar joints, 2 fasteners are in contact with same type of materials (g =2). We need different types of tools to disassemble the components of the system and times taken to disassemble the components are:  j=1 j=2 i=1 711 =T  512 =T  i=2 5.121 =T  …..  All times are given in hours. Materials that are shredded are mostly dumped and that is about 10 tons. The shredding equipment is quite efficient and takes only 20 hrs. to shred it. The shredded components are dumped and the weight of dumped material is also 10 tons. The cost of steel recovery is $15/ton and cost of copper recovery is $100/ton. Steel 12 tons and copper 2 tons are recovered. The dumping cost depends on the land price, and other special materials, chemicals, cover etc. are used in dumping. The weight of material dumped is same as shredded material of 10 tons. The cost of dumping is $1,000.00/ton. We will estimate the benefits resulting from reduction in emissions and energy in analysis of recycling including revenue. The benefits from these aspects are presented below. ∑=+∑==xjjEcjEmyiiEsrE11 , where iEs represents the energy savings from using used steel and copper and jEm are reduction in emissions of hazardous gases (GHG) emissions in atmosphere. The steel and copper are recycled 12 and 2 tons respectively. The average embodied energies are 35 MJ/kg for primary production and 10 MJ/ kg for recycled material. The savings resulting from using recycled steel is  25 MJ/kg. Similarly for copper the saving in energy is (71-17.75) =53.25 MJ/kg. The reduction in carbon dioxide emissions by using steel is (2.125-0.6) =1.52/kg/ kg  and the reduction in emissions due to copper recycling is (5.35-1.3) =4.05 kg/kg.  ( Ashby, 2007). The external cost of emissions should be considered as the cost of containing the hazards due to CO2 emissions. It should be considered as savings or benefits of recycling. Considering the savings due to reductions in emissions as $5/ton of reduction in CO2 emissions, the total benefit from reduction in CO2 is; 5.12601$=+= cs EEES . This is the total energy saving due to recycling of steel and copper. The energy cost of $0.031/MJ is for the energy from grid. The benefits due to reduction in emissions is  71700$5)81006240(/5$)}/1000205.4()/100012/52.1{( =+=+= xtonxtonkgtonsxxtonkgtonsxkgxkgEm  Total benefits due to recycling on energy savings and reduction in emissions is $84301.5. The benefit from recycling of both steel and copper (Rm) is calculated as;  2000,25$)1500010200()/5.7$1000/2()/85.0$100012( =+=+=+= kgxtonskgxtonsxRRR mcmsm  Some disassembled mechanical components are difficult to reuse, however, components like, gears, flywheels; springs, etc. are easily reused. Here five gears are reusable after disassembly and the sale price of reused gears as $400.00/gear. Hence, the revenue occurring from reusing of gears is 000,2$400$5 == xRp . The total cost (TC) estimated below. crsd DCCCTC +++= , 00.405$)5.157(30$23121=++== ∑∑−== iijjdbd TCC (Disassembly cost) 5.501,111$)000,2200,255.301,84$( =++=TR043-7 Shredding cost (Cs) = 00.000,7$)10)(20(35$))(( ) ==StSH WSC , (Cr) = ∑==+=2100.380$)2(1001215(iii xWrRc (recovery cost). Dumping cost (DC) = 00.000,10$)10(1000$ ==dcxWd ,  Total cost (TC)= $405.00+$7000+$380.00+$10,000=$17,785.00.  The net profit from recycling =Total Revenue-Total Cost =$ 93715.5 and The Benefit-Cost ratio ( ) 23.6177855.111501==−CBR . The Benefit cost ratio is greater than 1 and is acceptable.  The basic principles of sustainable green design and manufacturing with proper examples need to be included in the curriculum to transform the undergraduate education.  2.4 Concept of Green Manufacturing Green manufacturing is defined as the creation of manufacturing products that use materials and processes that minimize negative environmental impacts conserve energy, and natural resources, are safe for employees, communities, and consumers, and are economically sound. The effect of manufacturing on environment, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and global warming should be emphasized in engineering education. Renewable energy sources like wind power, solar power, natural gas, etc. will reduce GHG emissions considerably. Figure 4 shows the flow of sustainable manufacturing. Manufacturing processes consumes enormous energy resource and it has significant impact on the environment. Therefore, manufacturing processes courses should emphasize on minimizing the energy requirements for the materials as well as for manufacturing processes, and exergy transformations in manufacturing processes. The waste minimization requires knowledge of the production process, and tracking of materials from their extraction to their return to earth (cradle-to grave).  2.5 Curriculum development in green design and manufacturing for sustainability   The ABET outcome 11 emphasizes that mechanical engineering students should understand the impact of engineering solution on health, safety, the environment and welfare of the public. The course being developed will be able to integrate these considerations into their design and manufacturing practices. The course outline for Green Design and Manufacturing for Sustainability is presented below.  1. Introduction to ecology, sustainability principles, green design and manufacturing of a product. 2. Material Selection; Eco-properties of materials, merit Indices and material Properties Chart,  3. Analytical Techniques; Design for minimization carbon footprint & embodied energy, green design    constraints, recycling, reuse, & end-of-life treatment, life cycle analysis, mass & energy balance in manufacturing systems. 4. Computer aided design, FE analysis and green considerations in mechanical component design. 5. Cost estimating & consumer considerations; recycling, reuse, and end of-life (EOL) considerations.. 6. Environmentally Benign Manufacturing processes; Green Manufacturing; Theory and Practice, Reduction of energy consumption in material removal & forming processes, Reduction of waste and toxic dispersion of manufacturing, Health & safety considerations in manufacturing. 7. Quality consideration and quality for sustainability, Analysis of snap fit design.  8. International regulations for sustainable design and manufacturing. 2.6 Sustainable Manufacturing  Manufacturers across many industries increasingly emphasize sustainability. Design –for- sustainability (D4S) takes a holistic approach analyzing operational efficiency, safety, functionality, productivity, materials use, ease of operation, and maintenance. The Sustainable Manufacturing would be open to undergraduate and graduate engineering students along with MBA’s. The course is designed to be multidisciplinary where project groups will comprise of students from all engineering disciplines including 043-8 business major. The ABET outcome 9 emphasizes the importance of interacting with people in disciplines outside of mechanical engineering. The course is being developed as a common course for both engineering and MBA students. The various aspects of sustainability will be presented through case studies from real world. The techniques and economics of waste reduction, recycling, cost/benefit analysis including life cycle cost will be presented. Engineering and business students will join in small groups for product development.  The course outline is presented below.  1. Introduction to sustainability in manufacturing; Characteristics of successful product development. 2. Net shape manufacturing and minimization of energy; Sustainability measurement throughout life cycle 3. Thermodynamics in manufacturing and Energy analysis 4. Economic analysis; technological advancement for green manufacturing, allocation of resources.  5. Environmental impact & steps to reduce it through redesign, remanufacturing and data mining 6. Green Product specifications; metrics of sustainability & cost model of the product and the process. 7. Sustainability in new product development; selection matrix; combine and improve the concept. 8. Design for manufacturing sustainability; cost, wastage, energy, quality and environmental impact. 9. Managing Green Manufacturing Projects; PERT & CPM, risk in green manufacturing, project            evaluation. 3 CONCLUSIONS This paper presents development of two courses for teaching sustainability in mechanical design and manufacturing along with modules for teaching.  These courses offer integration of life cycle analysis, environmental impact, and end-of-life (EOL) considerations for engineering products.   Design and Manufacturing are two core (required) subjects for undergraduate in several engineering disciplines including mechanical engineering, aerospace, civil, manufacturing and industrial engineering. In-depth coverage of such topics as environmentally friendly material, sustainability, green design of components, the life cycle cost including disassembly, and environmentally conscious manufacturing with examples and homework will prepare our graduates for tackling the sustainability problems of world. References Boothroyd, G., Dewhurst, P., and Knight, W. 2002, Product Design for Manufacture and Assembly, Marcel Dekker, Inc, New York, NY, USA. Yi, H., Park, Y, and Lee, K., 2003,A Study on The Method of Disassembly Time evaluation of a Product using Work-factor Method, , IEEE, 1753-1759. Feldman, K., Trautner, S., Lohman, H., Melzer, K., 2001, Computer-based product structure analysis for technical goods regarding optimal end-of-life strategies, J. of Eng. Manufacturing, Vol.215,683-693. Lee, S.G., Lye, S.W., Khoo, M.K., 2001, A multi-objective methodology for evaluating product end-of-life options and disassembly, Int. J. of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Vol.18, 148-156. Kroll, E., Carver, B.S., 1999, Disassembly analysis through time estimation and other metrics, Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Vol.15, 191-200. Gungor, A., Gupta, S.M., 1999, Issues in environmentally conscious manufacturing and product recovery; a survey, Computers 7 Industrial Engineering, Vol.36, issue 4, 811-853. 043-9 

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