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Chinese through the Americas : conference handbook International Conference of Institutes and Libraries for Chinese Overseas Studies (5th : 2012 : Vancouver, B.C.) 2012

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     The 5th WCILCOS International Conference of Institutes and Libraries for Chinese Overseas Studies 第五届海外华人研究与文献收藏机构国际会议  Chinese through the Americas 华人的美洲移民路 Conference Handbook 会议手册  2012.5.16-19 University of British Columbia Vancouver, B.C. Canada 加拿大 卑诗省 温哥华 卑诗大学            Contents 目录 Greetings 贺词 ………………………………………………………………………………...  2  Acknowledgements 致谢……………………………………………………………………...  5  Conference Organizing Committee and Secretariat 会议筹备委员会和秘书处……………  6  About WCILCOS 世界海外华人研究与文献收藏机构联合会介…………………………….  8  About the Conference 会议简介……………………………………………………………...  9  About the Co-hosts 合办机构简介……………………………………………………………  10  Message from Co-Chairs 共同主席欢迎词……………………………………………………  12  Campus Map 校园地图………………………………………………………………………...  14  Conference Rules 会议须知…………………………………………………………………....  18  Conference Sponsors 会议赞助……………………………………………………………….  19  Keynote Speakers, Special Guests & Conference Schedule 主题演讲嘉宾、特别嘉宾及会议日程……………………………………………………  25  Panel Sessions & Paper Abstracts 专题分组及论文摘要……………………………………..  38  On-Campus Events 校园活动………………………………………………………………...... 132  1        2        3          4        Acknowledgements 致谢 The Organizing Committee of the 5th WCILCOS Conference wishes to thank the following individuals, companies and organizations for their support and assistance: 承蒙下列人士、公司及机构的协助及支持, 第五届海外华人研究与文献收藏机构国际会议得以顺 利举行,筹备委员会谨此致以万分谢意: Sponsors 会议赞助 Institutional Sponsors 机构赞助 Chinese Canadian Stories 加华纪事 UBC St. John’s College 卑诗大学圣约翰学院 Gold Sponsors 金赞助 Beijing Superstar Information Technology Co., Ltd. 北京世纪超星信息技术发展有限责任公司 Wong Gong Gam Genealogy Project 黄昂湛家族研究计划 Bronze Sponsors 铜赞助 Beijing Chinese Book Trading Co. 北京珍本国际贸易有限公司 East View Information Services, Inc. EBSCO Information Services Richmond Public Library 列治文公共图书馆 Wisers Information Limited 慧科讯业有限公司 Community Sponsors 社区赞助 Asian Heritage Month Society 亚裔传统月协会 Chinese Canadian Historical Society of British Columbia 加华历史协会 Rudy Chiang 蒋汶德 Vernon R. & Marion Alden Library Endowment  University of British Columbia 卑诗大学 Conference and Accommodation Information Technology SIS Support Irving K. Barber Learning Centre Library Chung Collection Library Communications Library Digital Initiatives Library Finance and Facilities Library Systems and Information Technology Office of the President Sage Bistro St. John’s College And all dedicated volunteers 及所有热心的义工! 5        Conference Organizing Committee & Secretariat   Co-chairs FERRIER, Jeffrey YUEN, Eleanor  Curator, Centre for International Collections, Ohio University Libraries Head, Asian Library, University of British Columbia  Organizing Committee Members FONG, Denise Project Manager, Chinese Canadian Stories – A UBC-SFU Project HU-DEHART, Evelyn KO, Angela LEE, Hwa-Wei LEONG, Jack Hang-Tat SEAMAN, Scott XU, Yun YU, Henry  ZHANG, Xiuming ZHENG, Liren ZHUANG, Guotu  Secretariat FONG, Denise CHOW, Phoebe JI, Brittany WANG, Richard  Professor of History and Ethnic Studies, Brown University Assistant Fung Ping Shan Librarian, University of Hong Kong Libraries Former Chief, Asian Division, Library of Congress Director, Richard Charles Lee Canada-Hong Kong Library, University of Toronto Libraries Dean, Ohio University Libraries Director, Associate Professor Librarian, Department of Overseas Chinese Documents Studies, Jinan University Library Associate Professor, Department of History and Principal, St. John’s College, University of British Columbia / Project Lead, Chinese Canadian Stories – A UBC-SFU Project Senior Editor, Chinese Institute for Overseas Chinese History Studies / Chief Editor of Overseas Chinese History Studies Curator, Charles W. Wason Collection on East Asia, Cornell University Library Dean, Faculty of International Relations & Research School of SE Asian Studies, Xiamen University  Conference Manager Coordinator Event Assistant Event Assistant    Conference Proceedings ZHENG, Liren  Curator, Charles W. Wason Collection on East Asia, Cornell University Library    6        会议筹备委员会和秘书处    共同主席    Jeffrey Ferrier   袁家瑜        成员     方静怡    胡其瑜     高玉华    李华伟    梁恒达    Scott Seaman    徐云      余全毅    张秀明  郑力人  庄国土     美国俄亥俄大学图书馆国际收藏部主任   加拿大卑诗大学亚洲图书馆馆长          加拿大卑诗大学及西门菲沙大学加华纪事项目经理   美国布朗大学历史及族裔系教授   香港大学冯平山图书馆副馆长    前美国国会图书馆亚洲部主任   加拿大多伦多大学利铭泽典宬馆长   美国俄亥俄大学图书馆馆长  中国暨南大学图书馆华侨华人文献信息中心主任   加拿大卑诗大学历史系副教授 / 卑诗大学圣约翰学院院长 /    加华纪事项目主管   中国华侨华人历史研究所编审/《华侨华人历史研究》杂志主编     美国康奈尔大学东亚图书馆馆长    中国厦门大学国际关系学院及南洋研究院院长              会议经理   会议统筹  会议助理  会议助理       美国康奈尔大学东亚图书馆馆长       秘书处    方静怡  邹崇乐  季贝妮  王冠之        会议纪录    郑力人         7        About WCILCOS The WCILCOS (World Confederation of Institutes and Libraries in Chinese Overseas Studies) is a federation established by participating institutes and libraries in a Chinese Overseas Studies conference in Athens, Ohio, in 2000, to facilitate co-operation between scholarship and documentation, and between institutes, libraries, and archives in different parts of the world. Registered in Ohio, it is non-profit and non-political. No membership dues are collected. Since the inception of WCILCOS in 2000, the Dr. You-Bao Shao Overseas Chinese Documentation Center has served as its secretariat, and devoting its resources to the Confederation’s goals and visions. For the past decade, the Shao Center has been co-organizing the international conferences with different host institutions in Hong Kong (2003), Singapore (2005) and Guangzhou, China (2009). They have been very successful in bringing librarians, institutes, and scholars in Chinese Overseas Studies together, not only in providing a platform for librarians to interact and exchange ideas with scholars and collectors, but also a platform for tackling issues in collection development, access, preservation, and information-sharing in the field of Chinese Overseas studies.        世界海外华人研究与文献收藏机构联合会简介    世界海外华人研究与文献收藏机构联合会是一个非营利,非党派的国际学术组织。其创始会议于 2000 年在美国俄亥俄州雅典市举行,参加创始会议的研究与文献收藏机构为其创始成员。联合 会的宗旨是促进从事海外华人研究与文献收藏的研究机构、图书馆、学术团体、档案馆及各界人 士的全球性广泛合作。自 2000 年联合会在美国俄亥俄州註册成立开始,邵友保博士海外华人文 献研究中心一直担任其秘书处工作,积极推动联合会的发展。  在过去十年,邵友保博士海外华人文献研究中心联合当地的主办机构,分别于香港 (2003)、新 加坡 (2005) 及广州 (2009) 成功举办了三次国际会议。这些会议汇集了从事海外华人研究的各 方人士,促进了各地图书馆员、学者和收藏家在此领域的合作与经验交流,共同探讨并解决有关 馆藏发展、取用、保存及资源共享等问题。   8        About the Conference   In cooperation with the Ohio University Libraries, the University of British Columbia Library will host the 5th WCILCOS International Conference of Institutes and Libraries for Chinese Overseas Studies on Chinese through the Americas. The event will be held May 16th to 19th, 2012 at the University of British Columbia (Point Grey Campus) in Vancouver, Canada.  It is fitting that Vancouver, Canada will be the venue for the 5th WCILCOS conference as this beautiful city has been a hub of transnational flows of Chinese migrants since the 18th century. As the host institution, the UBC Asian Library is prestigiously placed and equipped to orchestrate the upcoming conference. The return of the WCILCOS Conference to North America also serves to recognize the rapid expansion of Chinese overseas studies and its related fields in the region. As with previous WCILCOS conferences, the organizers hope to utilize this event to promote the nexus between research and documentation on Chinese overseas studies and to facilitate greater interaction between scholars and librarians around the world.  会议简介 卑诗大学图书馆将于 2012 年 5 月 16 至 19 日于加拿大温哥华之校园,与俄亥俄大学图书馆共同 举办第五届海外华人研究与文献收藏机构国际会议,主题为「华人的美洲移民路」。 十八世纪以来,风景旖旎的温哥华即成为络绎不绝华人移美的常经之路;本届会议东道主卑诗大 学亚洲图书馆遐迩闻名,馆藏丰富;自从 2000 年美国举办第一届海外华人研究与文献收藏机构 国际会议以来,海外华人研究,特别是对北美华人的研究发展迅速。诸多因素使位于北美温哥华 的卑诗大学成为本届会议的理想之地。秉承历届会议的传统,本届会议将以研究与资料收集为中 心,促进学者与图书馆员的全球合作。  9        About the Co-hosts University of British Columbia Library (www.library.ubc.ca) UBC Library is a high-ranking member of the Association of Research Libraries (ARL). It has 21 branches and divisions, and is the largest library in British Columbia. Its collections include more than 6.3 million volumes, more than 875,000 e-books, more than 883,000 maps, audio, video and graphic materials, and more than 165,000 serial titles. The Library provides access to expanding digital resources and houses an on-site Digitization Centre. In the spring of 2010, UBC Library presented a new strategic plan to guide the institution for the next five years (please see http://strategicplan.library.ubc.ca for more information). The document features five strategic directions: Enhance Student Learning; Accelerate Research; Manage Collections in a Digital Context; Engage with Community; and Create an Exceptional Work Environment. These directions also align with Place and Promise, the strategic plan for UBC as a whole (please see http://strategicplan.ubc.ca for more information).    Ohio University Libraries (www.library.ohiou.edu) Established in 1804, Ohio University is the oldest public institution of higher learning in the Northwest Territory and in the State of Ohio. The Athens campus has approximately 17,000 students enrolled in 250 undergraduate programs. It also confers master's degrees in nearly all major academic divisions and awards doctoral degrees in selected departments. International programs represent an important focus for the campus and over 1,000 international students enrolled at Ohio University. Ohio University’s library collection began in 1811 with a $316 purchase of books and a globe. By 1814 the first library rules were codified and by 1830 the collection had grown to 3,000 books. In 2009 Ohio University Libraries acquired its 3,000,000th volume. While proud of our 3,000,000 volumes, 70% of new purchases are for electronic resources. We had 12 million website visits in 2010 and our expectation is for nearly 15 million for 2012. Ohio University Libraries have been a member of the Association of Research Libraries since 1995. The University Libraries hosted 2.2 million in-person visits in 2011, an increase of 73% in the past five years. It is our special collections, though, such as those held by our Center for International Collections, that bring a distinctive identity to Ohio University Libraries because they represent the richness, strength and depth of our holdings. These collections attract top scholars from around the world to Ohio University and the stewardship and preservation of those collections are major and enduring contribution of the University Libraries to the academy.  10        合办机构简介 卑诗大学图书馆 (www.library.ubc.ca) 卑诗大学图书馆是研究图书馆学会(Association of Research Libraries, ARL) 的高级会员。它拥有 21 个支部和组别,亦是卑诗省内最大的图书馆。馆内藏书量超过 630 万册,另有超过 875,000 本电 子书籍、883,000 份以上的地图、录音带、录像带及图像信息,以及超过 165,000 个系列书名。 图书馆亦提供扩展数码资源的渠道,馆内更设有一个数码中心。 在 2010 年的春天,卑诗大学图书馆提出了一个崭新的策略性计划,以期带领大学未来五年的发 展 (详情请登阅网站 http://strategicplan.library.ubc.ca)。这份文件勾划出五项策略性方针:提升学 生之学习经历、促进研究、利用数码科技处理收藏品、衔接社区、创造一个卓越的工作环境等。 这几项方针亦跟卑诗大学名为「地方及承诺」(Place and Promise) 的整体策略性计划相谋合。(详 情请登阅网站 http://strategicplan.ubc.ca)  俄亥俄大学图书馆 (www.library.ohiou.edu) 俄亥俄大学创立于 1804 年,是美国西北地区及俄亥俄州历史最悠久的公共高等教育学府。位于 美国雅典市的大学校园可容纳 17,000 名入读 250 个不同课程的本科生。大学亦颁授几乎所有主 要学系的硕士学位及个别学系的博士学位。教授国际课程亦是校园的重点工作。目前就读俄亥俄 大学的国际学生人数已逾 1,000 名。 俄亥俄大学图书馆于 1811 年开始收纳馆藏,当年之总藏书值为 316 美元,并购置一座地球仪。 图书馆守则于 1814 年首次订立。1830 年,藏书量已增至 3,000 册。2009 年俄亥俄大学图书馆收 纳其第 300 万册藏书。除该批令我们引以为傲的 300 万册藏书外,馆内七成新增的书籍亦作电子 资源之用。计 2010 年我们的图书馆网站已累积达 1,200 万造访人次。我们期望该网站的累积造 访人次能于 2012 年增至接近 1,500 万。自 1995 年起,俄亥俄大学图书馆正式成为研究图书馆协 会之一员。2011 年亲临造访本馆人数已累积至 220 万,相比五年前,造访人数升近 73%。 然而,俄亥俄大学图书馆拥有独特卓越的身份,实有赖校内的特藏品诸如国际收藏中心的馆藏, 因为它代表着我们特藏品的丰富、强大和深度。这些馆藏品吸引顶尖学者从世界各地前来造访俄 亥俄大学,而馆内的服务及珍存收藏品的工作,标志着本校图书馆对学术界所作的重大及持久的 贡献。  11        Message from Co-Chairs Eleanor Yuen, Head, Asian Library, University of British Columbia It gives me great pleasure to be the local host of the 5th International conference of Institutes and Libraries for Chinese Overseas Studies and to welcome you to Vancouver in May when beautiful British Columbia is in its full glory. BC is a province with more than half a million ethnic Chinese call home from PRC, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Asia, the U.S.A., Central and South America , UK and Australia , and stage stories of “Chinese through the Americas” every day. In the last three decades, the Asian Library at UBC has developed its collections and supported the research of Chinese Canadians. Hosting the conference helps to impart a sense of larger purpose of contributing creative ideas and best practices to further WCILCOS’s mission of promoting research, learning and outreach for Chinese Overseas Studies. To reflect the evolving interests of a growing number of institutions and researchers, the 2012 conference has brought together new thematic panels on Chinese rare books held outside China and on historic relations between Chinese and aboriginals. Of the 101 presentations planned, we are particularly pleased about the panels organized by the community groups from coast to coast. It is also very gratifying to help bring students to the conference through generous sponsorships of participants. As a major international conference on Chinese overseas, it presents a terrific venue for us to honour and celebrate the lives and legacies of mentors and pioneer researchers in North America from the past to the present. Indeed, it will be an exciting time to visit UBC to celebrate our newly-minted Asian-Canadian program, the “Chinese-Canadian Stories” portal and enjoy the Asian Library’s recently acquired family archives and resources. I look forward to meeting you very soon and wish everyone another successful and enjoyable conference.  Jeffrey Ferrier, Curator, Center for International Collections, Ohio University Libraries As Co-Chair of the 5th International Conference of the 5th International Conference of Institutes and Libraries for Chinese Overseas Studies, it is my great honor to welcome all participants. It is particularly appropriate that the conference is being held in British Columbia, Canada given this year’s theme, “Chinese through the Americas” and the significant contributions that the Chinese have made throughout the New World in recent centuries. Ohio University Libraries is proud to continue their sponsorship of the conference series and partner with the University of British Columbia Library to host this event. I would also like to express my sincere gratitude to Daniel Shao for his very generous support. In keeping with the tradition of past WCILOCS conferences, prominent scholars will be joined by librarians and archivists committed to preserving the scholarly record of the Overseas Chinese for future generations. These individuals have travelled far and wide from Asia, Australia, Europe, New Zealand and the Americas to share their latest research and knowledge. 12        共同主席欢迎词 加拿大卑诗大学亚洲图书馆 馆长 袁家瑜  本人很高兴能够成为「第五届海外华人研究与文献收藏机构国际会议」之主办者。欢迎各位在这 春光明媚、景色最怡人的五月天莅临卑诗省温哥华市。卑诗省拥有超过五十万以本省为家的华侨, 他们来自中国大陆﹑香港﹑台湾﹑亚洲﹑美国﹑中、南美洲﹑英国及澳大利亚等地,而「华人的 美洲移民路」的故事每天仍在上演。 过去 30 年,卑诗大学亚洲图书馆一直致力于发展及支持有关加拿大华人的资料整合及研究。透 过主办本届会议,本馆希望能传达一个宏大的目标,就是提出更多创新意念和完善的实践方法去 进一步履行本会议的承诺和使命,推动有关海外华人的研究、学习与交流。为了反映日益增加的 学术机构及研究人士不断演变的研究兴趣,2012 年度的会议邀请了新一批专题研究小组出席, 讨论从中国本土以外搜罗到的罕有中文藏书,以及讲述华人与加拿大原住民之间的历史渊源。 在这 101 场演讲中,我们尤其高兴见到由全国不同地区的团体组成之讨论小组。同样值得欣慰的, 是学生也能透过参与者的慷慨赞助得以出席是次会议。作为以中国海外华人为题的重要国际会议, 本会议正好提供一个难得的场合,让我们向古往今来、生活于北美洲、毕生诲人不倦及开展研究 的先贤,表达崇高的敬意和怀念。 今天确实是一个令人兴奋的时刻,适逢各位造访卑诗大学,和我们一同庆祝新近构思的「加国亚 裔」新课程及「加华纪事」研究项目,并尽情参观亚洲图书馆最新搜罗的家族档案及馆藏资料。 本人期待很快又和大家聚首一堂。谨祝各位有一个愉快而成功的会议。  美国俄亥俄大学图书馆 国际收藏部主任 Jeffrey Ferrier 作为第五届海外华人研究与文献收藏机构国际会议(WCILCOS, 下称“会议”)联席主席,本人很荣 幸能欢迎各位莅临出席会议。是次会议假加拿大卑诗省举行尤为合适,以其更贴合本年度会议主 题「华人的美洲移民路」,展现华人近数世纪对美洲新大陆所作的重大贡献。 美国俄亥俄大学图书馆为能继续赞助此一系列的会议,并与卑诗大学协办今次之盛会,引以为豪。 本人亦藉此对邵公全博士的慷慨支持,致以衷心谢意。 为承续历届的会议传统,来自世界各地的图书馆馆员及文献档案馆员将联同各杰出学者,竭诚为 我们的后代,肩负起珍存有关海外华人学术纪录的重任。彼等不辞跋涉, 从亚洲﹑澳大利亚﹑ 欧洲﹑新西兰及美洲等地远道而来,与我们分享他们近期的研究成果及知识。 本人谨代表会议筹备委员会,祝愿各优秀的与会代表及讲者在是次极具启发性的会议中取得丰硕 成果,并于会议期间享有愉快的温哥华之旅。  13        Campus Map 校园地图  14        4 11 10  East Mall    Main Mall   West Mall  University Boulevard   12  14    13  1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14.  Irving K Barber Learning Centre (IKBLC) * St. John’s College 圣约翰学院 * Marine Drive Residence Sage Bistro* Beaty Biodiversity Museum Nitobe Memorial Garden 新渡户纪念花园 Museum of Anthropology 人类学博物馆 Morris and Helen Belkin Art Gallery Chan Centre of Performing Arts 陈氏演艺中心 Asian Centre / Asian Library 亚洲中心 / 亚洲图书馆 * Liu Institute for Global Issues Student Union Building (post office/ cafeteria) 学生会大楼 ( 设邮政局/ 餐厅) UBC Bookstore 大学书局 Bus loop 公车总站  * Conference venue 会议场地 15        16        17        Conference Rules 1. Participants should refer to the Conference Program for the daily agenda and schedules of the Conference. They are responsible for keeping track of their panel sessions and other conference events. 2. Speakers and Chairpersons are requested to arrive at least 5 minutes before the scheduled session. Should late arrival at or absence from the scheduled session be unavoidable, they must by all means inform the Information Booth ahead of time. 3. Badge use will be mandatory. Participants should display their Conference identity badge at all time to ensure access to the Conference venue, dining rooms and activities. Badge checkers will be monitoring access. Any loss or damage of the identity badge should be reported to the Information Booth without delay. 4. Please observe the rules and regulations of each program and comply with the instructions issued by the Conference personnel. 5. No smoking, drinking or eating is allowed at the Conference venue except in designated areas. 6. No one is allowed to record indoor conference activities electronically without the permission of the Conference host. 7. Please switch cell phones to silent or vibrating modes and do not answer phone calls during the Conference. 8. Anyone wishing to display or distribute materials/ goods during Conference period must obtain the permission from the Information Booth. Any commercial activity, including the sales of books and media, is not permitted at the conference venue. 9. Participants should observe all rules and regulations of the University of British Columbia at all times during Conference period in the campus. 10. If you require assistance, please contact the Information Booth located at the 2/F foyer of Irving K. Barber Learning Centre, IKBLC (1961 East Mall) during Conference hours or call 778-989-2791 (phone line open May 15th-19th, 9:00 AM-5:00PM).  会议须知 1. 参加者须遵守会议议程及自行留意确切时间,准时参与会议之各项活动。 2. 演讲者及主持人请于所属环节开始前最少 5 分钟抵达会场。倘在无法避免之情况下须临时缺 席或迟到,务请尽早通知大会咨询处。 3. 各参加者必需于会议期间佩戴大会发给之名牌,以便参加大会一切活动和用餐。任何遗失或 损毁名牌者,须立即知会咨询处。 4. 大会进行期间,请遵守一切会场规则,听从大会工作人员之指示及临时宣布事项。 5. 会场内严禁吸烟。除指定范围外,请勿在会场内饮食。 6. 除经大会许可,任何人士请勿在会场内录像或录音。 7. 会场内务请关掉手提电话之铃声及响闹装置,并请勿在会场内接听电话。 8. 任何人士如欲在大会期间展示或分发宣传单张或商品,必须事先取得咨询处同意。会场内严 禁任何商业活动,包括售卖书籍或影音产品。 9. 在卑诗大学校园内,与会者不论何时何地均须谨守卑诗大学之校规及指示。 10. 与会者如需协助, 请到设于 IKBLC Irving K. Barber Learning Centre (1961 East Mall) 二楼大堂的咨 询处,或致电会议专线 778-989-2791(专线开放时间 5 月 15-19 日 上午 9 时至下午 5 时)。 18        Conference Sponsors 会议赞助  19        20        We, and our father, Glen Wong (黄朝金), would like to thank the organizers of the 5th International Conference of Institutes and Libraries for Chinese Overseas Studies, and in particular, the Asian Library, University of British Columbia, for the opportunity to share our family’s history. The Wong Gong Gam Genealogy Project has been a journey of discovery into the life of our Grandfather, Wong Gong Gam ( 黃 昂 湛 ), a pioneer, a philanthropist, and the unofficial mayor of Chinatown, who made many significant contributions to the social and cultural betterment of the Chinese in Vancouver.  September 29, 1877 – June 28, 1938 Proud to be a gold sponsor of WCILCOS 2012, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, and of Mitzi Espinosa Luis (呂美枝) of Nacional Association Min Chih Tang, Cuba, in memory of our mother, Daisy Wong (黄林清燕), whose uncles emigrated to Cuba from Hoy Ping County (開平), Xiang Gang District (蜆崗鄊), Shui Bei Village (水背村), China.  21        p  22        23        24        Keynote Speakers, Special Guests & Conference Schedule 主题演讲嘉宾、特别嘉宾 及 会议日程  25        Keynote Speaker 主题演讲嘉宾 Dr. Henry Yu | University of British Columbia Associate Professor, Department of History Principal, St. John’s College Project Lead, Chinese Canadian Stories – A UBC-SFU Project Since joining UBC in 2003, Prof. Henry Yu has worked closely with local community groups in Vancouver and across B.C. to recover the lost and ignored histories of trans-Pacific migrants to Canada. In particular, the understudied history of Chinese Canadians, who now make up over a third of the population of Vancouver and who have been the largest group of immigrants to Canada over the last two decades, has been the focus of his scholarly research, undergraduate and graduate student training, and community outreach initiative. He is the Director of the Initiative for Student Teaching and Research in Chinese Canadian Studies (INSTRCC.ubc.ca) at UBC, and the Project Lead for the $1.175 million “Chinese Canadian Stories” project (chinesecanadian.ubc.ca) involving UBC, SFU, and a wide spectrum of academic and community collaborators. Prof. Yu is currently working on a trio of book projects, each aims to provide new perspectives on global and migration history – (1) “Pacific Canada”, which explores the history of Canada as an engagement between trans-Pacific migrants, trans- Atlantic migrants, and First Nations and aboriginal peoples; (2) “The Cantonese Pacific”, which argues for the importance of understanding three centuries of trans-Pacific migration in the making of the contemporary world, and (3) “How Tiger Woods Lost His Stripes”, which examines the fascination with interracial sex.  余全毅教授 加拿大卑诗大学历史系副教授及圣约翰学院院长 加华纪事项目主管 余全毅教授自 2003 年任職卑詩大學,一直积极与卑詩省多个社區组织合作,致力发掘已遗失或 被忽视的加拿大跨太平洋移民史。加拿大華人为過去二十年来最大的移民族群,超過溫哥華總人 口的三分之一,但他們的歷史仍未被充份研究。余教授积极推动校內跨院校合作,培訓本科生及 研究生,以及带领多个社区 外展项目。他目前为「加拿大華人研究學生教研創議活動」 (INSTRCC.ubc.ca) 的項目主任兼「加華紀事」(chinesecanadian.ubc.ca) 負責人。「加華紀事」获联 邦政府资助创建一站式网站等教育资源,项目合作伙伴包括卑詩大學、西门菲沙大學以及眾多院 校、社區組織等。余教授目前的三本著作以嶄新的視角重新審視移民史和全球史: (1)「太平洋加拿大」:從跨太平洋移民、跨大西洋移民以及加拿大原住民的接觸,來探索加拿大 歷史; (2)「廣東人的太平洋」:論證過去三百年跨太平洋移民史對形成當今世界的重要性;以及 (3)「泰格伍茲如何失去了他的‘虎紋’」:探討跨種族性愛的魅惑。  26        Keynote Speaker 主题演讲嘉宾  Prof. Guotu Zhuang | Xiamen University Dean, Faculty of International Relations & Research School of SE Asian Studies  Prof. Zhuang Guotu is doctoral supervisor in history and political science. As the Dean of Faculty of International Relations and Research School for Southeast Asian Studies at Xiamen University of China, he is holding a concurrent post as Director for Malaysian Studies and Saw Center for Southeast Asian Studies, and as the Master and Chief expert for Southeast Asian Studies of “The 985 Project in Social Science National Innovation Platform”.  庄国土教授 中国厦门大学国际关系学院及南洋研究院院长 庄国土教授为历史学、政治学博士生导师,现为中国厦门大学国际关系学院院长、南洋研究院院 长、马来西亚研究所所长、苏氏东南亚研究中心主任、国家 985 社科创新平台(东南亚研究)主 持人兼首席专家。从 2010 起,庄教授主持国家社科重点项目《国际华人移民现状、趋势和居住 国政策》。著作有:《东亚华人社会形成和发展:华商网络、移民和一体化》(2009); 《当代华商 网络与华人移民:起源、兴起与发展》(2005); 《二战以后东南亚华族社会地位的变化》(2003) 《华侨华人与中国的关系》(2001) 等,过去并常以中文,英文,日文发表论文。  27        Special Guest 特别嘉宾  Senator Lillian E. Dyck Quan A descendant of a Chinese immigrant family that first came to Canada from China in 1912. Issues that are close to her heart are the discriminatory legislation, from the Head Tax Act to the Chinese Immigration Act. Among the different Chinese Canadian events and issues she has been participating in, Senator Dyck Quan spoke publicly on many occasions including TV interview in Toronto, Chinese Canadian National Council Press Conference and Chinese Canadian National Council’s Annual Tribute Dinner in Scarborough, ON and attended various Chinese celebrations and events. In November 2009, she was invited to attend International Tourism and Culture Festival and the Pan-Pearl River Delta Convention in Guangdong. Besides meeting senior officials, she visited her father’s ancestral village in Guangdong. Senator Dyck Quan has been active in meeting with Chinese local organizations in Vancouver and Victoria. In February, 2011, she attended a banquet for the Kaiping Delegation from Guangdong in Vancouver. Many Chinese delegates from Kaiping as well as Chinese dignitaries in Canada were present. On April 15, 2011, Senator Dyck Quan was invited to be a Keynote speaker at Conference called “Nation Building in Canada: Chinese Perspectives” at the University of Toronto, where she gave a speech entitled, “Intermarriage between First Nations women and the early Chinese male immigrants.”  加拿大联邦参议员关丽莲博士 关丽莲博士的先祖于 1912 年从中国移居加拿大。作为早期华侨家庭的后裔,她对加国的歧视政 策─从人头税到紧随的华人移民法案(排华法)─感受至深。在参与各项加籍华人的活动及事宜中, 关丽莲参议员曾于不同场合作公开演讲, 其中包括于多伦多接受电视访问, 于安省史嘉堡举行的加 拿大华人协进会记者会及加拿大华人协进会周年嘉许晚宴中发表演说, 以及出席各种中国节日庆 祝及活动。 2009 年 11 月她获邀出席在中国广东省举行的国际旅游及文化节和泛珠三角会议。此 行除拜访中方高层官员外, 亦专程到其父亲位于广东开平的家乡寻根。 一直以来,关丽莲参议员积极与温哥华及维多利亚市的当地华侨团体会面。2011 年 2 月, 她出席 宴会, 迎接从广东开平前来温哥华访问的中国代表团。不少开平的代表团团员及加拿大华人政要 都来赴会,可谓冠盖云集。2011 年 4 月 15 日, 关丽莲参议员获邀于多伦多大学举办的名为 “Nation Building in Canada: Chinese Perspectives” 会议作主题演讲,题目为 “Intermarriage between First Nations women and the early Chinese male immigrants” 。  28        Special Guest 特别嘉宾  Senator Vivienne Poy An author, entrepreneur, fashion designer, historian, corporate director, and Chancellor Emerita of the University of Toronto, Senator Poy was the first Canadian of Asian descent to be appointed to the Senate of Canada. Senator Poy is a well known proponent of multiculturalism, and intercultural dialogue. She was instrumental in having May recognized by the federal government as Asian Heritage Month in Canada, and has spent many years advocating for the greater economic, political, and social integration of immigrants, new Canadians and visible minorities across Canada. In addition, Senator Poy is a noted scholar and historian, whose academic interests are focused on the history of the Chinese in Canada, the history of Hong Kong and modern China. Born in Hong Kong, she was educated in Hong Kong, England, and Canada. She is the author and editor of several books, with an M.A. and Ph.D. in History from the University of Toronto. She also completed a Diploma in Fashion Arts at Seneca College. As a result of her leadership in politics, the community and education, she has received many awards and honors from Canada’s diverse communities. In recognition of her national and international achievements, she has been awarded several honorary degrees from universities in Canada and around the world.  加拿大联邦参议员利德蕙博士 身兼企业家、作家、史学家及时装设计师的利德蕙参议员,是加拿大史上首位亚裔被总理委任为 参议员,亦是多伦多大学退休的名誉校长。 利德蕙身为加拿大首位亚裔参议员,是促使每年五月成为加拿大亚裔传统月的推手。利德蕙生於 香港,在香港、英国及加拿大受教育,由麦基尔大学得到名誉学士;辛力加学院时装艺术文凭, 并继续在多伦多大学历史系深造,获得硕士及博士学位。她有多本有关历史的著作。 利参议员在文化交流、公共社区的服务及种族和谐方面获得各界肯定,获得多项奖励表扬,包括 加拿大和全世界多所大学对她颁发的荣誉博士学位。  29        Conference Schedule May 16th (Wednesday) Early Registration 10:30 AM – 2:30 PM Location: Asian Library, Asian Centre (1871 West Mall)  Opening Dinner Location: Sage Bistro (6331 Crescent Road) 5:00 PM - 6:00 PM  Registration  6:00 PM - 6:45 PM  Opening Ceremony and Welcoming Speeches MC: Jan Walls & Yvonne Walls Larry Grant, Elder-in-Residence at the UBC First Nations House of Learning Lillian Eva Dyck Quan, Senator, Saskatchewan, Canada Ingrid Parent, University Librarian, University of British Columbia Scott Seaman, Dean, Ohio University Libraries Eleanor Yuen, Head, Asian Library, University of British Columbia & Co-chair, 2012 WCILCOS Conference Chinese Canadian History Quiz - Hayne Wai  6:45 PM - 8:00 PM  Buffet Dinner  8:00 PM - 9:00 PM  Keynote Speech: The Rhythms of the Cantonese Pacific and the Making of Nations Henry Yu Associate Professor, Department of History Principal, St. John’s College, University of British Columbia Project Lead, Chinese Canadian Stories – A UBC-SFU Project  30        会议日程 5 月 16 日 (星期三) 提前报到 上午 10:30 – 下午 2:30 地点: 亚洲中心亚洲图书馆 (1871 West Mall)  开幕晚会 地点:Sage Bistro (6331 Crescent Road) 下午 5:00 - 6:00  会议代表报到  下午 6:00 - 6:45  开幕式及嘉宾致辞 主持人: 王健及李盈 Musqueam 长老 Larry Grant 加拿大联邦参议员关丽莲 卑诗大学图书馆馆长 Ingrid Parent 美国俄亥俄大学图书馆馆长 Scott Seaman 卑诗大学亚洲图书馆长及会议共同主席袁家瑜 加华历史问答: 韋业庆  下午 6:45 - 8:00  自助晚餐  下午 8:00 - 9:00  主题演讲: The Rhythms of the Cantonese Pacific and the Making of Nations 加拿大卑诗大学历史系副教授 卑诗大学圣约翰学院院长 加华纪事项目主管 余全毅  31        May 17th (Thursday) Main Location: IKBLC Irving K. Barber Learning Centre (1961 East Mall) Information Booth 8:30 AM – 5:00 PM Location: IKBLC 2/F Main Foyer Lobby Panel Sessions (AM morning) 9:00 AM - 10:30 AM S1-S6 10:30 AM - 10:45 AM Break 10:45 AM - 12:15 PM S1, S7-S11 Location: IKBLC 155, 185, 260, 261, 301 and 302 Lunch 12:15 PM – 1:30 PM Location: Asian Centre Auditorium (1871 West Mall) Panel Sessions (PM afternoon) 1:30 PM - 3:00 PM S12-S16 3:00 PM - 3:15 PM Break 3:15 PM - 4:45 PM S12, S15, S17-19 Location: IKBLC 155, 185, 260, 261, 301 and 302 Sponsors Booth 9:00 AM – 4:00 PM Location: IKBLC 2/F Main Foyer Lobby Book Display 9:00 AM – 4:00 PM Location: IKBLC 256 Social Room 9:00 AM - 4:00 PM Location: IKBLC 156 WCILCOS Executive Committee Business Meeting (by invitation only) 7:00 PM – 8:00 PM Location: Rm. 2166, St. John’s College (2111 Lower Mall)  32        5 月 17 日 (星期四) 主会场: IKBLC Irving K. Barber Learning Centre (1961 East Mall) 咨询处 上午 8:30 – 下午 5:00 地点: IKBLC 二楼大堂 上午专题分组 上午 9:00 – 10:30 S1-S6 上午 10:30–10: 45 茶歇 上午 10:45 - 下午 12:15 S1, S7-11 地点: IKBLC 155, 185, 260, 261, 301, 302 午餐 下午 12:15 – 1:30 地点: 亚洲中心礼堂 (1871 West Mall) 下午专题分组 下午 1:30 – 3:00 S12-S16 下午 3:00 – 3:15 茶歇 下午 3:15 – 4:45 S12, S15, S17-19 地点: IKBLC 155, 185, 260, 261, 301, 302 赞助机构展览 上午 9:00 – 下午 4:00 地点: IKBLC 二楼大堂 书籍展览 上午 9:00 – 下午 4:00 地点: IKBLC 256 交流室 上午 9:00 –下午 4:00 地点: IKBLC 156 世界海外华人研究与文献收藏机构国际会议联合委员会会议 (只限被邀请者) 下午 7:00 – 8:00 地点: 圣约翰学院 2166 室 (2111 Lower Mall)  33        May 18th (Friday) Information Booth 8:30 AM – 3:00 PM Location: IKBLC 2/F Main Foyer Lobby Panel Sessions (AM morning) 9:00 AM –10:30 AM S20- S25 10:30 AM - 10:45 AM Break 10:45 AM - 12:15 PM S20, S21, S24, S26-S28 Location: IKBLC 182, 185, 260, 261, 301 and 302 Lunch 12:15 PM – 1:30 PM Location: Asian Centre Auditorium (1871 West Mall) Sponsors Booth 9:00 AM – 3:00 PM Location: IKBLC 2/F Main Foyer Lobby Book Display 9:00 AM – 3:00 PM Location: IKBLC 256 Social Room 9:00 AM -3:00 PM Location: IKBLC 156 Campus Tour 2:00 PM– 4:15 PM Asian Library, Asian Centre (1871 West Mall) Chung Collection, IKBLC (1961 East Mall) Group A: Please meet outside Rare Books and Special Collections, IKBLC 110 at 1:50 PM Group B: Please meet at the front entrance of Asian Library at 2:00 PM Group C: Please meet at the front entrance of Asian Library at 2:30 PM  34        5 月 18 日 (星期五) 咨询处 上午 8:30 – 下午 3:00 地点: IKBLC 二楼大堂 上午专题分组 上午 9:00 –10:30 S20- S25 上午 10:30 - 10: 45 茶歇 上午 10:45 - 下午 12:15 S20, S21, S24, S26-S28 地点: IKBLC 182, 185, 260, 261, 301, 302 午餐 下午 12:15 – 1:30 地点:亚洲中心礼堂 (1871 West Mall) 赞助机构展览 上午 9:00 – 下午 3:00 地点: IKBLC 二楼大堂 书籍展览 上午 9:00 – 下午 3:00 地点 IKBLC 256 交流室 上午 9:00 –下午 3:00 地点: IKBLC 156 校园导游 下午 2:00 – 4:15 亚洲中心  亚洲图书馆 (1871 West Mall) IKBLC 蒋北扶伉俪珍藏馆 (1961 East Mall) A 组: 请于下午 1:50 在 IKBLC 110 大学特别收藏室 门外集合 B 组: 请于下午 2:00 在亚洲图书馆入口集合  C 组: 请于下午 2:30 在亚洲图书馆入口集合   35        May 18th (Friday) Closing Dinner Location: St. John’s College Dining Hall (2111 Lower Mall) 4:30 PM - 5:30 PM  Reception  5:30 PM - 6:15 PM  Closing Ceremony and Speeches MC: Jan Walls & Yvonne Walls Special presentation by Ohio University Libraries Vivienne Poy. Senator, Ontario, Canada  6:15 PM - 7:30 PM  Buffet Dinner Funded by the Vernon R. & Marion Alden Library Endowment in honor of Dr. Hwa-wei Lee’s 80th birthday  7:30 PM - 8:30 PM  Keynote Speech: Emigration from Fuzhou to U.S.A around 2000: As mirrored from the Case of Changle  Zhuang Guotu Dean, Faculty of International Relations & Research School of SE Asian Studies, Xiamen University  8:30 PM - 9:00 PM  Gift presentation and group photo  May 19th (Saturday) Vancouver City Tour * 8:30 AM – 4:30 PM Itinerary: Richmond Public Library, Britannia Heritage Shipyard, Queen Elizabeth Park, Vancouver Chinatown & Gas Town. Pick up time and location (Bus will leave on time. Please arrive 10 minutes earlier): 8:30 AM In front of Point Grill Restaurant at Marine Drive Residences, UBC (2205 Lower Mall) 8:45 AM GAP display window on the west-side of Cambie Street, the outside of Oakridge Mall (Close to Canada line Oakridge-41st Avenue Station) * For participants who registered and paid for the city tour  36        5 月 18 日 (星期五) 闭幕晚会 地点: 圣约翰学院 (2111 Lower Mall) 下午 4:30 - 5:30  接待  下午 5:30 - 6:15  闭幕式及致辞 主持人: 王健及李盈 美国俄亥俄大学图书馆特别项目 加拿大联邦参议员利德蕙  下午 6:15 - 7:30  自助晚餐 (由 Vernon R. & Marion Alden Library Endowment 赞助 以贺李华伟博士八秩壽辰)  下午 7:30 - 8:30  主题嘉宾演讲: Emigration from Fuzhou to U.S.A around 2000: As mirrored from the Case of Changle 中国厦门大学国际关系学院及南洋研究院院长 庄国土  下午 8:30 - 9:00  致送纪念品及大合照  5 月 19 日 (星期六) 温哥华一日游 * 上午 8:30 – 下午 4:30 行程: 列治文公共图书馆、渔人码头、女皇公园、温哥华唐人街及煤气镇 上车时间及地点 (旅游巴士将准时开出,请提早 10 分钟到达等候,逾时不候): 上午 8:30 卑诗大学 Marine Drive Residence Point Grill 餐厅前 (2205 Lower Mall) 上午 8:45 Oakridge 商场外 GAP 橱窗 前 (位 Cambie Street 西面, 邻近捷运加拿大线 Oakridge-41st Avenue 站) * 只限注册时已报名及缴费之参加者。   37        Panel Sessions & Paper Abstracts 专题分组与论文摘要  38        May 17th (Thursday) / 5 月 17 日(四)    S1 Chinese Overseas Heritage Treasures: Transnational Discovery & Delivery Time 时间: 9:00 AM – 11:30 AM Room 地点: IKBLC 261 Moderator 主席: Virginia Shih 1. Sources on Chinese overseas: traces in business archives at the Hung On-To Memorial Library of the University of Hong Kong (Edith CHAN, University of Hong Kong) 2. From Criticism to Mutual Support: Richmond Public Library’s Relationship with the Cantonese Speaking Community (Wendy JANG, Richmond Public Library) 3. Bilingual Metadata and Discovery - Don’t Let Your Chinese Archives Get Lost In Translation (Lilly LI and Allan CHO, University of British Columbia) 4. Telling the Story of the Chinese of California in the 19th and Early 20th Centuries: A Collaborative Online Exhibition (Theresa SALAZAR, University of California, Berkeley) 5. Library Marketing for Southeast Asia Chinese Overseas Special Collections: Transnational Discovery & Delivery (Virginia Jing-yi SHIH, University of California, Berkeley)  S2 Time 时间: 9:00 AM – 10:30 AM Room 地点: IKBLC 302 (Dodson Room) Moderator 主席: 庄国土  1. 移民與難民:加拿大緬甸華人移民社群的形構與變遷 (台灣國立歷史博物館 翟振孝) 2. 1980年后福州向美国的移民及其发展变化 (福建社会科学院 黄英湖) 3. 八闽新侨觅缘踪 史海钩沉东西洋——庄国土教授主持编纂《福建新移民调查资料汇编》与 《清代华侨史补充资料》中美国部分之析介(厦门大学 张长虹)  S3 Time 时间: 9:00 AM – 10:30 AM Room 地点: IKBLC 301 (Lillooet Room) Moderator 主席: Paul Crowe 1. Participation of Chinese Pioneers in British Columbia Salmon Canneries, 1880’s to 1920’s (Rudy M.T. CHIANG) 2. Chung Nye of New Westminster, B.C - A Canadian Story from the Perspective of Chinese Pioneers living in B.C. during the 1880’s to 1920’s (Rudy M.T. CHIANG) 3. The transformation of funerary landscape by the evolution of Chinese burials in Burnaby, BC (Maurice GUIBORD)  39        May 17th (Thursday) / 5 月 17 日(四) S4 Time 时间: 9:00 AM – 10:30 AM Room 地点: IKBLC 260 Moderator 主席: Liren Zheng 1. Colorado’s Celestials (Katie ADAMSON, University of Colorado Denver) 2. Chinese Chicago: Transnational Migration and Business, 1870s-1930s (Huping LING, Truman State University) 3. The Growth and Sustainability of Chinese American Nonprofit Organizations in U.S. Metropolitan Areas (Chi-kan Richard HUNG, University of Massachusetts) 4. From Cultural Anxiety to Social Mobilization: The Making of a Chinese American Community in Boston, 1840s-1930s (Wing-kai TO, Bridgewater State University)  S5 Forced Migration and Refugeedom: A Neglected Aspect of Chinese Overseas Studies Time 时间: 9:00 AM – 10:30 AM Room 地点: IKBLC 155 Moderator 主席: Glen Peterson 1. Exile and Imagined Homeland: Cultural Nostalgia and the Mainlander Native Place Associations in Taiwan, 1962-1987 (Dominic Meng-Hsuan YANG, University of British Columbia) 2. Overseas Chinese Refugees in the People’s Republic of China: A Neglected Field of Study (Glen PETERSON, University of British Columbia) 3. Transborder Sovereignty: Chinese “Coolie” Migration to the Americas and the Limits of the NationState (Elliott YOUNG, Lewis & Clark College)  S6 Researching the Chinese Presence in Atlantic Canada-Family and Place Time 时间: 9:00 AM – 10:30 AM Room 地点: IKBLC 185 Moderator 主席: James Morrison 1. Where East meets Eastern: Chinese early migration to Atlantic Canada (James H. MORRISON, Saint Mary’s University) 2. More than meets the eye: An examination of archival materials related to Chinese immigration in Nova Scotia, with specific reference to Halifax (Grace BELL, Saint Mary’s University) 3. The Lees: a Chinese family’s century in Halifax (Albert LEE, Chinese Canadian photographer)  40        May 17th (Thursday) / 5 月 17 日(四) S7 Time 时间: 10:45 AM – 12:15 PM Room 地点: IKBLC 302 (Dodson Room) Moderator 主席: 张秀明  1. 2. 3. 4.    海外青田人社团、商贸投资与回乡参政 (暨南大学 高伟浓) 加拿大台山华侨与台山县立中学 (五邑大学 黄海娟) 海外新华侨华人子女文化传承状况考论(暨南大学 鞠玉华) 家庭团聚是移民法体系的核心—美国、加拿大家庭团聚移民政策分析 (华中师范大学 李其荣)  S8 Media Panel Time 时间: 10:45 AM – 12:15 PM Room 地点: IKBLC 301(Lillooet Room) Moderator 主席: Henry Yu 1. Million Dollar Mile (Karin LEE, Filmmaker & Instructor) 2. From C to C: Chinese Canadian Stories of Migration《金山梦—中国与加拿大的故事》(Jordan PATERSON, Simon Fraser University)     S9 Time 时间: 10:45 AM – 12:15 PM Room 地点: IKBLC 260 Moderator 主席: Liren Zheng 1. Chinese picture books at the Northeast Kansas Library System member libraries: A descriptive approach (Anna Ching-Yu WONG, Syracuse University iSchool) 2. Multiple Identities of Chinese Americans and Responses from Chinese in Mainland China: A Case Study of Gary Locke 美国华人的多元认同及中国民众的反应:以骆家辉为例的分析(Yiping CHEN, Jinan University) 3. Chinese Gods in New American Homes? Material Religion, Rituals, and Community (Jonathan H. X. LEE, San Francisco State University and Vivian-Lee NYITRAY, University of California Riverside)     S10   Time 时间: 10:45 AM – 12:15 PM Room 地点: IKBLC 185 Moderator 主席: Evelyn Hu-Dehart 1. Eileen Chang: Self-Translation of the Diaspora (Jessica Tsui Yan LI, York University) 2. Ethnicity in Transit: Eileen Chang, Translation, and Cold War America (Chris LEE, University of British Columbia) 3. Flipping the Script? The Performance of Chinese Fatherhood and the Question of Belonging in AngloCaribbean Fiction (Anne-Marie LEE-LOY, Ryerson University) 4. Coolie Encodings: the significance of the coolie and the free laborer in early 20th century Chinese boycott literature (Elizabeth Evans WEBER, University of California, Los Angeles) 41        May 17th (Thursday) / 5 月 17 日(四) S11 Time 时间: 10:45 AM – 12:15 PM Room 地点: IKBLC 155 Moderator 主席: Sarah Dupont 1. The Forgotten Ties: First Nations and Early Chinese Immigrants Relationship in BC (1858-1947) (Lily CHOW, Researcher & Writer) 2. A Journey to Serve: A Chinese American Woman’s Service in the Canadian Armed Forces during WW II (Sharyne Shiu THORNTON, The International District Housing Alliance) 3. Ethnic Enclave? Sex and the Myth of Isolation in Twentieth Century Chinese Canadian History (Elise CHENIER, Simon Fraser University) 4. Migration, Identities, and Transformation (Xiong GU, University of British Columbia)  S12 In Search of Value Overseas: Stories of Chinese American Librarians Time 时间: 1:30 PM – 4:45 PM Room 地点: IKBLC 261 Moderator 主席: Shuyong Jiang 1. Achievements, contributions and characteristics of Chinese American Librarians (Qi CHEN, Argosy University) 2. Organizational Action Makes the Visibility of Chinese Librarians (Lisa ZHAO, University of Illinois at Chicago) 3. Chinese Americans in LIS Education (Ling Hwey JENG, Texas Woman’s University) 4. Finding the Chinese-American Self in Scholarly Activities and Achievements (Shuyong JIANG, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign) 5. Dr. Hwa-wei Lee and his contribution to Sino-American Librarianship (Huanwen CHENG & Lei WANG, Sun Yat-Sen University)  S13 Time 时间: 1:30 PM – 3:00 PM Room 地点: IKBLC 302 (Dodson Room) Moderator 主席: 张秀明  1. 论民国时期侨刊对侨乡社会的建构—以台山侨刊为切入点 (五邑大学广东侨乡文化研究中心 姚婷) 2. 华侨华人民间文献多重价值初探 (暨南大学 徐云、朱丽娜) 3. 近代广东侨刊研究——以《香山旬报》为中心 (广东省立中山图书馆 倪俊明) 4. 美国華人與國家認同、國民觀念的重建--以舊金山華文報紙對民國成立的反應為中心 (臺灣中 央研究院 湯熙勇)  42        May 17th (Thursday) / 5 月 17 日(四)    S14 Chinese and Aboriginal Relations; Acknowledgment and Affirmation - Panel organized by Chinese Canadian Historical Society of British Columbia (CCHSBC) 由加华历史协会组织之专题组 Time 时间: 1:30 PM – 3:00 PM Room 地点: IKBLC 301(Lillooet Room) Moderator 主席: Diana Leung  S15 Diversities and Similarities of Chinese Overseas Society: A Comparative Perspective Time 时间: 1:30 PM – 4:45 PM Room 地点: IKBLC 260 Moderator 主席: Min Zhou 1. The Current State of Chinese America: International Migration, Modes of Incorporation, and the Challenges of Success (Min ZHOU, University of California, Los Angeles) 2. Brain Circulation and Transnational Chinese: Highly Skilled New Migrants in China, Singapore, and Britain (Hong LIU, Nanyang Technological University) 3. 当代“地缘组织”的精英模式:日本华侨社会个案研究 (日本武藏野美术大学 廖赤阳) 4. The Transition and the Transformation of Chinatowns in Japan (Wei WANG, National University of Kagawa) 5. Multi-stream Flows Re-shaped Chinese Communities in Canada (Kenny ZHANG, Asia Pacific Foundation of Canada) 6. New Chinese Migrant Community in Cambodia: A Fieldwork Report (James K. CHIN, University of Hong Kong)  S16 China in the Overseas Imaginary: Huaqiao and the Strengthening China Movement Time 时间: 1:30 PM – 3:00 PM Room 地点: IKBLC 155 Moderator 主席: John Price 1. The Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Association and China, 1884-1922 (Ying LIU and Tina BEBBINGTON, University of Victoria) 2. The Transpacific Fights of the Dare-to-Die Vanguard of the Overseas Chinese, 1915-1916 (Zhongping CHEN, University of Victoria) 3. Victoria Cheung and the War of Resistance against Japanese Imperialism (John PRICE, University of Victoria)  43        May 17th (Thursday) / 5 月 17 日(四)   S17 Time 时间: 3:15 PM – 4:45 PM Room 地点: IKBLC 302 (Dodson Room) Moderator 主席: Shibao Guo 1. Pioneer Pacific Chinatowns: Tracing the Chinese Diaspora in History (Judy Lam MAXWELL, Chinese Canadian Military Museum) 2. From Chinatown to Ethnoburb: The Chinese in Toronto (Arlene CHAN, Toronto Public Library) 3. Places in Time: Myth, Origin and Death in Global Chinatowns (Cindy Hing-Yuk WONG, City University of New York & Gary MCDONOGH, Bryn Mawr College) 4. Immigration, Ethnicity and Diaspora Communities: The Study of Three Chinese Cultural Centres in Canada (Shibao GUO, University of Calgary)  S18 Researching and Writing Family Histories; a Celebration of Chinese Canadian Roots - Panel organized by Chinese Canadian Historical Society of British Columbia (CCHSBC) 由加华历史协会组织之专题组 Time 时间: 3:15 PM – 4:45 PM Room 地点: IKBLC 301(Lillooet Room) Moderator 主席: Bob Sung  S19 A Chinese Reformer in Exile: Kang Youwei and the Baohuanghui in North America Time 时间: 3:15 PM – 4:45 PM Room 地点: IKBLC 155 Moderator 主席: Jane Leung Larson 1. Kang Youwei’s Travels in Canada, the United States, and Mexico, 1899–1909: An Outline of His Itinerary (Robert L. WORDEN, Library of Congress) 2. The United States as a Site for Baohuanghui Activism (Jane Leung LARSON, Baohuanghui Scholarship) 3. Kang Youwei in Canada and the Early Development of Baohuanghui in North America, 1899-1905 (Zhongping CHEN, University of Victoria) 4. Kang Youwei and the Baohuanghui in Mexico: When Two Nationalisms Collide (Evelyn HU-DEHART, Brown University)  44        May 18th (Friday) / 5 月 18 日(五) S20 Time 时间: 9:00 AM – 11:30 AM Room 地点: IKBLC 182 (Victoria Learning Theatre) Moderator 主席: Hwa-wei Lee 1. “Chinese Canadian Stories”: a University – Community Collaboration Project (Allan CHO & Lilly LI, University of British Columbia) 2. Preserving History and Exploring Resources: A U.S. - China Experience (Ying XU, California State University) 3. My experience with the Ron Bick Lee collection as a young archivist (Qinqin ZHANG, University of Western Ontario) 4. Internment Notices in Newspaper Published in Cebu, Philippines: A Source for Chinese Bio-Profiles (Gyo MIYABARA, Osaka University) 5. The Tung Wah Coffin Home Archives and Studies of Global Chinese Networking (Honming YIP, Chinese University of Hong Kong)  S21 华人文学中的文化与移民 Time 时间: 9:00 AM – 11:30 AM Room 地点: IKBLC 302 (Dodson Room) Moderator 主席: 廖赤阳  1. 2. 3. 4. 5.  日华作家的“日本论” (日本武藏野美术大学 廖赤阳) 后方修马华文学史建构上的冲突:现实主义作家与留台作家 (日本立教大学 舛谷锐) 寓言书写和语言策略:以李永平、张贵兴为例(日本学术振兴会 及川茜) 馬華抗戰文學:中國抗戰文學的傳播與接受的探討(馬來西亞博特拉大學 莊華興) 全球化視野下的華文文學 (巨濟大學 吕晓琳)  S22 Canadian Law, Intermarriage and Ethnic Relations for Chinese Immigrants and Aboriginal Canadians Time 时间: 9:00 AM – 10:30 AM Room 地点: IKBLC 301 (Lillooet Room) Moderator 主席: Henry Yu  1. Intermarriage between First Nations women and the early Chinese male immigrants (Senator Lillian Eva (Quan) DYCK) 2. Experiences of immigrant Chinese Women with Canadian Immigration (1950-1990) (Senator Vivienne POY) 3. Challenges of Social Integration for Chinese Immigrants in Toronto (Jack H.T. LEONG, University of Toronto)  45        May 18th (Friday) / 5 月 18 日(五)    S23 Pacific Connections: Chinese in Australia and New Zealand  Time 时间: 9:00 AM – 10:30 AM Room 地点: IKBLC 260 Moderator 主席: Manying Ip 1. Paper trails: Anglo-Chinese Australians and the White Australia Policy (Kate BAGNALL, Independent Scholar) 2. Navigating Policies and the Seas: Mobile Migrant Merchants of Wing Sang & Co. and Wing On & Co. (Heidi H. KONG, University of British Columbia) 3. ‘Going Bananas’: the Chinese in bicultural New Zealand (Manying IP, University of Auckland)    S24  Time 时间: 9:00 AM – 11:30 AM Room 地点: IKBLC 261 Moderator 主席: Jeffrey Ferrier  1. The new Peruvian‐Chinese Association (APCh) or the heirs of the Dragon (Isabelle LAUSENT‐HERRERA,  French National Research Center)  2. Lost Nation: Malayan Communist party in the 1930s (Anna BELOGUROVA, University of British Columbia)  3. Transpacific Steam: Mexico and the unexplored case of the China Commercial Steamship Company  (1903‐1913) (Ruth MANDUJANO, University of British Columbia)  4. Chinese Thai Remigration: From Thailand to the United States (Jiemin BAO, University of Nevada)  5. The Ambivalent Alliance: Chinese Policy towards Indonesia, 1960‐1965 (Taomo ZHOU, Cornell University)  S25 Time 时间: 9:00 AM – 10:30 AM Room 地点: IKBLC 185 Moderator 主席: 倪俊明 1. Moving words and images: Chinese rare collections at UBC (Jing LIU, University of British Columbia) 2. Cambridge Chinese Rare Book and Manuscript Collections: Discoveries and Rediscoveries of Items Related to Robert Morrison and the Taiping Rebellion (Kang TCHOU, Cambridge University) 3. 論 UBC 亞圖所藏中文善本古籍的文物價值與文獻價值 (四川師範大學 管錫華 / 加拿大卑诗大學 吳 欣欣)  46        May 18th (Friday) / 5 月 18 日(五) S26 Time 时间: 10:45 AM – 12:15 PM Room 地点: IKBLC 185 Moderator 主席: 高玉华 1. 以「加拿大华裔作家协会」出版的作品选集为例,试谈「加华作家」的家(加)国情怀与表现 (香 港公共图书馆  陈露明) 2. 本土身分的建構與反思──以阿濃的散文為例 The Construction and Reflection of Local Identity: A Case Study of A Nong’s Prose (香港中文大學 馬輝洪/ 多倫多大學 梁恒達) 3. 加拿大的华人文学及其收藏 (Macy ZHENG, McGill University) 4. 二十世纪上半叶的加拿大华人文学∶古典诗的写作活动和异地化 (Laifong LEUNG, University of Alberta)  S27 Chinese Women in the Northwest Americas - Panel organized by Chinese in Northwest America Research Committee (CINARC)  Time 时间: 10:45 AM – 12:15 PM Room 地点: IKBLC 301 (Lillooet Room) Moderator 主席: Glen Peterson 1. Public and Private Steps towards Chinese Women’s Rights in California and the Pacific Northwest (Bennet BRONSON) 2. Identity issues, Values, and Cultures as seen in Neillie Towers Yip, Sue Gee Jackman, and Jennie Wong Diment (Larry WONG) 3. Immigration Policies and Cultural Prejudice: Ladies who crossed the boundaries – “prostitutes” in the Northwestern region before 1920 (Chuimei HO)  S28 Time 时间: 10:45 AM – 12:15 PM Room 地点: IKBLC 260 Moderator 主席: Evelyn Hu-Dehart 1. Early Life of Yuan Shikai and the Formation of Yuan Family (KaChuen GEE and Sheau-Yueh CHAO, City University of New York ) 2. Kuomintang’s Influence in East Canada and Beyond: A Case Study of Shing Wah Daily News (Stephen QIAO, University of Toronto) 3. The Hong Men Min Chih Tang Association of Cuba: 125 Years Developing Friendship, Fraternity, and Assistance (Mitzi ESPINOSA LUIS, Nacional Association Min Chih Tang) 4. Chinese Freemason’s Lantern and Chinese Canadians: The Transnational Vestige of Chinese Overseas Heritage (Tzu-I CHUNG, Royal British Columbia Museum) 47        Name of Presenter    Session #    演讲代表姓名   专题编号   Adamson, Katie…………………………………………………………………………………………………  Bagnall, Kate…………………………………………………………………………………………………………  Bao, Jiemin……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..  Bebbington, Tina…………………………………………………………………………………………………….  Bell, Grace………………………………………………………………………………………………………………  Belogurova, Anna 白安娜……………………………………………………………………………………….  Bronson, Bennet…………………………………………………………………………………………………….  Chai, Chen‐Hsiao 翟振孝………………………………………………………………………………………..  Chan, Arlene 陈林瑞玲…………………………………………………………………………………………..  Chan, Edith 陈国兰…………………………………………………………………………………………………  Chan, Lo Ming 陈露明……………………………………………………………………………………………  Chao, Sheau‐Yueh Janey 赵贺筱岳…………………………………………………………………………  Chen, Qi………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….  Chen, Yiping 陈奕平……………………………………………………………………………………………….  Chen, Zhongping 陈忠平………………………………………………………………………………………  Cheng, Huanwen 程煥文………………………………………………………………………………………  Chenier, Elise………………………………………………………………………………………………………….  Chiang, Rudy M.T. 蒋汶徳 ……………………………………………………………………………………..  Chin, James K 钱江…………………………………………………………………………………………………  Chinese Canadian Historical Society of British Columbia 加华历史协会…………………  Cho, Allan 曹瑞麟…………………………………………………………………………………………………..  Chong, Fah Hing 庄华兴…………………………………………………………………………………………  Chow, Lily Siewsan 周蔡小珊…………………………………………………………………………………  Chung, Tzu‐I 钟自宜………………………………………………………………………………………………  Dyck Quan, Lillian 关丽莲………………………………………………………………………………………  Espinosa Luis, Mitzi 吕美枝…………………………………………………………………………………….  Gao, Weinong 高伟浓…………………………………………………………………………………………….  Gee (Yuan), Ka Chuen 朱袁家淦…………………………………………………………………………….  Gu, Xiong 顾雄……………………………………………………………………………………………………….  Guan, Xihua 管锡华………………………………………………………………………………………………  Guibord, Maurice……………………………………………………………………………………………………  Guo, Shibao 郭世宝……………………………………………………………………………………………….  Ho, Chuimei……………………………………………………………………………………………………………  Huang, Haijuan 黄海娟…………………………………………………………………………………………..  Huang, Yinghu 黄英湖……………………………………………………………………………………………  Hu‐DeHart, Evelyn 胡其瑜……………………………………………………………………………………..  Hung, Richard Chi‐kan 熊志根………………………………………………………………………………..  Ip, Manying 叶宋曼瑛…………………………………………………………………………………………….  Jang, Wendy 郑素云………………………………………………………………………………………………  Jeng, Ling Hwey………………………………………………………………………………………………………  48     S4  S23  S24  S16  S6  S24  S27  S2  S17  S1  S26  S28  S12  S9  S16 / S19  S12  S11  S3  S15  S14/ S18  S1 / S20  S21  S11  S28  S22  S28  S7  S28  S11  S25  S3  S17  S27  S7  S2  S19  S4  S23  S1  S12     Jiang, Shuyong 蒋树勇……………………………………………………………………………………………  Ju, Yuhua 鞠玉华……………………………………………………………………………………………………  Kong, Heidi H. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………..  Larson, Jane Leung…………………………………………………………………………………………………  Lausent‐Herrera, Isabelle……………………………………………………………………………………….  Lee, Albert ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..  Lee, Chris 李明皓 …………………………………………………………………………………………………  Lee, Jonathan H.X.  ………………………………………………………………………………………………..  Lee, Karin 李嘉慈 ………………………………………………………………………………………………….  Lee‐Loy, Anne‐Marie………………………………………………………………………………………………  Leong, Jack Hang Tat 梁恒达…………………………………………………………………………………  Leung, Laifong 梁丽芳……………………………………………………………………………………………  Li, Jessica Tsui Yan………………………………………………………………………………………………....  Li, Qirong 李其荣……………………………………………………………………………………………………  Liao, Chiyang 廖赤阳……………………………………………………………………………………………..  Ling, Huping 令狐萍……………………………………………………………………………………………….  Liu, Hong 刘宏……………………………………………………………………………………………………….  Liu, Jing 刘静…………………………………………………………………………………………………………  Liu, Ying 柳瀛…………………………………………………………………………………………………………  Lu, Xiaolin 吕晓琳…………………………………………………………………………………………………  Ma, Leo F.H. 马辉洪………………………………………………………………………………………………  Mandujano, Ruth……………………………………………………………………………………………………  Masutani, Satoshi 舛谷锐………………………………………………………………………………………  Maxwell, Judy Lam…………………………………………………………………………………………………  McDonogh, Gary…………………………………………………………………………………………………….  Miyabara, Gyo 宫原晓……………………………………………………………………………………………  Morrison, James H. ………………………………………………………………………………………………..  Ni, Junming 倪俊明………………………………………………………………………………………………..  Nyitray, Vivian‐Lee………………………………………………………………………………………………….  Oikawa, Akane 及川茜……………………………………………………………………………………………  Paterson, Jordan…………………………………………………………………………………………………….  Peterson, Glen………………………………………………………………………………………………………..  Poy, Vivienne 利德蕙……………………………………………………………………………………………..  Price, John………………………………………………………………………………………………………………  Qiao, Stephen 喬晓勤……………………………………………………………………………………………  Salazar, Theresa……………………………………………………………………………………………………..  Shih, Virginia Jing‐yi 施竞仪…………………………………………………………………………………..  Tang, Shi‐yeoung 湯熙勇……………………………………………………………………………………….  Tchou, W. Kang 朱卫康…………………………………………………………………………………………  Thornton, Sharyne Shiu………………………………………………………………………………………….  To, Wing‐kai 杜荣佳………………………………………………………………………………………………  Wang, Lei 王蕾………………………………………………………………………………………………………  Wang, Wei 王维…………………………………………………………………………………………………….  Weber, Elizabeth Evans …………………………………………………………………………………………  49     S12  S7  S23  S19  S24  S6  S10  S9  S8  S10  S22 / S26  S26  S10  S7  S15 / S21  S4  S15  S25  S16  S21  S26  S24  S21  S17  S17  S20  S6  S13  S9  S21  S8  S5  S22  S16  S28  S1  S1  S13  S25  S11  S4  S12  S15  S10     Wong, Anna Ching‐Yu 黄正予……………………………………………………………………………….  Wong, Cindy Hing‐Yuk 王庆钰………………………………………………………………………………  Wong, Larry 王容伦………………………………………………………………………………………………  Worden, Robert……………………………………………………………………………………………………..  Wu, Xinxin 吴欣欣…………………………………………………………………………………………………  Xu, Ying…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..  Xu, Yun 徐云………………………………………………………………………………………………………….  Yang, Dominic Meng‐Hsuan 杨孟轩………………………………………………………………………  Yao, Ting 姚婷……………………………………………………………………………………………………….  Yip, Hon‐ming 叶汉明……………………………………………………………………………………………  Young, Elliott………………………………………………………………………………………………………….  Yu, Henry 余全毅……………………………………………………………………………………………………  Zhang, Changhong 张长虹……………………………………………………………………………………..  Zhang, Kenny 张康清……………………………………………………………………………………………..  Zhang, Qinqin 张沁沁……………………………………………………………………………………………  Zhao, Lisa ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..  Zheng, Macy 郑美卿………………………………………………………………………………………………  Zhou, Min 周敏………………………………………………………………………………………………………  Zhou, Taomo 周陶沫………………………………………………………………………………………………  Zhu, Lina 朱丽娜…………………………………………………………………………………………………….  Zhuang, Guotu 庄国土……………………………………………………………………………………………     50     S9  S17  S27  S19  S25  S20  S13  S5  S13  S20  S5  K1  S2  S15  S20  S12  S26  S15  S24  S13  K2      Paper Abstracts 论文摘要 K1 Rhythms of the Cantonese Pacific and the Making of Nations Henry Yu Associate Professor, Department of History Principal, St. John’s College, University of British Columbia Project Lead, Chinese Canadian Stories – A UBC-SFU Project Built upon the early migrations of young men from the coasts of Guangdong and Fujian into the South Seas, and extending across the Pacific in the 19th and 20th centuries from the port of Hong Kong, the Cantonese Pacific became a persistent, continuous migration system that provided the foundation of trans-Pacific trade and transportation, but more importantly created a crucial element in transforming the Pacific. The white settler nations of Canada, Australia, New Zealand and the United States were shaped both by the anti-Chinese politics of European migrants, and the pioneering engagements of Chinese migrants with them and with indigenous peoples. Prof. Yu will discuss how the $1.17 million “Chinese Canadian Stories” project at UBC created a collaborative process of story-telling, archival collection and both scholarly and community-based research to recover the stories of two centuries of migrations in local, national, and global contexts.  51        K2 Emigration from Fuzhou to U.S.A around 2000: As mirrored from the Case of Changle Zhuang Guotu Dean, Faculty of International Relations & Research School of SE Asian Studies, Xiamen University In recent years, the people of Fuzhou, located in the coastal area of southeast of China, immigrating into the United States and Europe in a large scale attracted an international attention. Several tens of thousands of documented or undocumented Fuzhou migrants went abroad in each year. The estimated around 550-600 thousand of Fuzhou migrants had been destined for the United States in the last 20 years. However, most of Fuzhou migrants originated from Changle, a satellite city of Fuzhou. Changle migrants inherited a long tradition from earning livelihood at sea, which brought about a prevailing practice of overseas emigration in the last 30 years. Changle migrants to the U.S. as destination of overseas migration led a wave of Fuzhou emigration to the U.S. In 1990s, Changle migrants had successfully established a mutual dependence and solicit support network for aids to Changle migrants in emigration cost, accommodation for new comers, job offer and liaison with home. As a small satellite city of Fuzhou with 680 thousand populations, Changle migrants benefited from such a well-functioned network creating a miracle of some 180 thousand immigrants to the U.S. in 20 years. From October 2002 to June 2005, a survey group with about 20 researchers from Research School of Southeast Asian Studies cooperated with the Bureau of Overseas Chinese Affairs in Fujian Government to carry on a field survey on Fujian overseas emigration since 1980s. The group did a survey of 30 villages and obtained 1806 family samples of questionnaire. According to interview of emigrant’s family in Changle, Lianjiang and Mawei districts in Fuzhou, the group picked up information of 3941 emigrants, most of which migrants to the U.S. On the basis of survey in Changle, this paper intends to explore the reason and manner that why Changle could transfer its approximate 30% population to the U.S. from 1980s until to year of 2005.  52        S1:1 Sources on Chinese overseas: traces in business archives at the Hung On-To Memorial Library of the University of Hong Kong Edith Chan (陳國蘭) Assistant Special Collections Librarian University of Hong Kong Libraries Hung On-To Memorial Library (孔安道紀念圖書館) was established in 1974 with the principal objective of building up an all-inclusive Hong Kong collection in the University of Hong Kong Libraries. Apart from collecting books, journals, ephemerals, manuscripts, newspapers, microfilms, maps, audio-visual materials and clippings, the Library is also keen to preserve posters, artifacts and archival materials to support teaching and research activities. Of the myriad archival materials the Library has collected so far, Hong Kong Chinese Merchants Collection probably constitutes the largest special collection of its kind. This unique collection of business archives ranges from the period of the late 19th century to the mid 20th century. It holds over 230 linear metres in size, comprises almost 4,000 volumes of Chinese account books and year-end closing books, various correspondences & documents, partnership deeds, shares certificates, contracts, deposit bills and remittance notes, etc. It is no doubt that this archival collection is truly the treasure resources for studying the history of Hong Kong Chinese merchants. In exploring the Hong Kong Chinese Merchants Collection, it is fairly obvious to see there are traces of records revealing that Hong Kong Chinese merchants had close business connections among the Chinese overseas and the Mainland Chinese and that in a broader sense, the part played by Hong Kong in the Chinese Diaspora. Evidences of Chinese overseas remittance networks can be revealed in the Chinese account books of Wah Ying Cheong (華英昌) and Eu Yan Sang (余仁生) enterprises. Informal channel of Chinese overseas remittances can be traced in some personal letters of a prominent Hong Kong businessman Ma Tsui-Chiu (馬 敍朝). Year-end closing books of Chinese businesses in Southeast Asia, North America and Mexico are a genuine source for studying the history of overseas Chinese merchants. Given the large size of the Collection and there is a fair quantity of Chinese overseas sources among the records, a separate index list for easily locating the Chinese overseas contents is worth making. This paper is to identify and enumerate the details of Chinese overseas sources in the Hong Kong Chinese Merchants Collection at the Hung On-To Memorial Library.     53        S1:2 From Criticism to Mutual Support: Richmond Public Library’s Relationship with the Cantonese Speaking Community Wendy Jang Chinese Language Services Richmond Public Library Who would have anticipated the connection between public library services in Canada and the return of Hong Kong to China in 1997? Certainly not Richmond Public Library, who was caught off guard by the negative publicity it received in 1994 for not providing equitable library services in Chinese, for the Cantonese speaking taxpayers who recently immigrated to Richmond to escape the Chinese takeover of Hong Kong. Instead of being defensive, the Library took the criticisms as a challenge and an opportunity to improve its Chinese language services. It hired staff with appropriate language skills, cultural sensitivity and vision to develop Chinese language programs and engage in outreach to the community. It also allocated budget funding to expand and process the Chinese language collections; it created a point-and-click catalogue for Chinese language materials that also could be searched by traditional Chinese characters and Pinyin Romanization; and it implemented communication strategies that either focused on or included the Chinese community. In short, the effort has paid off. Richmond Public Library has become one of the busiest libraries in Canada, in part due to its Chinese collections and services. People from all over the Lower Mainland come to borrow Chinese materials and attend programs. The library has received many local and international awards for its Chinese programs and services and gained a reputation as the place to go for Chinese books and movies. Most importantly, it has won the trust and support of the Cantonese speaking community. Not only have they embraced the services provided by Richmond Public Library, but they have also become strong supporters and regular donors (both books and cash). This paper will provide a brief history of Richmond Public Library’s work in the Chinese community as well as the challenges it has encountered. It will also examine the factors that contributed to its success, including approaches and strategies that have worked well in the Cantonese speaking community in particular.  54        S1:3 Bilingual Metadata and Discovery – Don’t Let Your Chinese Archives Get Lost In Translation Lilly Li CHRP Librarian/Archivist of University of British Columbia Library (2010-11)  Allan Cho Program Services Librarian of University of British Columbia Library In recent years, with the rise of China, the study of overseas Chinese has developed rapidly, become a field that attracts mainstream historians and scholars in both overseas and China. To meet their information needs, libraries and archives of higher education institutes in North America are dedicated in collecting and digitizing the overseas Chinese archives, from historical photographs to genealogical materials to census reports, on and by overseas Chinese. However, how to develop user-oriented metadata and make the digital resources accessible to both western and Chinese scholars is a big challenge to the libraries of North America. English has been a dominant language for cataloguing, classification and searching system in the libraries of North America. In the past a couple of decades, the libraries with Chinese language skills have made a lot of efforts to catalogue and index the Chinese-language archival materials. However, the quality of the work is largely dependent on individual libraries’ capabilities. Translation mistakes and irrelevant subject headings make many valuable archival materials irretrievable. Nevertheless, inconsistent Romanization system makes the situation worse. Chinese from different parts of the world do not share a unified Romanization system. Whereas Hanyu Pinyin is now universal for China and also a widely used method of Romanization outside of China, Wade-Giles and other forms of transliteration are still far more popular in the communities of early Chinese migrants where the most Chinese archival materials are collected from. Many scholars hope, by standardizing Romanization system, to improve the accessibility of the Chinese-language archival materials. But the flaw in that approach is, unlike English, Chinese language has a strong distinction between Chinese written language (文, Pinyin: wén) and spoken language (语/語 yǔ). It will be very hard, if not impossible, to standardize the many Chinese spoken languages. For more than 2,000 years, Chinese written language has linked people who have locally different spoken languages. Therefore, Chinese written language appears a hopeful solution to the messy problem. In this paper, we discuss the importance of Chinese metadata in cataloguing and retrieving Chinese-language archival materials, and analyze the challenges and opportunities of creating bilingual metadata for the overseas Chinese archives. We also present our efforts to create the bilingual database for the "Chinese Canadian Stories" portal to improve the discovery of the Chinese Canadian historical materials.  55        S1:4 Telling the Story of the Chinese of California in the 19th and Early 20th Centuries: A Collaborative Online Exhibition Theresa Salazar Curator of the Bancroft Collection, Western Americana. The Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley, CA. The Chinese in California, 1850-1925 is an online compilation drawn from collections at The Bancroft Library, University of California Berkeley; The Ethnic Studies Library, University of California Berkeley; and The California Historical Society, San Francisco. It illustrates nineteenth and early twentieth century Chinese immigration to California through about 8,000 images and pages of primary source materials such as photographs, original art, and illustrations; letters, excerpts from diaries, business records, and legal documents; as well as pamphlets, broadsides, speeches, sheet music, and other printed matter. These documents describe the experiences of Chinese immigrants in California, including the nature of inter-ethnic tensions. They also document the specific contributions of Chinese immigrants to commerce and business, architecture and art, agriculture and other industries, and cultural and social life in California. Chinatown in San Francisco receives special treatment as the oldest and largest community of Chinese in the United States. Also included is documentation of smaller Chinese communities throughout California, as well as material reflecting on the experiences of individuals. Although necessarily selective, such a large body of materials presents a full spectrum of representation and opinion. Available locally and remotely to researchers and the general public, this website illustrates not only the migration of the community into California, but also the complex relations of the Chinese to other groups in California, most who came during the Gold Rush. Issues of identity and culture clash head on with prejudice and racism that the Chinese community faced in their attempts to integrate in the United States. The website can be used as a teaching tool for students in high school and undergraduates at colleges and universities and as a general orientation for researchers needing an overview of the topic. The fact that there is a wealth of primary documents that can be explored by researchers makes it particularly useful for giving the researcher a sense of the points of view of various creators of the documentation, and also allows for individual analysis of these primary resources. I was the main coordinator of the project, and participated in selection at all libraries; wrote the narratives, along with my research assistant; coordinate work with the Library of Congress. I also organized two exhibitions related to these materials, one in which I co-curated the exhibition with colleagues at the California Historical Society, and the Chinese Historical Society of America, both in San Francisco. The website is available both on the American Memory site at The Library of Congress, and on the Online Archive of California, University of California. I will be discussing aspects of this website, and how to use it effectively.  56        S1:5 Library Marketing for Southeast Asia Chinese Overseas Special Collections: Transnational Discovery & Delivery Virginia Jing-yi Shih(施競儀) Librarian in charge of the Southeast Asia Collections South / Southeast Asia Library University of California, Berkeley, USA In recognition of the dynamic research, teaching, learning, and collecting needs of Chinese Overseas studies, scholars, librarians, archivists, curators, and knowledge creators have been collaborating for decades to create, collect, and provide research information access to the community in academic institutions, libraries, archives, museums, documentation centers, and depositories in both public and private sectors. They may not recognize that they have been conducting “unconscious” marketing for ongoing collections and services as a commodity to keep the field survive and thrive especially in special collection development which is perceived as a “luxury” in many research institutions. This paper will serve as an open discussion for resources sharing and collaborative initiatives to promote scattered hidden treasures locally and globally in the public domain. Given my specialization in Southeast Asian studies librarianship, I will focus on how librarians could conduct proactive and productive marketing for Southeast Asia Chinese Overseas special collections of primary sources to better serve a worldwide, diverse target audience. I will define the scope of Southeast Asia Chinese Overseas special collections in breadth and depth and showcase some specific samples of rare items as illustrations. I will elaborate on my insightful perspectives of ongoing cultural, social, political, and institutional challenges of identifying, acquiring, cataloging, preserving, and providing onsite and online access to Southeast Asia Chinese Overseas special collections in all possible subjects, formats, and languages within Southeast Asia and beyond. I will address practical marketing strategies which include public relations, publicity, promotion, advertising, advocacy, and branding between knowledge creators and knowledge seekers as part of a solid marketing action plan to accomplish the academic objectives and evaluate the outcome as an ongoing marketing agenda in our Southeast Asia Chinese Overseas special collection development enterprise. Last but not least, I would like to call for volunteers to create an online action-oriented marketing committee in 1) promoting essential onsite and online special collections; 2) initiating cooperative digitization projects; and 3) facilitating conference call meetings, webinars or research projects of common interest to enhance the advancement of Southeast Asia Chinese Overseas studies.  57        S2:1 移民與難民:加拿大緬甸華人移民社群的形構與變遷 翟振孝(Chai Chen-hsiao) 國立歷史博物館研究組助理研究員 本文探討祖輩從中國遷居到緬甸的華人,近半世紀以來由於 1960 年代緬甸軍政府強力採行社會主義, 全面實施國有化政策,致使當地華人經濟基礎遭受重大打擊,於是紛紛設法離開緬甸易地謀生。 1970 年代起部分緬華向外移徙來到加拿大,亦有部分華人先到臺灣或港澳地區,之後再次移居加拿 大。他們多數聚集在東岸多倫多巿,置身於中區唐人街,但主觀上自認為有別於當地同屬祖裔的傳 統華人移民。早期他們以「旅加緬甸華僑」稱呼自己以及共組的團體,其中隱含有視加拿大為客居 地、而緬甸為其「家鄉」的意涵,這也具體表現緬華移民對於自我界定的理解。社群內部無論是在 語言、飲食或家居等生活面向,均以彼此共享最熟悉的緬甸文化要素,過著類似於「家鄉式」的生 活。 在宗教生活方面,緬華移民自 1980 年代初期即自行禮請緬甸法師來多倫多講道傳授佛法,以過去在 緬甸社會生活中的南傳佛教凝聚成員,並集資購地在多倫多巿郊區興建一座真正屬於南傳佛教的緬 寺。該座緬寺不僅成為同屬南傳佛教如泰國、寮國、斯里蘭卡等國家的移民們,共同的宗教信仰中 心,同時在日常生活中也牽繫著緬華移民與緬甸的密切關連。 1990年代後緬華移民又結合來自緬甸的難/移民,以「緬甸加人」標記著彼此共同的來源地與現居 地,更進一步以參與「亞裔聯合會」組織,在加拿大多元文化的舞臺上展現緬甸社群的異國風貌。 換言之,他們自認是「一群曾經在緬甸成長的華人,而現今生活在加拿大社會中,具有和其他同屬 祖裔華人不同文化經驗,且與同樣來自緬甸家鄉成員共享文化特質及我群情感」。無論是在宗教性 或非宗教的生活場域裡,始終離不開「緬甸」範疇,因此同樣「來自緬甸」地域所展現的影響,成 為多倫多緬華移民生活中主要的行事力量,實質上遠大於他們對於同為華人的認知。  58        S2:2 1980 年后福州向美国的移民及其发展变化 黄英湖  福建社会科学院华侨华人研究所研究员  在福州下属的长乐、连江和马尾等地,人们都有上船当水手的历史传统。从上世纪 50 年代开始,就 有一些在香港工作的福州籍水手随船到美国纽约后,跳船上岸成为非正规移民。以后,他们通过特 赦等渠道而成为美国公民。1978 年中国改革开放后,这些人就以家庭团聚的理由,申请让自己的亲 属通过正规渠道移民到美国。而那些没有亲属在美国的福州人,就通过各种非正规渠道偷渡到美国。 他们中的一些人后来也由于特赦等原因而取得美国国籍,并且通过正规渠道,也让亲属移民到美国 团聚。  通过这样的正规和非正规渠道,许多福州人都纷纷移民到美国,目前其总数已超过 50 万人。这些福 州移民绝大多数聚居在纽约,并且以开中式快餐馆为业。以后,由于中式快餐业已达饱和状态,一 些福州移民就转营长途客运等生意;有的则离开纽约,前往其它城市发展,从而在居住地和行业上 呈现出多元化发展的趋势。近年来,由于美国经济的不景气,移民去那里的福州人出现数量逐渐递 减的倾向。一些已在美国的福州移民甚至倒流回国,在蓬勃发展的中国发展他们的事业。     59        S2:3 八闽新侨觅缘踪  史海钩沉东西洋  ——庄国土教授主持编纂《福建新移民调查资料汇编》与  《清代华侨史补充资料》中美国部分之析介  张长虹 厦门大学南洋研究院馆员、资料室主任 2002 年 10 月至 2004 年 6 月,厦门大学南洋研究院院长庄国土教授主持的“新移民研究”项目课题 组,以福建侨乡田野调查为主,选择三个最有代表性的地区——美国华人最主要源地福州地区以及 明溪县(其新移民主要到意大利和匈牙利)、晋江市(其新移民主要到菲律宾)作移民调查。课题组采 用《侨乡社会经济调查家庭问卷》和《侨乡社会经济调查社区问卷》两种设计,取得 61 个村共 2300 余份有效问卷,编成未刊《福建新移民调查资料汇编》。此项目亦是与美国纽约市州立大学的合作 项目,使用相关数据的文章或已在美国历史学刊顶级刊物发表,或已受到美国学者的关注和引用。 此套汇编是关于福建侨乡历时较长、规模较大的田野调查资料,其问卷设计科学、信息丰富真实, 从中可窥见新侨移居海外之业缘,是研究福建新移民十分珍贵的第一手资料。 《清代华侨史补充资料》为清史国家工程·华侨志资料长篇,以未刊、非专刊档案文献和翻译资料 为主,分历代侨政类、华侨与中国关系类、国别类、出国史料类、翻译类五类,约 200 万字,内容 详尽,史料价值极高,有助于全面把握清代中国侨务政策的形成与发展、华侨在海外的生存状态及 其对中国社会革命与建设的贡献。这套史料长篇乃庄国土教授倾其三十余年,不懈收集整理各类文 献,集其史学积淀与翻译功力之大成。 本文将着重分析并介绍美国的福州新移民调查资料、美国华工史料及其参考文献。  60        S3:1 Participation of Chinese Pioneers in British Columbia Salmon Canneries, 1880s to 1920s Rudy M.T. Chiang Abstract: It is generally accepted that the salmon canning industry in British Columbia could not have functioned without Chinese labourers. This study examines the economic contribution of Chinese workers, measured by their labour input for each carton of canned salmon produced. The period of study, from 1880s to 1920s, covers a time when canning was labour intensive. Salmon catch had to be discarded at peak season due to labour shortage. Short seasons and unsteady employment made experienced hands hard to retain. This gave rise to the Chinese contract system. To add a human dimension to the Chinese cannery pioneers, the name and the deeds of some Chinese contractors and their workers are presented. Key Words: Salmon Cannery, Chinese Fishermen, Chinese labourer, contractor, Lee Coy (李衢,字祐樞), Yip Sang (葉永生,字春田), Sit Sang (薛勝), Lam Tung (林棠), Chung Nye (蔣奈,字經可), Charlie Suey (曾瑞, 字雲峰), Chong Dot (蔣炳達,字安鰲), Chong Tee Poy (蔣池沛,字會可), Chung Sat (蔣述,字國多), Lue Mong (劉望,字崇厚), Moy Kwok Village (梅閣鄉), Sa Duoy Village (沙堆鄉), Sun Woy County (新會縣), Sun Kum Wo ( 新 錦 和 ), Kwong On Wo Company ( 廣 安 和 ), New Westminster Chinese Benevolent Association ( 二 埠 中 華 慈 善 會 ), Kong Chow Benevolent Association ( 雲 高 華 埠 岡 州 總 會 館 ), New Westminster (二埠,鳥埠), The Chinese Times (大漢公報), Mount Saint Joseph Hospital (聖約瑟院醫), Cumshewa Cannery (冚暑嘩魚濕).  S3:2 Chung Nye of New Westminster, B.C – A Canadian Story from the Perspective of Chinese Pioneers living in B.C. during the 1880s to 1920s    Rudy M.T. Chiang Abstract: Chung Nye left his home village at age 16 for the Gold Mountains. Canadian Immigration record indicates that he first landed in Victoria B.C. in April 1882. His career as a Chinese Contractor in the salmon canning industry and as a proprietor of Sun Kum Wo in New Westminster personifies the contributions made by Chinese pioneers of his time. A chapter on the Chinese pioneers, and their many contributions to the economy of British Columbia, remains missing from the history books of Canada. Key Words: Chinese Pioneers, Chung Nye (蔣奈,字經可), Moy Kwok Village (梅閣鄉), Sar Tuey Village (沙堆鄉), Sun Woy County (新會縣), New Westminster (二埠), Sun Kum Wo (新錦和), Chinese contractor, salmon cannery, Chiang Shao Hsien (蔣紹賢,字安懷), Chong On Kui (蔣丁酉,字安翹), Leong Kia Chew (梁啟超), Kang Yu Wei (康有為), Chinese Times (大漢公報), Chinese Benevolent Association (二埠 中華 慈善會), Constitution Reform Association (憲政黨), Won CumYou (温金有), Charlie Suey (曾瑞,字雲峰), national identity, cultural affinity. 61        S3:3 The Transformation of Funerary Landscape by the Evolution of Chinese Burials in Burnaby, BC Maurice Guibord Founding Director Société historique francophone de Colombie-Britannique In 1919, Burnaby, a suburb of Vancouver, opened its first cemetery, Ocean View Burial Park. It quickly became a favourite of locals due to its landscaped features and beautiful views. The park layout of the site provided for relaxing walks through what were touted as the most beautiful cemetery gardens in the country. Per the racist mores of the day, any burials of persons of African and Asian ancestry were segregated to the Willow Section (originally called Mongolia), the furthest away from the main gates. Until 1945, when most plots in this section were used, over 100 individuals were buried there. Burials for both these cultural groups were then relegated to another far corner of the cemetery, behind what was to be an immense mausoleum. The following decades saw the withdrawal of these divisive policies. Over the last 15 years, a major reversal in the presence of Chinese graves at Ocean View saw sections of upright markers appear in the predominantly Chinese sections. This created a major shift from the park-like lawn perspective that had been espoused by the cemetery’s designers from the creation of the burial park. At the same time, the Chinese community, now well established in the Lower Mainland, began reacting to the post-Chinese Revolution decree that prevented their remains from being returned to china for reburial with their ancestral graves. They did so by removing to Canada the cremated remains of their ancestors, for reburial at Ocean View. This created the need for new mausoleums to accommodate the increased volume of funerary urns. This again called upon the cemetery to adapt to their clients’ new needs, by further modifying its landscape and architecture. Almost at the same time, there arose the desire from the Chinese community to secure enclosed areas, similar to the family plots of Victorian cemeteries, where families could lie together in eternal rest. This led, at both Ocean View and Forest Lawn cemeteries in Burnaby, to the creation of “family estates”, areas that are surrounded by low brick walls and gated with wrought-iron fences, established with the help of hired feng shue specialists who would ensure the desirability and acceptability of these plots. This is the first time in these cemeteries where the desires of a single cultural group have brought on such significant changes in landscape, architecture and burial practices. My ongoing Masters thesis project at Simon Fraser University focuses on these transformations. I am also looking into the reasons why no Chinese graves from these cemeteries were ever returned to China, even when this tradition was common in North America, while hundreds of similar graves in Vancouver’s Mountainview Cemetery were indeed disinterred by the Chinese Benevolent Society for return to China. I am also exploring the change in the role of Chinese women in funerary processes, from their monopoly in this field back in China, to their absence from the process on Canada’s west coast.  62        S4:1 Colorado’s Celestials Katie Adamson Graduate student, University of Colorado at Denver This presentation is an examination of the history of the Chinese population in Colorado starting with the earliest written accounts following the 1859 Gold Rush up to the mid-twentieth century. Along with railroad construction, Chinese immigrants came to Colorado to participate in the mining industry. Racism and exclusion confined them to placer mining in the mountain towns, but that did not stop the Chinese from being industrious and successful. In particular, based on primary research, I will discuss the life and family of Chin Lin Sou, arguably the most successful nineteenth century Chinese immigrant in Colorado. His life and position in the Denver community warranted him respect and today he is remembered in stained glass in Colorado’s Capitol Building. He was known as the first mayor of Denver’s Chinatown and his daughter was the first Chinese-American child born in the territory that would become known as Colorado. I will also look at the Chinese community in Central City, with an in-depth look at the tragedy of the Central City Fire. Based on the evidence uncovered during my research, I will offer explanations for the origin of the fire that was blamed on the Chinese community. There will also be a short discussion of the 1880 Halloween riot, Denver’s first race riot which was directed at the Chinese community. I hope this study can illuminate the contributions of the Chinese community to Colorado and promote future study of the subject.  S4:2 Chinese Chicago: Transnational Migration and Business, 1870s-1930s Huping Ling, Ph.D. (令狐萍) Professor of History, Truman State University Since the mid-19th century, Chicago has been a cosmopolitan city and national hub for thousands of immigrants from around the world seeking fortunes in the new land. For the Chinese who first arrived on the West Coast, Chicago became a refuge to escape the rampant anti-Chinese sentiments in the west. In the mid-1870s, Moy Dong Chow arrived in Chicago, and his two brothers, Moy Dong Hoy (Sam Moy) and Moy Dong Yee followed soon afterwards. By 1880, there were a hundred Chinese in the city. By the end of 1890, there were more than 500 Chinese lived on South Clark Street. This study closely examines how the transnational kinship networks played out in various aspects of the Chinese businesses in Chicago, through reconstructing the transnational Chinese businesses during the period of 1870s and 1930s. Many of the ethnic Chinese businesses, especially those of the large and complex ones, as evidenced by the various sources employed in this study, were deliberately created and sophisticated transnational businesses that were run by men with vision, practicality, and long-term goals. These businesses had effectively utilized transnational business networks in raising capital to get started, in procurements of merchandizes, in recruitment of employees, and in business operations, and had served Chinese communities on both ends of the transnational migration. Using archival manuscripts, censuses, news reports, and interviews, this study investigates how transnational migration has shaped the early Chinese community in Chicago. 63        S4:3 The Growth and Sustainability of Chinese American Nonprofit Organizations in U.S. Metropolitan Areas Chi-kan Richard Hung Assistant Professor, College of Public and Community Service University of Massachusetts Boston The proposed paper will examine the life cycle changes of Chinese American nonprofit organizations in the 10 largest US metropolitan areas during the first decade of the 21st century. Life cycle changes here include the pattern of formation, growth in numbers and capacity, and sustainability of these organizations. As a result of the combined effects of more accommodating policies and increased immigration, Chinese American nonprofit organizations, like other nonprofits, grew rapidly in the 1980s and 1990s to meet the diverse cultural, religious, economic, civic, and related needs of the Chinese American population. During the first decade of the 21st century, it is not known if this rapid growth continued, or if the large number of organizations formed in the 1980s and 1990s have flourished or perished, especially in light of the much less favorable economic conditions in this decade. Chinese American settlements have become more suburbanized. It is not known if Chinese American organizations have similarly become more dispersed or still concentrated in traditional central city Chinatowns. The proposed paper will help shed some light on these issues. Organizations from businesses to nonprofits have their life cycles of rise and fall. Qualitative case studies and quantitative analysis have examined the sustainability and closure of nonprofit organizations in general. The proposed paper will investigate if the factors identified in the current literature, especially organization age, size, functional type, and formalization apply similarly to Chinese American organizations’ sustainability as well. Data will come from Form 990, which all tax-exempt nonprofit organizations with annual revenue in excess of $25,000 are required to file with the U.S. Internal Revenue Service, and related information available at www.guidestar.org as well as US Census. While not all nonprofits are included in the Form 990 and guidestar.org database, especially smaller organizations or religious organizations, this database still remains the single largest reliable source of US nonprofit data available. Newly formed Chinese American organizations in the top 10 metropolitan areas are identified primarily by their name bearing the Chinese American identity in different configurations. Baseline information of organizations formed prior to 2001 has been collected for previous studies. Survival status is determined by whether an organization’s 2007 or earlier Form 990 is available as of 2010, with the assumption that not having completed Form 990 available for three consecutive years indicates inactivity – though not necessarily organization closure. The findings from the proposed paper will provide an overview of the evolving development of a large number of Chinese American nonprofit organizations serving the most populated areas in the United States.  64        S4:4 “Merchants, Students, and Laborers: The Intersections of Local, National, and Transnational History of Chinese America in New England, ca. 1840-1945” Wing-kai To Professor of History Bridgewater State University The Chinese American community in New England and its Chinatown in Boston, while smaller in comparison to the communities in New York and San Francisco, has maintained a rich history as one of the earliest and most enduring Chinese settlements in the United States. From the earlier China trade to the preservation of a Chinatown and the development of scattered Chinese businesses in towns and communities throughout New England, there is much to learn about the east coast experiences of Chinese American communities. A lack of natural catastrophes such as earthquakes and epidemics might have accounted for the stability in the settlement patterns of Boston Chinese. Yet in contrast to the violent anti-Chinese movement in the frontier west, the different roles of merchants, students, workers, and women in relation to the local economy and culture have also allowed Chinese Americans to become more integrated with other communities during the Exclusion Era (1882-1943). This paper will explore the development of transnational resources and local culture in shaping the roles of Chinese American community in Boston from the mid-19th to the mid-20th centuries. Through case studies of merchants, students, and laborers as well as a comparison of their different experiences, this paper examines the evolution of Chinese American culture especially in the Exclusion Era. By utilizing both western accounts in the press and missionary writings as well as local Chinese records, it reveals that Chinese in Boston were able to develop their own school and community associations after an initial period of exclusion. The paper will compare the transition from “mercantile orientalism” to “early Chinatown” and “Chinese American transnationalism” in examining the evolution of the perceptions and roles of their community. Instead of addressing the more conventional legal and political perspectives of exclusion, I argue that the local Chinatown utilized both traditional Chinese and modern American networks in enhancing their community resources and social capital. Some settlers maintained connections with their homeland communities by creating a linkage between their qiaoxiang and their businesses in New England. Others participated in local community building efforts to build coalitions and stage protests to withstand the challenges of social exclusion. This paper builds on the author’s previous work on the photo history of Boston Chinese and discusses part of his larger study of Chinese American history in New England.  65        S5:1 Forced Migration and Refugeedom: A Neglected Aspect of Chinese Overseas Studies Exile and Imagined Homeland: Cultural Nostalgia and the Mainlander Native Place Associations in Taiwan, 1962-1987 Dominic Meng-Hsuan Yang PhD Candidate, History Department University of British Columbia There has been little research on political exiles and refugees in the study of Chinese migration. The migrant identity and subjectivity engendered by people forced to leave home on account of war and political persecution received negligible scholarly attention despite the proliferation of works based on “diaspora.” While the collective efforts of scholars working in the field have offered illuminating studies of transnational linkages and imaginations both transcended and regulated by the nation-states, it is perhaps interesting to also look into cross-border connections and imagainations across contested national borders. In the late 1940s and early 50s, millions left home during the Chinese civil war and the founding of the PRC. A large group, many of them Nationalist soldiers and civil servants, took refuge on the island of Taiwan with the KMT. This group and their descendants are commonly referred to as “mainlanders” or waishengren (外省人) in Taiwan. At first, most of the civil war migrants had expected to return home within a few years, anticipating a final showdown between the CCP and the KMT. Nonetheless, the outbreadk of the Korean War (1950-1953) and the stalemate of the two Taiwan Strait Crises (1954-1955, 1958) extended the sojourn on the island. This prolonged experience in exile had engendered a plethora of nostalgic writings pertaining to the migrants’ home provinces and counties in mainland China. This study examines mainlanders’ imagined homeland in the context of Cold War in East Asia. It probes into the activities and cultural production of the “mainlander native place associations” (外省同鄉會) from 1962 to 1987. The idealized imaginations of home were shattered, when the political situation changed on both sides of the Taiwan Strait to allow the civil war migrants to return in the late 1980s. The paper illustrates the discordance between existing theory of political exiles/diaspora and the mainlander experience, and argues for a historical approach to the study of migrant identity and subjectivity. It also add nuances to the debate on the “overseas Chinese” identity by demonstrating the fluidity and historical specificity of mainlanders’ imagined homeland.  66        S5:2 Overseas Chinese Refugees in the People’s Republic of China: A Neglected Field of Study Glen Peterson Associate Professor, History Department University of British Columbia The image of people fleeing communist rule in China is one that probably comes easily to mind for many people. Far less familiar for most of us, is the image of people actually migrating to socialist China. Yet in the first decade following the communist revolution in 1949, almost as many people migrated to the People’s Republic as fled from it. Over the course of three decades from 1949 to 1979, more than 700,000 ethnic Chinese persons migrated to socialist China. At least half of them were refugees from surrounding Asian countries including Indonesia, Malaysia, Vietnam, Burma and India. The purpose of the proposed research is to examine the resettlement of tens of thousands of ethnic Chinese refugees on special “Overseas Chinese state farms” (Huaqiao guoying nongchang 华侨国营农场). Located mainly in the sub-tropical regions of southern China, the farms inducted the refugees into what was essentially a system of plantation agriculture, geared to the production of strategic raw materials. During the 1950s and 60s, China regarded Overseas Chinese state farms—in effect, large-scale, permanent refugee settlements—as having the utmost economic and strategic significance. Overseas Chinese state farms were designated to be the principal source for a handful of key agricultural commodities that were prohibited under the US-led international embargo on trade with China. The purpose of this paper is twofold. The first is to examine China’s system of overseas Chinese state farms and consider their place in China’s Cold War political economy. The second objective is to ask how the experience of overseas Chinese refugees in China fits into the larger fields of forced migration and refugee history. The study of China’s overseas Chinese state farms challenges conventional wisdom about what it means to be a “refugee” and suggests the need for new ways of thinking about refugee experience and the relationship between states and refugees in the contemporary world.  67        S5:3 Transborder Sovereignty: Chinese “Coolie” Migration to the Americas and the Limits of the Nation-State Elliott Young Associate Professor of Latin American and Borderlands History Lewis & Clark College in Portland, Oregon Chinese migration to the Americas in the mid-nineteenth century exposes the limits of national sovereignty at the height of nation-building and nationalism. The “coolie” trade from China was organized and managed by a variety of different European and American companies and countries, especially Spain, Portugal, France, England, Peru and the US. However, in spite of government intervention in this trade, much of the activity occurred in the liminal zones of Chinese coastal cities or aboard ships whose nationality was dubious at best. This paper explores the limited sovereignty exercised by nations in the transoceanic Chinese emigration trade. I use the term transborder sovereignty to highlight the transnational aspect of the labor contractors, the ship owners, and the authorities in the ports from which Chinese emigrated. I focus on the story of one ship, the “Dolores Ugarte,” later the “Don Juan”, which experienced wellpublicized tragedies in 1870 and 1871. In 1870, the ship, flying a Salvadoran flag, sailed from Macao to Peru, losing 270 of its 608 original emigrants, an astounding mortality rate of 44 percent. A year later, the same ship, but flying a Peruvian flag, sailed from Macao with 650 emigrants. On the third day of the journey a fire broke out on the ship. The crew escaped, along with a few lucky Chinese who managed to break the grates trapping them in the hold of the ship. The ship sank along with over 500 Chinese who were burned alive or drowned. The story of the tragedies on board this one ship, and the efforts of various nations to control the “coolies” as well as the companies managing the trade, illustrates the difficulties that any one country had in asserting its sovereignty over the transoceanic borderlands spaces in which the “coolie” trade occurred. The history of the coolie trade to the Americas has been well documented by a number of excellent scholars, but their focus has been on the nation-state’s efforts to control and manage this trade. My paper explores the shadowy transnational world of the coolies themselves, the recruiters, and the trading companies that profited so handsomely from this brutal business. Chinese treaty port cities like Hong Kong and Macao and the ships themselves are examples of the transborder spaces where nation-states competed with each other for control, and where networks of transnational actors exercised their authority beyond the grasp of the nation-state.    68        S6:1-3 Researching the Chinese Presence in Atlantic Canada-Family and Place This panel will address the topics of patterns of migration, Chinese artifact collection, emerging communities and descendants of pioneers, ethnic relations, identity issues and documentation. It will feature three panelists whose presentations will proceed from the regional (Atlantic Canada) to the civic (Halifax) to the family (Lees).  James H. Morrison: "Where East meets Eastern": Chinese early migration to Atlantic Canada". Once the last spike was driven and the Canadian Pacific Railway was completed, the labour force recruited specifically for this purpose, turned their hands to another means of livelihood. Many of the extensive and now dispersed Chinese labourers journeyed eastwards, with some making their way to the Atlantic side of Canada. By as early as 1891, there is evidence of their presence in Prince Edward Island and throughout the 1890's they arrived and made their homes in each of the three Atlantic provinces-Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Newfoundland( becoming a province in 1949). This presentation will provide an overview of this migrant and at times transient population and their economic and socio-cultural influence on the Atlantic region.  Grace Bell: "Early establishment of the Chinese Community in Halifax 1890-1925". Little has been done on Chinese immigration to the Atlantic provinces. It is hoped that by examining the establishment and growth of the Chinese community in Halifax, Nova Scotia greater attention will be focused on the contributions and unique experiences of the Chinese immigrants who ventured east of Montreal. Some of the subjects to be discussed in this presentation include local Chinese immigration and business patterns, legal issues, the establishment of Chinese organizations and the impact of the Christian community on Chinese immigrant's lives. This focus will show that a successful and vibrant Chinese community existed outside of the large cities of Vancouver and Montreal and was not constrained to a local "Chinatown".  Albert Lee: "The Lees: A Chinese family's century in Halifax" . Both Albert Lee's father and grandfather paid the Canadian Government's Head Tax in order to enter Canadafather Chuck Lee as a 9 year old in 1917 and grandfather Lee in 1906. Chuck was a "Chinese Broker" who assisted new Chinese migrants to the region and Albert was raised on his stories of the Chinese community in Halifax. Albert has carried out extensive Lee family history and through audio and visual sources will present an in-depth analysis of one family's century in Halifax.  69        S7:1 海外青田人社团、商贸投资与回乡参政 高伟浓 广州暨南大学华侨华人研究院教授 大部分海外青田华侨华人是改革开放后走出国门的新生代移民。对比其他地区的华侨华人,他们有 更高的组建、依靠社团(包括大乡缘社团和青田籍社团)的热忱和行动。宏观地看,近 20 余年来海 外青田人表现出向更适宜于居住和发展的国家集聚的趋势。这与海外青田人社团的发展大势是趋同 的。传统、浓重而醇厚的青田人乡缘意识,极大地增强了海外青田人组建社团的动力和社团内的聚 合力。但海外青田人新生代存在着迅速致富却受教育程度低的明显缺陷,这两者与他们的乡缘意识 结合在一起,导致了他们在热心于家乡的公益和慈善事业、发展家乡与海外的内外联动商贸关系并 积极向家乡投资的同时,却存在着商贸和投资门类单一,档次难以提升,消费过热的短板。海外青 田人新生代也积极回乡参政,大大推进了家乡的新农村建设和政治文明进步。但随着家乡文化教育 事业的发展,他们也将迎来知识与信息时代的挑战。本文对海外青田人新生代乡缘意识、特质与其 在国内开展的慈善公益事业、商贸参政活动的因果链进行分析。  S7:2 加拿大台山华侨与台山县立中学 黄海娟 五邑大学广东侨乡文化研究中心讲师 台山县立中学(以下简称台中)是广东台山一中(台山市第一中学简称)的前身,今天,当我们走 进台山一中的时候,便被其巍峨的教学建筑群所吸引,台山一中之所以有这么宏伟的教学楼群,是 因为在其历史上经过了三次的扩建,而这三次的扩建与台山华侨都有直接的关系。本文由于篇幅所 限,只讨论第一次的扩建,而这次建起的主要是一座采用西式建筑风格的教学楼,分南北中三个区。 这座教学楼建成于 1926 年,距今已有 80 多年的历史,见证着台山侨乡教育的发展,也是民国时期 台山教育繁荣的标志。教学楼从倡议集资到建设完工,历时多年,主要由加拿大的台山华侨领袖积 极参与而成事,整个过程反映了海外台山华侨与台山地方社会发展的关系,本文通过研究加拿大华 侨建校舍的过程探究海外台山华侨团体、台山政府、台山地方势力团体等在建筑校舍这事件中的关 系,从而窥见民国时期,来自海内外的势力如何与台山本地力量作协调,如何影响台山的社会发展。    70        S7:3 海外新华侨华人子女文化传承状况考论 鞠玉华 中国暨南大学华侨华人研究院教授 新华侨华人子女是第二代移民。他们自幼生活在与所在国的社会具有明显差异的华人家庭,生存在 两种或多种文化的夹缝之中,成为“文化冲突”的承载者。他们对外部强加给他们的“中国人”、 “华侨”、“华人”等称谓的意义不够理解,经历着身份定位、文化认同的困惑、苦恼。本文以实 地访谈、调查为根据,以华人子女的生活背景为依托,以所处的文化、教育环境为中心,在教育人 类学、社会学理论的指导下,采取实证与理论相结合的方法,考察华人子女在“异文化摩擦”中的 成长过程;探讨他们在父辈文化和主流社会文化交叠的境域中,接受文化传承、语言学习的状况; 分析家庭教育在代际关系与跨文化的冲突、调适、融合、重组过程中所应发挥的作用;研究异文化 碰撞对华人子女成长的影响和所带来的利弊,即:文化冲突、调适过程中而产生“分化”、“分流” 的多元现象。重点从文化认同、价值观形成等层面,深入阐述在文化传承和文化境界跨越中,华人 子女在自我归属的寻找,生存的悖谬、博弈中,努力包容和接受多种文化,使中华文化与异文化兼容, 形成具有超越意义的新文化,催生出“视角越界”的“新观念”。  S7:4 家庭团聚是移民法体系的核心 ——美国、加拿大家庭团聚移民政策分析 李其荣 中国华中师范大学历史文化学院三级教授 美国和加拿大都是传统移民国家,家庭团聚是美国、加拿大移民政策法规的重要组成部分。而对这 一问题的研究,学术界较为薄弱。加强对家庭团聚移民政策的研究,对于深入剖析美国、加拿大移 民法体系,发展两国经济,维持社会稳定与发展,具有重要理论和现实意义。本文分析了美国、加 拿大家庭团聚移民政策,认为移民家庭团聚是美国、加拿大移民政策法规的重要组成部分,或者说 是移民法体系的核心。实施综合移民改革,使家人得以团聚,意义重大,它使国家获得安全,经济得 以恢复,这个艰辛而智慧的立法过程,也在最佳程度上反映了美国人和加拿大人的价值观。目前要求 放宽家庭团聚的民间呼声持续高涨,体现美国和加拿大人价值观的“家庭团聚”成为难以被忽视的 移民改革核心话题。  71        S8:1 Million Dollar Mile Karin Lee 李嘉慈 Filmmaker & Instructor Million Dollar Mile refers to the strip of land where the Canadian gold rush started in 1858 – Barkerville B.C., Canada. This particular piece of land lured thousands of Chinese to the Americas in search of gold and to seek their fortune. Many Chinese came via the “old Gold Mountain” – San Francisco, as well as directly from Guangzhou in Southern China. The well-known legend at that time stated that if you went to Canada, with one shovel of dirt, one would reap one shovel of gold, and return to China a rich man. Million Dollar Mile is a 6-channel video installation, which reflects the Chinese community whose existence and history in Canada mirrors the effects of colonization and racism, which began over 150 years ago. It combines documentary footage and fictionalized re-creations to interpret history, blurring the line between non-fiction and fiction. The use of images and text/language are interspersed throughout the installation. Chinese, English, and Chinook Jargon depicts the culture of communication before English became the dominant language in western Canada. Chinook Jargon was an intercultural trade language used extensively throughout the Pacific Coast until the early 1900s, derived from Chinookan, Nuu-chah-nulth, English, French, Chinese and Polynesian languages. The status of Chinese gold-miners from 1858 to today reflects significant changes. Million Dollar Mile follows a Chinese geologist who has been hired by a Canadian company to track and find large deposits of gold which starkly contrasts the discriminatory laws which disallowed Chinese to stake new claims for placer gold-mining in Barkerville. By retelling the story of the Chinese in Barkerville, combining it with a contemporary commentary, and the use of Chinook Jargon to equalize the power of communication; all these forms combine to blur the message and the story itself, and it will ask the audience to consider multiple watching/reading/interpretation of the installation.  72        S8:2 From C to C: Chinese Canadian Stories of Migration 金山夢---中國與加拿大的故事 Jordan Paterson Video Producer, Teaching and learning Centre, Simon Fraser University Filmed on location in BC and throughout China’s Guangdong province, From C to C is a moving, and cinematic, tapestry of Chinese Canadian stories of migration. These stories outline the injustices faced by Chinese migrants during the last century, and the little known affects of migration on the families and communities of migrants. The film contrasts these histories with the views and experiences of contemporary Chinese Canadian youth, leading us to reflect on the meaning of exclusion for those who experienced it, as well as for those who did not. By calling attention to the diverse and transnational nature of contemporary Chinese Canadian identities, the film promotes an inclusive vision of Canada that values members of all communities as global—rather than solely national—citizens. Made in partnership between Simon Fraser University, S.U.C.C.E.S.S., Fairchild TV, Guangdong television, and Citizenship and Immigration Canada's Community Historical Recognition Program《金山梦——中国 与加拿大的故事》is a community-based documentary that is part of a larger educational project that aims to raise awareness about contemporary social justice issues by reflecting on, and comparing, the experiences of migrants between Canada and China over the past 150 years.  S9:1 Chinese Picture Books at the Northeast Kansas Library System Member Libraries: A Descriptive Approach Anna Ching-Yu Wong Doctoral student, Syracuse University Children’s picture books provide images and knowledge for small children to learn about other people, places, and cultures. Many public libraries of major cities in the United States have a branch targeting service to Chinese residents such as the Chicago Public Library Chinatown Branch, San Francisco, and Los Angeles public library systems. These libraries have a tremendous collection of Chinese children picture books. As a Chinese American librarian, I am curious to find out, what kinds of Chinese picture books are housed in the Mid-Western public libraries of the United States, where the communities are predominantly Caucasian (European American). This study explores the Chinese picture book collection of the 16 Northeast Kansas Library System libraries. A total of 118 titles of eight hundred and fifty-eight Chinese picture books are recorded. This study suggests that population ethnicity is not a factor for purchasing Chinese children's picture books amongst the local libraries. Despite the demographic statistics, it appears that many MidWestern residents are interested in exploring Chinese culture and its fascinating folklore stories. The main themes of the Chinese children's books have moved away from the predominant folklores to the contemporary stories. 73        S9:2 Multiple Identities of Chinese Americans and Responses from Chinese in Mainland China: A Case Study of Gary Locke Yiping Chen Professor of History & International Relations, Jinan University The nomination of Gary Locke by President Obama as the new U.S. Ambassador to China on March 9, 2011 stirred up a heated discussion and even debates in Mainland China. This paper analyses multiple identities of Chinese Americans and responses from Chinese in Mainland China through the case study of Gary Locke based on the findings of telephone survey in Guangdong, which was co-conducted by the author and an opinion research centre. The telephone survey findings show that majority of the respondents are proud of the appointment of Gary Locke, but nearly half are dissatisfied with his words like “100 Percent American” .The author thinks that the debates on the appointment are because that Chinese in Mainland China can’t understand the multiple identities of Chinese Americans as well as what Gary Locke said and did. The author argues that Chinese Americans acknowledge themselves as members of global society, host country and motherland etc., and have different kinds of identities such as national identity, political identity ,ethnic identity and cultural identity. The author concludes that Chinese Americans may become assets of soft power of both U.S. and China because of the multiple identities, the key is a win-win thinking, which indicates that both governments should encourage Chinese Americans play greater positive roles in communication, mutual understanding and cooperation between U.S. and China.  美国华人的多元认同及中国民众的反应:以骆家辉为例的分析 陈奕平 中国广州暨南大学华侨华人研究院及美国研究中心、历史系教授 自 2011 年 3 月 9 日骆家辉被总统奥巴马正式提名为美国驻华大使以来,中美两国舆论都予以了热评, 甚至出现了争论。本文以骆家辉为例探讨美国华人的多元认同,并结合电话调查结果分析中国民众 的反应。从作者联合调查机构在侨乡广东所做的电话调查结果看,中国民众对骆家辉任驻华大使大 多感到自豪,但有近半数人不认同骆家辉“百分百美国人”的讲话。作者认为,中国舆论对于骆家 辉任驻华大使出现了争论,就其原因,除了骆家辉的言行外,也由于中国人对其多重认同的不理解。 就“多重认同”,作者认为,美国华人一方面存在对全球社会、属籍国、祖国等多重对象的认同, 另一方面存在族裔认同、国家认同、政治认同、文化认同等的多样性。正是因为美国华人的多重认 同特征,作者认为,他们既是美国的软实力资源,也可能成为中国的软实力资源,关键是能否实现共 赢。由此,作者建议,中美两国政府应该鼓励他们在中美交流、相互理解及合作中发挥更大的积极 作用。  74        S9:3 Chinese Gods in New American Homes? Material Religion, Rituals, and Community Jonathan H. X. Lee, Ph.D. Assistant Professor of Asian American StudiesSan Francisco State University  Vivian-Lee Nyitray, Ph.D. Department Chair, Associate Professor, Religious Studies, College of Humanities, Arts, and Social Sciences, University of California, Riverside  Over time and through the process of “culture work,” local communities construct a meaningful identity for themselves using information drawn from history and received interpretation; the community then continues to narrate this identity for themselves and outsiders. The authors examine two case studies, both revealing different aspects of culture work conditioned by time, changing ideologies of American society, and material resources. First, in the case of the historic Chinese immigrant community of Marysville, California, cultural and linguistic barriers can produce misinterpretations that become naturalized. Drawing primarily on the material evidence of a northern California Chinese American temple, built in 1854, and its enshrined images, the authors reveal the ways in which culture work has created a god, “Bok Kai,” and an edifice, “the Bok Kai Temple,” that are contrary to Chinese tradition, may typify Chinese American culture work, and are uniquely significant to the local context of Marysville. Second, the authors examine an emerging Taiwanese American goddess community in San Francisco’s Chinatown founded in 1986. The goddess, venerated as Mazu among Taiwanese devotees is style Tianhou, the Empress of Heaven. In the American context, she is represented as Meiguo Mazu (American Mazu). This is a deliberate localized representation of a Chinese deity that conforms to ritual traditions and representation. The material religion at the Ma-tsu Temple U.S.A. reveals the complexity of this representation in terms of ritual status, transnational connection to Taiwan, and by extension Mainland China’s Meizhou, the birthplace of Mazu cult. In both communities, material religion normalizes new representations of Chinese deities, purposefully or involuntarily thereby normalizing new ritual traditions and adaptations, and communities.         75        S10:1 Eileen Chang: Self-Translation of the Diaspora Jessica Tsui Yan Li Faculty associate, York Centre for Asian Research York University Eileen Chang (Zhang Ailing 1920-1995), a legendary modern Chinese writer, translated her life and works from the Chinese language and culture into the Anglophone ones and vice versa in an equivocal manner during her diasporic journey. Chang was born in Shanghai in 1920. After having received her primary and secondary education in her hometown, she studied at the University of Hong Kong in 1939. Due to the SinoJapanese War, she was forced to move back to Shanghai in 1941 before finishing her bachelor degree. In 1952, she left Shanghai to Hong Kong once more, where she worked as a translator for the United States Information Services for three years. She then emigrated to the U.S. in 1955. She briefly headed to Taiwan and Hong Kong for more job opportunities in 1961. After returning to the U.S. in 1962, she had never returned to China again. Chang’s extreme diasporic experience was manifested in her writing in English, a foreign language that bears alienated cultural coding. Though writing in English for Anglophone readers, her works largely retain Chinese literary and cultural traditions. She also wrote in Chinese, her mother tongue, but she depicted the Chinese culture from an unfamiliar perspective. Having translated her own life experience and works from one language into another, Chang’s literary achievements are in part a result of her bilingualism, which has received insufficient attention. In this paper, I study Eileen Chang’s self-translations by investigating the paradoxical relationship between the translated texts and the translations, the authorship, and the significance of her works in a globalized context. I argue that her rewriting and self-translations are situated in a luminal space, in-between the Chinese and Anglophone linguistic and cultural discourses, the new and the old, as well as life and fiction. Her writings serve as her retrospective means of looking at Chinese modernity and her own past in China. Meanwhile, her self-translations present her equivocal diasporic experience under constant negotiation amid moments of historical transformation.  76        S10:2 Ethnicity in Transit: Eileen Chang, Translation, and Cold War America Chris Lee Assistant Professor, Department of English Associate Principal of St. John's College University of British Columbia Eileen Chang’s long personal and professional relationship is well known. From her earliest writings in the Anglophone press in Shanghai to her work for the United States Information Service to her monumental translation of Flowers of China into English and standard modern Chinese, translation was a form of creative and intellectual labor, a strategy for survival, as well as an existential condition necessitated by the quotidian crossing of linguistic, cultural, and political boundaries. This paper situates Chang’s relationship to translation in relationship to the cultural politics of Cold War America. In that context, she entered the American literary market as a native informant who could supposedly provide otherwise inaccessible information on conditions in the People’s Republic of China. I trace how these assumptions are thematized in her 1963 English essay “Return to the Frontier,” the Chinese translation of which was posthumously published as 重訪邊城. I borrow Naoki Sakai’s description of the translator as a “subject in transit” to suggest that this text demonstrates how the interplay between singularity and indeterminacy gets turned inward as she engages in self-translation. But while Chang never imagines herself as anything but Chinese— she does not think of herself as American or Chinese American—her excessive interest in the instabilities of this category highlights its discontinuity despite the semblance of singularity. I conclude by exploring how her treatment of ethnic subjectivity in transit provides an instructive entrée into the discursive conditions for Asian American writing during the Cold War.  77        S10:3 Chinese Fatherhood as Alternative to Hypermasculinity in West Indian Fiction Anne-Marie Lee-Loy Associate Professor, Department of English Ryerson University The Chinese community of the Caribbean region of the Americas has its roots in 19th century indentured migration. In the former British West Indian colonies, the Chinese were specifically introduced into the postemancipation environment because it was hoped that they would become a “buffer community”; namely a community who would help to diffuse revolutionary activity amongst the Black working class by ensuring the continuance of the economic and socio-political structures of these societies. By the early 20th century however, the Chinese were no longer working as field labourers. Instead, they were heavily involved in the small retail industry, particularly in Jamaica where the Chinese were perceived as dominating this sector of the economy. The political and economic context in which the Chinese arrived in the West Indies had a significant impact on their relationships with the other ethnic groups that made up the broader community within which they lived. In many ways, the Chinese were the consummate outsiders. Their race and socio-economic class barred them from reaching the higher echelons of plantation society. Yet, because of their history as replacement labour on the plantation, brought in to drive down the wage demands of the freed Black labourers, and as shopkeepers who made their money off of the Black working class, they were often perceived as having little interest in the issues facing those of their Black neighbours or as directly threatening their economic ambitions. Throughout the 19th and 20th century, West Indian fiction reflected such popular perceptions of the Chinese in both the common marginalized position of Chinese characters in novels and short fiction, as well as the repeated stereotype of the exploitative shopkeeper. In the latter case, the Chinese shopkeeper’s association with economic oppression often found its parallel in implicit and explicit suggestions of sexual exploitation of Black working class women. In such situations, the outsider status of the Chinese is reemphasized in the bastard status of their offspring. Simply put, their presence in the nation is deemed as illegitimate as that of their children. In the relatively recent novels, Bruised Hibiscus and The True History of Paradise, however, the image of Chinese fatherhood in the West Indies is radically revised. Tong Lee and Mr. Ho Sing are represented as legitimate progenitors of the modern Caribbean nations of Trinidad and Jamaica – as being, in other words, founding fathers. What accounts for this change in representation? Does it, for example, reflect a reevaluation of ethnic relations within the Caribbean? This paper argues that while such images speak to a willingness to embrace a more complex and nuanced vision of West Indian history, ultimately, these representations of Chinese fatherhood are produced as foils against the perceived hypermasculinity of West Indian males in general. Thus, while seeking to include the Chinese in their imaginative landscapes, the authors also come dangerously close to re-affirming the stereotype of the outsider Chinese in the Caribbean.  78        S10:4 Coolie Encodings: the Significance of the Coolie and the Free Laborer in Early 20th Century Chinese Boycott Literature Elizabeth Evans Weber PhD student in Asian Languages and Cultures University of California, Los Angeles In 1905 a group of Shanghai merchants, outraged over the abuse of Chinese in the US as well as attempts by the US government to strong-arm the Qing government into renewing an exclusionary agreement, launched a full boycott of American goods. During the boycott, numerous attempts were made to inform the public of the goals of the boycott, whether in novels, short stories, plays, even songs. In this paper, I consider the novel Ku shehui (Bitter Society, Anonymous, 1905), one of the novels that emerged out of the boycott, which takes as its subject matter two groups of Chinese laborers in the Americas: some sent to Peru as coolies, and others who worked in small shops in the US. While the figure of the credit-ticket sojourner to the US was obviously highly relevant to the cause of the boycott, I seek to determine what was it about his contracted counterpart, the coolie laborer, that made him such a significant symbolic figure during the boycott, 30 years after the coolie trade to Peru and other sites had officially ended. I posit that, written at a historical moment when intellectuals were trying to define and mobilize the “people” in the name of social and political progress, Bitter Society offers a prescriptive view of what China’s “people” should be and where its loyalties should lie. I argue that in choosing to focus on coolies sent to the Americas and credit-ticket travelers who went to the US, (two categories of Chinese who were particularly victimized by rapacious foreigners and who the Manchu-dominated Qing court failed to protect), the author/s of the novel evoke an imaginary “people” that is not only not bound by class or by geography, but is anti-foreign, and, by extension, anti-Manchu and proHan.  79        S11:1 The Forgotten Ties: First Nations and Early Chinese Immigrants Relationship in BC (1858 ~ 1947) Lily Chow Siewsan Researcher & Writer Director of New Pathways to Gold Society B.C In recent years, investigations on intermarriage between Aboriginal people or First Nations and the early Chinese immigrants have gained momentum. Journalists and historians began interviewing Canadians with both Chinese and First Nations ancestry, recorded their family story, and produced plays and documentary videos with their findings. Some descendants of these intermarriages acknowledged their ancestries in public and made attempts to find their Chinese roots in China. However, contacts and interactions between these two ethnic groups must have occurred before marital union could take place. The initial association between the First Nations people and the Chinese immigrants took place in 1858, the year when the Fraser Gold Rush began. Thousands of American miners and prospectors flocked to the Fraser Canyon, particularly to Hill’s Bar, followed by hundreds of Chinese miners from California as well as people of many walks of life who wanted to get rich by finding gold. During the construction of the Canadian Pacific Railway Andrew Onderdonk employed Aboriginal people, Chinese labourers and other races in his work force. These two vital historical events set the stage for Chinese immigration to Canada as well as provided opportunities for the Chinese immigrants to come in contact and interacted with the Aboriginal people. Their contacts and interactions continued as time progressed and opportunities arose. In this paper attempts are made to explore the many circumstances in which these two ethnic groups interacted with one another that led to the development of friendship, partnership and intermarriage, and how the political, economical and social situations had affected their relationships. Efforts are also made to examine the effects of cultural differences on their intermarriage, and a few key issues that challenged their co-existence as two different ethnic groups.  80        S11:2 A Journey to Serve: A Chinese American Woman’s Service in the Canadian Armed Forces during WW II Sharyne Shiu Thornton Executive Director The International District Housing Alliance in Seattle In July 1943, my 19 year old mother, May Yee (aka May Toy Shiu), attempted to enter Canada through Windsor, Ontario intending to join the Canadian Army Auxiliary Corps. Denied entry because she lacked proof of her US citizenship, she returned to Chicago, Illinois where she appeared on July, 23, 1943, before the District Director of Immigration and Naturalization who determined that she was indeed, born in Chicago, Illinois on December 28, 1923 to Chinese immigrant parents. Initially, she sought to join the US Armed Forces but was denied because of her age. However, a Canadian recruiter informed her that women could serve in the Canadian Armed Forces at 18 years of age and recruited her to serve. Thus, began a journey that would cross geographic borders, intersect with the anti-Chinese immigration policies of both the US and Canada, and where she would participate in the little told story of minority women’s service in WW II on behalf of both Canada and the United States. This paper presents her narrative of service. Embedded in this narrative is her triumph over gender bias, reflected in her personal story of birth as an ill-fated Chinese daughter and the tenacious strength of a young Chinese American woman who sought first to serve her country of birth, the United States, and subsequently, Canada during WWII. Through the narrative construction of her story, this paper examines the broader themes of Chinese women in the Americas: gender identity and power; changing patterns of kinship influenced by immigration and the policies that shaped acculturation to different social norms, and the liminality of a gendered, ethnic minority self that was challenged to balance multiple social worlds. Research Statement There is limited literature on the military service of Chinese Canadians during WW II; the literature on Chinese Canadian women is even more scant. These voices deserve more than silence and the contributions of their service need to join all those who served for proper acknowledgement. Additionally, my mother, as a Chinese American woman who served in the Canadian armed forces, may well be the only Chinese American female veteran of the Canadian armed forces during WW II. Embedding her narrative of service within the larger historical context of military service during WW II contributes to the larger social discourse of military service of Chinese North Americans on behalf of both Canada and the United States. Methodology The methodological approach utilized in this paper is qualitative. One function of qualitative inquiry is to make sense of personal stories; how they are embedded in larger social, cultural and historical contexts and how emerging larger themes intersect with the collective stories of shared lived experiences. Data for this proposed paper has been collected from digitally recorded, open-ended and semi-structured interviews, notes from family stories collected during family visits, family reunions and cross-sharing of family stories with my cousin, Pamela Jadeen (Chin) Yee. Jadeen has also documented through archival research the Shiu (Moy) family immigration history to Chicago, Illinois across three generations. Additionally, we have worked 81       collaboratively on identifying the documentation of my mother’s (her maternal Aunt) service during WW II in the Canadian Armed Forces. Additional data, specific to my mother’s service, was collected through digitally recorded interviews, structured around photographs from my mother’s photo album taken during the time of her service in Nanaimo, British Columbia where she was stationed. Additionally, a literature review of Chinese participation in the war effort on behalf of Canada during WW II has been conducted.  S11:3 Ethnic Enclave? Sex and the Myth of Isolation in Twentieth Century Chinese Canadian History Elise Chenier Associate Professor, Department of History Simon Fraser University Chinese Canadians offer a dramatic example of an immigrant group that, until quite recently, lived in ‘ethnic enclaves.’ The term ethnic enclave has been used to document how racist ideologies forced minority ethnic groups to settle in less desirable, urban neighbourhoods, and to show how neighbourhood concentration allowed groups to form tight-knit communities. As a category of analysis, ‘ethnic enclave’ has help map out the history of race, ethnicity, and migration. But it is also misleading; it draws our attention away from the many forms of contact that crossed ethic lines, contact that went beyond what was necessary for mere survival. Consequently the history of Chinese Canadians exists in a historiographic enclave, separate and distinct from, but also enclosed and trapped within, a larger history. “Ethnic Enclave?” will show that Chinese Canadians were not as isolated as the historiography suggests. Drawing on oral interviews, Toronto’s tabloid press, autobiographical sources, and the records of the Multicultural History Society of Ontario, this paper presents the preliminary results of my research on the history of sexual intimacy between white women and Chinese men in Toronto between 1920 and 1960. Sexual relationships between Chinese men and white women were a common feature of everyday life in North American Chinatowns. White women and Chinese Canadian men sustained fleeting, short- and longterm intimate and domestic relationships. Rich qualitative evidence of interracial relationships complicates the dominant paradigm of segregation and isolation. By including in the history of Chinese Canada the white women who engaged in intimate relations with Chinese Canadian men, as well as their mixed-race progeny, neither of whom fit easily in either the white or the Chinese community, a more fractured and heterogenerous image of Chinese Canadian community and a more multifaceted image of the social history of racism can emerge.  82        S11:4 Migration, Identities, and Transformation Gu Xiong Associate Professor, Art History, Visual Art and Theory University of British Columbia In response to the increasingly multi-directional nature of contemporary migration, Gu explores the relationship between the flow of rivers and the waves of migration. His project "Waterscapes" explores the contemporary and historical meaning of waterscapes in the context of large scale migration in/to Canada and China. From the mid 19th century onward, Fraser River in Canada and Yanzi River in China have connected migrants from around the world as these two countries became enmeshed in an emerging global economy. Starting with the migration of Chinese labourers to the Fraser River for the Gold Rush of 1858 to the migration of Canadian missionaries to the Yangzi River region in the late 19th century, these rivers have become thick palimpsests of histories, memories, and the material traces of migration. The identities of those that migrate from one culture to another transform in this process. In order to fully understand this transformation, the history of these waves of migration needs to be revisited. Gu and his team of researchers visited a number of towns along both the Fraser River and the Yangzi River. In this paper, he will closely examine the revival and the disappearance of migrant history and culture in the towns of Barkerville and Cumberland, respectively. Through visual arts productions that present this contrast between the two historical Gold Rush and Coal Mining towns, Gu ignites discussions amongst migrant communities to rethink the spaces of contemporary global flows. In providing vital transit access between the Pacific Ocean and inland areas, these rivers can be understood as complex "waterscapes" in which critical negotiations of power and space produced uneven experiences of displacement, dispossession, and adaptation. By conceiving historical intersections of China and Canada in terms of waterways, the "Waterscapes" Project and this paper hope to explore paradigms of migration that move beyond conventional notions of diaspora, capital, and globalization, and therefore exploring the concepts of identity issues, values, and culture of the migrants.  83        S12 In Search of Values Overseas: Stories of Chinese American Librarians The Panel proposes to discuss how the Chinese-American librarians have found their identity and value in the librarian profession through their own professional activities. The pioneering Chinese American librarians are among the educated immigrates that rose in 60s, and they have, since, made contributions to library profession, promoting the Chinese culture and bridging the exchange between western and Chinese libraries. In the Angelo-centered environment, they found the value and identity through their distinguished careers, professional organizations, and their intellectual activities in teaching and research.  S12:1 Achievements, Contributions and Characteristics of Chinese American Librarians Qi Chen Area Library Director, Argosy University Chinese American Librarians are determined in following their dreams to succeed. They are strong, devoted, self-motivated and persistent in providing and supporting library and information literacy to users of all cultures and to advance themselves professionally and personally. For more than half a century, having overcome hurdles such as culture differences, language and other barriers, quite a number of Chinese American Librarians have emerged in leadership positions, such as library directors and deans of library schools and holding positions in professional organizations at all levels. They have played a significant role in contributing to librarianship in general and bringing a closer relationship between the librarians in the United States and China. They have earned respects from librarians of all cultures and have expanded the image of Chinese American Librarians. This section introduces two generations of a few Chinese American Librarians and their characteristics, achievements, roles and contributions in librarianship.  84        S12:2 Organizational Action Makes the Visibility of Chinese American Librarians Lisa Zhao Clinical Associate Professor & Assistant Catalog Librarian, University of Illinois at Chicago Many Chinese American librarians have made great contributions to the library and information science. In their achievements, creating, leading and participating in organizational actions is part of their experience and legacy. The skills and talents of Chinese American librarians are enhanced and extended through various kinds of organizational activities. Being active in various organizations is part of Chinese American librarians’ story. This section looks back to how Chinese American librarians have worked together as a force and to the accomplishments they have made through collective efforts. The Chinese American Librarians Association is used as an example in the discussion, which is divided into three sub-sections: organization is for Chinese American Librarians working together as a voice speaking for themselves; as a force fighting unfairness, promoting Chinese American communities and bridging cultures; and as a place for supporting and promoting Chinese American Librarians’ work. The stories of Chinese American librarians endorse the perception that Chinese American librarians need to have and support their own organizations; and a positive image of Chinese American librarians as a whole can only achieved when they make collective efforts.  S12:3 Chinese Americans in LIS Education Ling-hwey Jeng Professor & Director, Texas Woman’s University Among Chinese American Librarians, the majority are first-generation immigrants who either arrived in the United States as international students, or chose to enroll after obtaining citizenship or permanent residency, in library and information science programs at the graduate level. Their presence may be counted in LIS literature, such as the annual statistical reports by the Association for Library and Information Science Education, in either the “International Students” column or the “Asian and Pacific Islanders” column. For this reason, discussions in this section will focus on the role of Asian and international LIS students and faculty in both categories.  85        S12:4 Finding the Chinese-American Self in Scholarly Activities and Achievements Shuyong Jiang Associate Professor & Chinese Studies Librarian, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign This section discusses the achievements of overseas Chinese librarians in scholarship. As intellectual immigrants, many of the overseas Chinese librarians have second advanced degrees in a subject area and are active in research and scholarly publications. They possess a unique position in a foreign cultural environment to promote Chinese culture and to find their identities through their scholarly activities. The section is an attempt to showcase some important research outcomes by overseas Chinese librarians. It illustrates how overseas Chinese librarians bring more perspectives in understanding different cultures of East and West. Their achievements in publishing and research have become part of their self-expression as Chinese-Americans.  S12:5 Dr. Hwa-wei Lee and his contribution to Sino-American Librarianship Cheng Huanwen and Wang Lei Sun Yat-Sen University This is a brief report and discussion on a recent conference in honor of Dr. Hwa-wei Lee. Through the lens of Dr. Lee’s professional and academic activities, the paper discuss the contributions and influences of the overseas Chinese American librarians like Dr. Lee to the profession in China.  86        S13:1 论民国时期侨刊对侨乡社会的建构 ——以台山侨刊为切入点 姚婷 五邑大学广东侨乡文化研究中心研究人员 作为诞生于侨乡的特定的文化产物,侨刊在其一百多年的发展历史中,根据不同的时势,由不同的 侧重点、从不同的角度记录了其时的侨乡社会。但这种记录并非真实全面的历史重现,而是代表着 某些特定群体集体记忆的文化建构。这种建构既受政治控制与历史环境的影响,也源于与侨刊相关 的各个群体的生命经历、现实利益与情感需求。本文即拟以创刊最早、种类最多的台山侨刊为切入 点,通过文献学与口述史方法,探讨民国时期侨刊对侨乡社会的建构。当时的侨刊即确立了之后侨 刊一直遵循的办刊宗旨——为侨服务,由于它们弥补了因为通讯手段落后而导致的侨乡与海外之间 信息互传困难的缺陷,因而得到侨乡内外乡亲的充分认同和支持,呈现繁荣发展的态势。处于激烈 动荡的时局与开放兼容的文化环境之中,侨刊宣扬浓烈的家国情怀,建构一个既不断变革又充盈着 大小冲突的侨乡社会。其中,华侨并没因为空间距离而缺席,而是在各式议论与描述中,成为主导、 参与或影响侨乡社会进程的不可或缺的一员。以城镇知识分子和农村乡绅为主的侨刊编辑者,是实 现这种建构的最直接因素,他们的知识结构、社会地位与现实需要,综合作用于他们对侨刊内容的 甄别与陈述。  S13:2 华侨华人民间文献多重价值初探    徐云  朱丽娜  广州暨南大学图书馆 伴随着广大华侨华人的历史与社会活动而记录、衍生和积累了大量的历史文献资源。华侨华人民间 文献是其中的重要组成部分。其中既有产生于民间的文献,又有散失在民间的官方文献。包括 1、海 外移民文献:卖猪仔合同、华工身份证明书、华侨华人护照、华侨国籍证明、华侨入境宣誓单、侨 民登记证、口供纸(簿)、华侨绿卡、华侨回国证明书、华侨在居住国营业证明、华侨社团有关文 件、华侨家书等等;2、华侨与中国革命文献:各种类型的抗战公债券、华侨筹助军晌证明文件、华 侨捐款收据、华侨与抗战历史照片、华侨回国投军文献、南侨机工文献、海外华侨抗战团体会员证、  87       抗战纪念章、华侨领袖的书信手稿等等;3、华侨与中国建设文献:华侨兴办学校、图书馆、医院、 道路等公益和福利事业的捐资捐款证明、华侨赈灾捐款文献、华侨银行汇票、各类侨批、华侨投资 股票、侨资企业股份簿等等;4、华文(华侨)教育文献:各时期海外侨校的课程表、教材、教职员 工表、学校各项任命书、董事会文件、学生证、教师证、成绩单等等;5、归侨与侨务文献:归国华 侨证明、早期归侨侨眷出境申请和证明、归国华侨团体会员证、侨务部门有关证明、介绍信、复函、 反映侨汇物资供应的券证等等;6、其他。这些文献具有历史性、知识性、收藏性、隐匿性、私密性 等特点,非公开渠道所能获取,具有历史、科研、文艺、经济等多重价值。发掘、解析和保护华侨 华人民间文献,不断拓展和延伸其价值,意义重大而深远。 本论文拟在对有代表性的一些华侨华人民间文献进行探讨和分析,对其多重利用价值进行挖掘和阐 述。主要分四个部分:第一,佐证历史方面;第二补阕历史方面;第三、学术探索方面;第四、继 承文化遗产方面。同时,对华侨华人民间文献的开发与利用提出了全面普查、广泛征集、电子化等 方面的探讨和建议。  S13:3 近代广东侨刊研究——以《香山旬报》为中心 倪俊明 广东省立中山图书馆副馆长 本文在比较详细地调查近代广东侨刊存留情况的基础上,分析其地区分布、出版发行特点和史料价 值,并重点对《香山旬报》创办的历史背景、编辑出版发行的情况,及其特殊的文献史料价值进行 探讨。文章认为,《香山旬报》具有侨刊特有的栏目构成和编辑出版特色,以及特殊的发行网络, 是目前所知出版时间最早的侨刊。香山地处中西文化交汇之地,得风气之先;邻近省港澳发达的近 代新闻出版业的影响;以及香山众多的华侨,是香山诞生中国近代第一份侨刊的主要原因。文章同 时将《香山旬报》与同时期其他侨刊进行比较研究,认为《香山旬报》除了与其他侨刊一样,大量 报道当地的侨情、乡讯外,由于香山是民主革命的重要策源地,执《香山旬报》笔政者多为同盟会 成员,因而,该刊以大量篇幅报道孙中山领导的民主革命活动和香山人民力争澳门主权的斗争,传 播新思想、新文化,体现该刊的进步性和革命性。        88        S13:4 美國華人與國家認同、國民觀念的重建 –-以舊金山華文報紙對民國成立的反應為中心 湯熙勇 臺灣臺北中央研究院人文社會科學研究中心研究員 本文參考《中西日報》、《世界日報》及《少年中國晨報》等美國舊金山三份重要的華文報紙,探 討舊金山華人社會對辛亥革命爆發與中華民國建立的反應,及美國華人重建國家認同與國民觀念的 努力。 1911 年 10 月,武昌起義後,舊金山同盟會致公堂等首先為慶祝辛亥革命之勝利舉辦遊行,各商店及 會館升掛中華民國國旗誌慶,民眾手執中華民國新旗,前面有樂隊引導,並有華人兒童舞蹈及西人 樂工參與,場面氣氛熱鬧、歡愉,《中西日報》稱「無論黃白各色人等,拍掌喝采,聲震天地」。 中華民國建立後,舊金山華人社會各組織及華人、中國留學生等均參與慶祝活動,開啟了華人重建 國家認同與國民觀念的步伐。 辛亥革命發生後,舊金山中華會館接獲粵東軍政府駐香港籌款人楊蔚彬及鄧仲澤之電訊,請籌措二 百萬,以應革命建國之需。舊金山中華會館為華人互助合作及領導之組織,支持國民政府與廣東政 府之購買債票要求。華文報紙呼籲,無論是中央政府或廣東政府之債票,華人均應努力承擔,建構 從廣東地方意識走向中國全體之觀念,以及新國民之意識。美國華人捐款或購買債券給民國政府, 中華會館代收華人的捐款或借款,並於華報上刊登捐款名錄及金額,以昭公信。 1912 年 1 月 1 日,中華民國政府正式成立與孫總統登任,舊金山華人致電致賀。透過華文報紙的報 導、轉載及評論,舊金山華人掌握了辛亥革命爆發與中華民國成立的情勢與變化,表現了對辛亥革 命的支持態度。從華文報紙的閱讀中瞭解,舊金山華人除了被動地挹注革命建國經費外,對中華民 國政府組織及民主發展、國家意識之建築等議題,提出了不同的建言與主張,體認民主國家人民的 責任與義務。值得注意的,本文以舊金山華人為中心,探討華人對民國成立的反應與重建國家認同 與國民觀念的努力。  89        S14 Chinese and Aboriginal Relations; Acknowledgment and Affirmation Chinese Canadian Historical Society of British Columbia (CCHSBC)  The historic relationship between First Nations people and Chinese Canadians has not been adequately researched nor acknowledged. CCHSBC is pleased to be a pioneer in this topic with its 2010 production of a 22-min. documentary film, Cedar and Bamboo. The video explores the unique relationships shared by early Chinese immigrants and Aboriginal peoples on Canada’s west coast. Four descendents of mixed heritage share their stories to reveal the difficult circumstances of First Nations people and early Chinese immigrants. An accompanying annotated bibliography Chinese Canadians: A 150 years of Shared Experiences, http://chinese-firstnations-relations.ca/ was also prepared. The video has been warmly received at screenings at film festivals, UBC, UVIC, Vancouver Island University, Simon Fraser University and many community locations. For example, Cedar and Bamboo is a succinct description of the intertwined histories of Aboriginal and Chinese peoples in British Columbia with absorbing portraits of multiracial identity and an excellent scholarly discussion supplement. It’s a compelling contribution to understanding B.C. history, multiraciality, alienation and belonging. Handel Kashope Wright, Professor, Director of the UBC Centre for Culture, Identity & Education CCHSBC would like to screen Cedar and Bamboo at the WCILCOS conference and share the experiences of those involved in its production through a panel discussion. We would welcome the participation of researchers and WCILCOS members from other parts of the World who have undertaken related research to join our panel.  90        S15 Diversities and Similarities of Chinese Overseas Society: A Comparative Perspective  S15:1 The Current State of Chinese America: International Migration, Modes of Incorporation, and the Challenges of Success Min Zhou Professor of Sociology & Asian American Studies University of California, Los Angeles, USA Chinese Americans are the oldest and largest ethnic group of Asian ancestry in the United States. They have endured a long history of migration and settlement that dates back to the late 1840s, including 60 years of legal exclusion. With the lifting of legal barriers to Chinese immigration after World War II, the enactment of a series of liberal immigration legislation since the passage of the Immigration and Nationality Act Amendments of 1965 (also called the Hart-Cellar Act of 1965), and economic and political changes in the People’s Republic of China and the greater Chinese Diaspora, the Chinese American community has increased more than ten-fold: from 237,000 in 1960, to 1.6 million in 1990, and to 3.8 million in 2010 by the official census count. Much of this tremendous growth is primarily due to post-1965 immigration as foreign born Chinese account for more than two-thirds of the Chinese American population and more than half of the foreign born arrived after 1990. This paper examines the key historical and contemporary features that shape Chinese immigration, settlement, and integration in the United States. I specifically address three questions: 1) How are contemporary patterns of immigration, settlement, and integration compared with those of the past? 2) What is the current state of Chinese America? 3) How are Chinese Americans perceived and positioned in 21st-century American society? In particular, I compare historical and contemporary trends and patterns by examining both historical and contemporary contexts of international migration and host society’s reception for Chinese Americans and by analyzing the internal ethnic factors and external structural factors on their acculturation and integration. I will also discuss the challenges of success for Chinese immigrants and their offspring, tackling the paradox of “the model minority” v. “the perpetual foreigner.”  91        S15:2 Brain Circulation and Transnational Chinese: Highly Skilled New Migrants in China, Singapore, and Britain Hong Liu Professor of History and Asian Studies Nanyang Technological University, Singapore The past three decades have witnessed rapid growth of new Chinese international migrants, estimated to be over 6 million. A significant portion of the new migrants is highly educated professionals who possess portable skills and have actively taken part in the global trend of “brain circulation.” By placing new Chinese diaspora in the context of both sending (China) and receiving societies (Singapore and Britain), this paper considers complex patterns of local adaptation and their interactions with China in the social, economic and political arenas. It also examines the significant role of the nation-state in shaping not only migratory trajectories but also changing ethnic identity and homeland linkages.  S15:3 当代“地缘组织”的精英模式:日本华侨社会个案研究 廖赤阳 ( Chiyang Liao) 日本武藏野美术大学造型学部教授 地缘组织曾经是华人社会的基本支柱之一。江户时代的唐寺是地缘组织之蒿矢。开港以来的福建会 馆实际上是商会。而二战后的福建帮,已是一般意义上的同乡团体。不过,最近成立的一个以福建 为媒介的社团,却是新型的精英组织,刚成立就迅速成为具有指标性的地缘团体。本文拟以该团体 为个案探讨当代所谓“地缘组织”的新变化及其历史特征。  92        S15:4 The Transition and the Transformation of Chinatowns in Japan Wei Wang Professor of Anthropology at Department of Economics National University of Kagawa, Japan The formation of Chinatowns in Japan was accompanied by the development of maritime trade in East Asia and the rise of trade ports in Japan. Unlike what experienced in the Chinatowns of the United States and Europe, Chinese merchants were always the migrant pioneers actively involved in the East Asian business network. As a result, Chinatowns of Japan have been closely intertwined with the host society since the very beginning. Three major traditional Chinatowns of Japan can be found in Yokohama, Kobe and Nagasaki. Shops, staff and residents in the three Chinatowns are consisted of not only ethnic Chinese but also the Japanese. Moreover, most of the tourists visiting Chinatowns are Japanese. The design and rebuilding of Chinatowns are thus targeted at Japanese tourists. One of the key characteristics that distinguishes Japanese Chinatowns from their counterparts in other parts of the world is the collaborations between the ethnic Chinese and Japanese in rebuilding the cultural landscape of Chinatown. Exotic culture exhibited in the three traditional Chinatowns is the selling point in developing local tourism, which in turn becomes part of the vital cultural resource in local social and economic development. With the inflow of new Chinese immigration waves initiated in late 1980s, Ikebukuro and Shinjuku of Tokyo have gradually become the commercial enclaves of Chinese migrants, especially the Ikebukuro region which is called the new Chinatown of Japan. There is no doubt that the history of Chinese migrant society in Japan could be observed in the three Chinatowns, which also function as a key bridge in promoting the cultural, economic, social and personal exchanges between Japan and China. The arrival of new Chinese migrants has had both positive and negative impacts on the traditional Chinatowns, such as internal friction, economic vitality and changes, and such changes could mirror the relations between the old and new Chinese migrants. The emergence of new Chinese districts in Tokyo and a number of the problems arising from the debate over the so-called new Chinatown have actually underlined the difficulties being faced by the Japanese government in its effort to build up a multicultural and coexistence society. In this sense, Chinatown could be perceived as both a stopover and a continuation, or described as a cultural conflict zone and a platform for communication and understanding. This paper tries to examine the old and new Chinatowns in Japan from the perspectives of history and locality while making a preliminary comparative study in the hope to explore further the transition and transformation of Chinatowns in Japan and their cultural implication.  93        S15:5 Multi-stream Flows Re-shaped Chinese Communities in Canada Kenny Zhang Senior Research Analyst at the Asia Pacific Foundation of Canada The Canadian census (2006) reported that over 1.3 million people in Canada self-identify their ethnic origin to be Chinese. This makes the Chinese community the eighth largest in Canada in terms of ethnic origin, and the largest of Asian origin. China has become the top source country of immigrants to Canada since 1998, and the Chinese communities in Canada continue to increase. The turn of the 21st century also witnessed growing multi-stream flows of people from China to Canada. Therefore, the image of Chinese Canadians today is vastly different than it was in the last two centuries when Chinese immigrants were stereotyped as railway coolies, laundrymen and waitress. The importance of Chinese communities in Canada has been underestimated for a long time. As a country of immigrants, Canada has been accustomed to looking at immigrants from an economic perspective. Chinese immigrants, like all immigrants, have traditionally been seen as suppliers of needed manpower. This paper will discuss how the multi-stream flows of people from China to Canada have changed the Chinese communities in Canada in various ways. It will also emphasize on the importance of understanding that Chinese communities not as a distinctive group, but as part of Canada’s multicultural society.  S15:6 New Chinese Migrant Community in Cambodia: A Fieldwork Report James K. Chin Research Fellow at the University of Hong Kong The ethnic Chinese in Cambodia formed the country’s largest ethnic minority with 60 percent of the Chinese are urban residents engaged mainly in commerce and the other 40 percent in the rural area. Since the fall of the Khmer Rouge regime, the once stricken or even perished Chinese community under Pol Pot has been rejuvenating with large number of new Chinese migrant influx from mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan. Companies set up by Chinese migrants from Hong Kong, Taiwan and mainland China can now be seen almost in every sector of the Cambodian economy, particularly in Phnom Penh. Chinese entrepreneurs own, operate, and built factories, banks, hospitals, restaurants, hotels, discos and casinos in the country. In the meantime, a great many of Chinese skilled labours have been recruited to work in the garment factories owned by migrant entrepreneurs. Even the triads, mafia and prostitutes from Taiwan and the Chinese mainland have managed to settle down in Cambodia. Why suddenly did large number of new Chinese migrants move into Cambodia over the past two decades from the Chinese mainland, Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan? What are the social, cultural and historical factors, if there is any, that can be advanced to account for the new Chinese emigration to Cambodia? What are their major businesses in Cambodia? How do Chinese private entrepreneurs achieve success in a transnational context? How could we identify and mapping out the ethnic Chinese business networks in Cambodia? And what are the main features of Chinese 94       new migrant community in the country? Based on the fieldwork conducted in Cambodia over the past six years, this paper tries to re-conceptualise the subject against the background of the increasingly rise of China in the international community and the significant Chinese globalization processes, examining the dynamics of Chinese business migrants in the less developed country and their connections with both homeland and other ethnic Chinese communities overseas.  S16:1-3 China in the Overseas Imaginary: Huaqiao and the Strengthening China Movement “The Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Association and China, 1884-1922” Ying Liu, Reference & Subject Liaison Librarian, McPherson Library, University of Victoria Tina Bebbington, Librarian for History, Medieval Studies, Philosophy and Newspapers, McPherson Library, University of Victoria  “The Transpacific Fights of the Dare-to-Die Vanguard of the Overseas Chinese, 1915-1916” Zhongping Chen, Associate Professor, Department of History, University of Victoria  “Victoria Cheung and the War of Resistance against Japanese Imperialism” John Price, Associate Professor, Department of History, University of Victoria  Panel Description The formation of Chinese national consciousness is intricately related to the experiences abroad of many emigrants. From the early days of migration to the Americas, many overseas Chinese perceived the need to help or reinforce China. Some did this for humanist sympathies. Others imagined an independent China able to put an end to the unequal treaties first imposed by the Euro-American powers and then emulated by a rising Japan. The annexation of Korea in 1905-1910 had been an object lesson demonstrating that in the era of imperialism, only strong states would survive. Patriotism also had another, more practical dimension. Many believed a stronger China would be able to better advocate for Chinese abroad, many of whom faced hostility and racism in the Americas. The republican movement, the movement for national independence, and the desire to strengthen China after the 1949 revolution brought many overseas Chinese to China as part of an ongoing movement to strengthen the country. This panel examines the strengthening China movement from diverse vantage points across the temporal spectrum. Chinese in the Americas organized themselves in numerous ways including through the establishment of benevolent associations. The Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Association archival records held by the University of Victoria contain numerous documents highlighting the perspective of overseas community leaders towards China through its many phases. Founded in 1884, the Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Association was a crucial force in Victoria’s immigrant history. The oldest Association of its kind 95       in North America, the CCBA was an active participant in Canadian life, struggling to build an inclusive society and to gain individual and group rights for people of Chinese origin. The era covered by these documents (1884 to 1922) was a difficult one for Chinese immigrants, when the completion of the TransCanada Railroad in 1885 threw thousands out of work. At the same time, the Canadian government instituted the “Head Tax,” and anti-Chinese riots broke out in several Canadian cities. The majority of Canada’s Chinese population was based in Victoria, which became the centre of the immigrants’ struggle for human rights. All these brought up the complex feelings of early Chinese immigrants about China, their original country. In the CCBA fond, we see the Chinese immigrants’ efforts in seeking support from China for their experience in Canada, for example, the communications with the Chinese Foreign Ministry and the Chinese Consulate in San Francisco. We also see the immigrants’ enthusiastic donations for the natural disasters, revolutionary activities and even the national defenses in China. The Chinese Nationalist League (Guomingang) in Canada was another institutional player dedicated to strengthening the republican movement. It organized young Chinese immigrants to engage in military training in Victoria, Vancouver, Edmonton, and other Canadian cities form 1915 and further dispatched them as the Dare-to-Die Vanguard of the Overseas Chinese (Huaqiao gansi xianfengdui) to join revolutionary battles with Yuang Shikai’s monarchical movement in China in 1916. These young Chinese immigrants joined the transpacific fights not only because of their patriotic commitment to revolutionary cause in their homeland but also because of the ever-spiraling white racism against Chinese in Canada and the increasing influence of the Chinese Nationalist League in their everyday life. As a result, the Dear-to-Die Vanguard from Canada led to the development of similar organizations among the overseas Chinese in the United States, Japan and Southeast Asia, and more than 500 returned migrants formed the Overseas Chinese Volunteer Corps (Huaqiao yiyongtuan) and joined the battle with Yuan Shikai’s army in northern China. While the Overseas Chinese Volunteer Corps helped defeat Yuan’s monarchical movement in China in 1916, its leaders continued their military mobilization in Canada A different approach to strengthening China was the attempt by overseas Chinese Christians to dispatch or support missionaries to China. A specific case study is that of Victoria Cheung. Born in Victoria in 1897 to Chinese parents active in the Chinese Methodist Church, Victoria Cheung went on to become the first Chinese Canadian to obtain a medical degree from the University of Toronto. She became a medical missionary with the United Church of Canada and arrived in Jiangmen (Kongmoon) in 1923 to take up work at what was then known as the Marion Barclay hospital. While most Canadian missionaries either left the field or were interned after 1941, Dr. Victoria Cheung remained in China, passing as a ‘Chinese’. Refusing to collaborate with the Japanese occupiers, she helped establish clinics in the communities that provided basis medical services for the townspeople during the Occupation. She remained in China after the 1949 revolution and became an important leader in the medical field until her death in 1966. Not all overseas Chinese who remained in China after 1949 stayed in the cities. From the early 1950s to the early 1980s, the Chinese government created over 80 state farms to resettle Chinese returned from foreign countries. These state farms were initially set up as models for the surrounding villages, but by the 1980s, the Chinese leaders had realized that the state farms were actually burdens for the state and they then decided that the state farms should follow the model of the villages. This reform movement arose out of specific factors that made the state farms for returned overseas Chinese a liability rather than an asset. Under this process, such state farms will eventually disappear and the returned overseas Chinese will inevitably assimilate into society at large.  96        S17:1 Pioneer Pacific Chinatowns Tracing the Chinese Diaspora in History Judy Lam Maxwell M.A. (History)  Back in the early 1800s, China’s deteriorating political and economic conditions compelled hundreds of thousands of men to leave their birthplace of south China for better prospects elsewhere and they dispersed worldwide. The history of the Chinese in North America has been well-documented, but only recently has the history of the Chinese in other continents been explored. Prior to China’s current role in global economics and politics, the world was not interested in preserving Chinatowns or pioneer Chinese histories. That’s all changed now: Chinatowns are being revitalized and Chinese histories are being uncovered and recovered. My presentation on Pioneer Pacific Chinatowns will chronologically compare and contrast the history of pioneer Chinese settlements of Mexico, Peru, Hawaii, Australia or British Columbia and will focus on common themes of opportunity, perseverance, discrimination, success, and varying degrees of Chinese-ness in the host society as well as parallel experiences of gold rushes, railroad building, coolie labour, work in agriculture, merchant establishments, and so on. Despite commonalities, each locale has a unique and fascinating history.  S17:2 From Chinatown to Ethnoburb: The Chinese in Toronto Arlene Chan Retired librarian Toronto Public Library The definition, face, and location of Chinatowns have changed significantly as Chinese communities establish themselves inside and beyond their boundaries. This paper demonstrates that both the older and contemporary Chinatowns in the Greater Toronto Area have developed in response to patterns of Chinese migration relative to the socio-economic, political, and cultural status of the Chinese in Canadian society. The history of the Chinese in Canada has been examined in many historical works, such as by Morton (1973), Con (1982), and Lai (1988). On the narrower subject of the Chinese in Toronto, academic research is 97       extensive on a variety of topics reflecting the complexity and diversity of the Chinese communities, including the landmark papers of the early Chinese community by Mah (1977; 1978). The transition out of the downtown core into the suburbs has been studied, as by Lo 1997; however, only one book, Toronto’s Chinatown, has been published (Thompson, 1989) and this one focuses on its social organizations. My paper draws upon the qualitative findings of a literature search and interviews with descendants of the early Chinatown residents and business owners, as well as my own first-hand experiences. Having grown up in what-is-now-called Old Chinatown, I identified and interpreted the myriad and confluence of factors that has affected the settlement patterns of the Chinese in Toronto. The early Chinese, like others in urban centres across Canada, sequestered themselves largely in Chinatown as they faced the racism and discrimination of a white host society. The head taxes and subsequent exclusion laws of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries fueled the anti-Chinese sentiment of society, labour organizations, newspapers, and public officials. From among a predominantly homogeneous group of immigrants with common roots in villages of Guangdong province, merchants and businessmen assumed leadership positions within the clan, district, and political organizations that gave direction to Chinatown, the centre for commerce, culture, and community life of a bachelor society. After the Second World War, immigration laws were eased for family reunification and the ensuing influx of Chinese immigrants was fostered by a government policy of multiculturalism and a business incentive program. Rising out of the ashes of Old Chinatown, two-thirds of which was demolished for Toronto’s new City Hall, was Chinatown West, to the west, then Chinatown East, to the east. While these three inner-city Chinatowns remain significant centres of Chinese stores, services, and restaurants for locals and tourists alike, the middleclass dream for less congested neighbourhoods and more spacious homes attracted settlement in the suburbs of North York and Scarborough by the late 1970s. As coined by American professor, Wei Li, these “ethnoburbs” or new suburban Chinese neighourhoods further expanded into the adjacent municipalities of Mississauga, Richmond Hill, and Markham. Unlike the traditional Chinatowns in crowded downtown locations, the ethnoburbs are attracting the more affluent, skilled, and educated newcomers. Both Markham and Richmond Hill are among the fastest growing municipalities in Canada where the largest visible minority group is Chinese. Second, third, and fourth generation Chinese Canadians have integrated into the broader community. New immigrants, now arriving from all provinces in China, the second largest source country for newcomers to Toronto, as well as from Southeast Asia, Hong Kong, and Taiwan, are establishing themselves in the traditional Chinatowns and in the newer ethnoburbs. The settlement patterns of the Chinese reflect the diversity of the Chinese diaspora in the Greater Toronto Area, home to Canada’s largest population of Chinese. No longer are Chinatowns viewed as the urban plights of days gone by, rather as healthy signposts of neighbourhoods where the Chinese are at liberty to retain their culture and traditions in a multicultural, multiethnic, and multilingual society.  98        S17:3 Places in Time: Myth, Origin and Death in Global Chinatowns Cindy Hing-Yuk Wong Associate Professor and Chair in the Department of Media Cultures, College of Island, City University of New York  Gary McDonogh Professor, Program in Growth and Structure of Cities, Bryn Mawr College  Research on Chinatowns worldwide has illuminated spatial boundaries and physical, social and cultural markers of distinctive urban identities in resonance with the changing position of Chinese in diverse societies and the adaptation of diasporic populations to transnational ties. Yet, the emergence of global Chinatowns from the industrial/extractive boom of the 19th century to the multilayered mercantile expansion of entrepreneurs in the 21st century also allows us to raise important unexplored questions about time and change in the city. Such questions illuminate not only Chinese experiences but also important processes of in the structures and growth of modern cities. The formation of Chinatowns in the past, for example, entails mythic markers of place (in the anthropological sense of myth). The “first” Chinese to arrive in any area may be later commemorated by historical markers, but this often embodies modern politics, whether in Philadelphia, São Paulo. Despite discontinuities in site, society and even changes among waves of immigration, the idea of the “birth” of Chinatown has been revised and revived by later Chinese claimants to rights and place in the city. The fragmentary myths of origin associated with historic Chinatowns worldwide, at the same time, raise questions about new Chinatowns now emerging as planned communities (in San José, Costa Rica, Guayaquil, Ecuador), Special Economic Zones in Africa and less-structured agglomerations taking advantage of housing and commercial opportunities (sunbelt suburban Chinatowns in the U.S. or Cyrildene, Johannesburg, South Africa). The dynamics of emergent Chinatowns illuminate social mixture, visible and invisible nodes and conflicts that are lost when history is claimed as myth. At the same time, these new enclaves draw on nowglobal vocabularies of Chinese identity and place – the presence of an arch or the public celebration of New Year’s as a festival of urban diversity –to transform inherited spaces into new homes.  99       Analyses of narrative of the birth of Chinatowns must be balanced by stories of “death” of an enclave. The “disappearance” of a Chinatown may be associated with physical displacement, governance/citizenship (the movement of the Chinese with the end of apartheid restrictions in South Africa), assimilation (the suburbanization of Chinese across the Americas) and gentrification (struggles facing many North American Chinatowns). Recognizing the forces that work against Chinatowns also provides an important Chinese twist to understanding wider processes of making and remaking cities worldwide. Drawing on ethnographic and archival materials from the Americas, in dialogue with Europe, Africa and Asia/Oceania, this paper thus questions the global nature of urban temporal structures that speak not only to Chinese diaspora but also to the changing natures of modern cities.  S17:4 Immigration, Ethnicity and Diaspora Communities: The Study of Three Chinese Cultural Centres in Canada Shibao Guo Associate Professor, Faculty of Education University of Calgary Canada is an immigrant society. Immigration has played an important role in transforming Canada into an ethno-culturally diverse and economically prosperous nation. The 2006 Census of Canada reveals that between 2001 and 2006, 1.1 million new immigrants arrived; 19.8% of the total population were born outside the country, and that 16.2% identified themselves as visible minorities (Statistics Canada, 2007). Also according to the 2006 census, the Chinese have become the second largest visible minority group in Canada after South Asians, approaching a total of 1.3 million up from 1,029,400 in 2001. Despite our rich history in immigration and the strategic role it plays in our future, the tension between immigration and ethnicity is still prominent. Some of the debates focus on the existence of ethno-cultural organizations. Despite the rhetoric that Canada relies on immigrants to help ameliorate its labour shortages and aging population, the very ethnicity that many immigrants are associated with is often treated with suspicion. In particular, ethnic organizations are often criticized for threatening national unity, diluting Canadian identity, and promoting ghettoization and separatism. Drawing from personal interviews and document analysis, this paper examines the tension between ethnicity and immigration by investigating the history and development of three Chinese cultural centres in Calgary, Winnipeg and Toronto. It highlights the role of diaspora communities in helping Canadians of Chinese heritage maintain their ethnic culture as well as promote mutual cultural understanding between Chinese Canadians and Canadians of other heritage. The study has important implications for researchers, policy-makers, and community workers regarding minority cultural rights and inclusive citizenship.  100        S18 Researching and Writing Family Histories; A Celebration of Chinese Canadian Roots Chinese Canadian Historical Society of British Columbia (CCHSBC) In 2006 and 2007 the Chinese Canadian Historical Society of BC held two family history writing workshops which resulted in the publication of two successful books, Eating Stories: A Chinese and Aboriginal Potluck (2007) and Finding Memories, Tracing Routes (2006). These publications share the intimate family narratives of the writers’ lived experiences. Facilitated by a creative writer/animator, the authors – all novices – reflected on their family histories in British Columbia and overseas and crafted personal and emotional tributes to their family pioneers. Eating Stories features 23 authors, three of whom are First Nations/Aboriginal/Metis, and 30 recipes. They are more than literate telling of family food rituals and recipes; they are elegantly and pungently related, as effective in accounting the events leading up to and surrounding the dishes as in itemizing the culinary contents. George McWhirter, City of Vancouver Poet Laureate. Finding Memories, Tracing Routes features eight authors in search of their family roots, in British Columbia and overseas. In these always poignant and sometimes humourous vignettes, the contributors draw on memories, mainly of childhoods and youth, to explore their sense of belonging. Collectively, their stories provide a remarkable insight into the family lives, across the generations, of Chinese Canadians. Dr. Patricia Roy, Professor Emeritus of History, University of Victoria. For the WCILCOS Conference, CCHSBC would like to feature select authors from these two family history books, and showcase the creative process of research, reflection, and refractive writing. It is our hope that sharing these experiences will inspire the production of more grass-roots family histories of overseas Chinese in their local communities.  101        S19 A Chinese Reformer in Exile: Kang Youwei and the Baohuanghui in North America Organized by Jane Leung Larson Kang Youwei, in exile from 1898 to 1913 following the demise of the Guangxu Emperor’s reforms, led the largest overseas Chinese political organization of the late Qing. With Kang as president and Liang Qichao as vice president, the Baohuanghui (or Chinese Empire Reform Association) sought to make China a constitutional monarchy. Key to the organization’s success was North America (the U.S., Canada and Mexico), where the Baohuanghui was founded in Victoria, B.C., and would grow to at least 95 chapters, dominating the Baohuanghui network of some 160 chapters in Asia, the Americas, Australia and the Pacific, and Africa. Kang visited North America for long periods between 1899 and 1909 coinciding with the organization’s heyday, when overseas Chinese responded to the Baohuanghui’s nationalistic message and gave their energies and funds to the cause of constitutional reform. The study of the Baohuanghui belongs at the intersection of Chinese diaspora history and Chinese history, or transnational Chinese history. Yet, the only book-length study in English devoted to Kang and the Baohuanghui is the prodigiously-documented, much-cited, but never-published 1972 Georgetown University dissertation of Robert L. Worden, “A Chinese Reformer in Exile: The North American Phase of the Travels of K’ang Yu-wei, 1899-1909.” This panel brings Worden together with scholars who have updated and re-interpreted Worden’s research, incorporating newly available archival materials on Kang and the Baohuanghui.  PAPER TITLES AND PRESENTERS: “Kang Youwei’s Travels in Canada, the United States, and Mexico, 1899–1909: An Outline of His Itinerary,” Robert L. Worden, retired, Library of Congress. “The United States as a Site for Baohuanghui Activism,” Jane Leung Larson, independent scholar, USA, founder, Baohuanghui Scholarship. “Kang Youwei in Canada and the Early Development of Baohuanghui in North America, 1899-1905,” Zhongping Chen, Associate Professor of History, University of Victoria. “Kang Youwei and the Baohuanghui in Mexico: When Two Nationalisms Collide,” Evelyn Hu-DeHart, Professor of History and Ethnic Studies, Brown University.  102        S20:1 “Chinese Canadian Stories”: a University – Community Collaboration Project Allan Cho Program Services Librarian, University of British Columbia Library  Lilly Li Chinese Canadian History Librarian/Archivist, University of British Columbia Library (2010-11) “Chinese Canadian Stories: Uncommon Histories from a Common Past” is community engagement and digitization initiative that contributes to the reconstruction of the identities of Chinese Canadians. Focusing on UBC Library’s role as nexus for university-community engagement, this presentation outlines interactions with the local Chinese communities and their roles in shaping the identities of Chinese Canadians across the Pacific. As a case study of one Canadian academic library’s drive in the recovery, creation, organization, promotion and research of Chinese Canadian historical materials in both English and Chinese, this project showcases the complex links and dynamics between institutional efforts to preserve archival materials for learning and research and the preservation of family history in the community for posterity that can be studied on a number of levels. Whereas academic libraries have traditionally concentrated on building collections, providing research support to students and faculty, and offering information literacy instruction, they have always been integrated into the broader aspirations of the university. As the academic library can be natural focal point for this interaction and exchange between academia and community, Chinese Canadian Stories (www.chinesecanadian.ubc.ca) helps position UBC Library as a gathering place for community outreach and community-based research. Through this project, it can be said that UBC Library is making a difference in innovatively creating a different approach to the preservation of the Chinese Canadian history and correcting the past’s erasures in Canada’s national memory, by working with academics, libraries and archives as well as the diverse communities of Canada. In all, UBC collaborated with twenty-eight communities across Canada – from Victoria, BC to St. John’s, Newfoundland – to document the history of Chinese families in the twentieth century. This paper presents the project of “Chinese Canadian Stories” as a model for how an academic library can successfully collaborate with an ethnic community to preserve their culture and history and brought a new awareness of their social identity. The benefits and challenges of such collaboration are discussed in the context of a real-world application. And recommendations for future applications are presented.  103        S20:2 Preserving History and Exploring Resources: A U.S. - China Experience Ying Xu Humanities Librarian John F. Kennedy Memorial Library, California State University Los Angeles This presentation introduces collaborative efforts and research activities by librarians in California, U.S.A. and China, in preserving history and exploring resources in memory of Dr. Sun Yat-sen. Dr. Sun Yat-sen, a pioneer and leader in the fight for Chinese democracy, has long inspired patriotism in China and overseas and left behind invaluable legacy of documents and sources for scholars and researchers worldwide. The Chinese American Librarians Association (CALA) Southern California Chapter, the County of Los Angeles, City of Montebello and Monterey Park, and librarians and library executives from ten academic and public libraries in California and China were involved in this collaborative project in 2006. Our presentation will introduce efforts and activities including: research and planning, analyzing library resources and collections, training staff, and outreaching to the U.S. community. We will share successful experience in sponsoring two month-long exhibits with over 400 rare photographs, manuscripts and historical documents at the local libraries, hosting two international symposia, and raising-funds from public institutes and private entrepreneurs in California. The Exhibits and the Symposia, both in size and contents, marked a "First" in the history of California in similar activities. The presentation will also provide an overview of the existing research resources and materials in major repositories from U.S., China and other overseas countries on the study of modern Chinese history. It will look into the recent development of collections and resources in digital format. In particular, it will analyze the strength of collections and provide reference tools, from librarians’ perspectives, for developing, preserving, and strengthening collections for research, study, and teaching.  104        S20:3 My Experience with the Ron Bick Lee Collection as a Young Archivist Qinqin Zhang Reference and Instructional Services Librarian, Allyn and Betty Taylor Library University of Western Ontario The Ron Bick Lee collection was donated by the Lee family in Vancouver, British Columbia to the University of British Columbia Library in 2010. Ron Bick Lee was a Chinese Canadian pioneer who moved to Canada from China in 1910 and spent most of his life in Vancouver. He was well known as a successful businessman and a dedicated community leader. As a recent library school graduate, I was privileged to have the opportunity of working on this important collection as an archivist since July 2011 to October 2011. The collection material spans from 1914 to 1994, almost a century long, and it mainly contains Ron Bick Lee’s personal correspondence, certificates presented to him for his community and political involvement, and business documents related to his Foo Hung and Granville Greenhouses business. His correspondence with his families, friends and business partners in China, Hong Kong and North America depicts his vast network across the Pacific Ocean. Working with the collection was a valuable and enjoyable learning process. The physical processing stage was my first thorough encounter of the collection. By rearranging the collection material, I was able to conceptualize the types of the material. In writing the finding aid document, I studied the collection in order to gain a good understanding of the scope and content of the material. The collection material has portrayed the immigration experience of Chinese Canadian in general and Ron Bick Lee’s personal experience as a businessman, a community leader and a family member of his immediate and extended families. As a young archivist whose own life experience has little overlap with Mr. Bick Lee’s, I had challenges of grasping the background of some of his documents, understanding part of his handwriting, and making connections among people in his vast network. However, these challenges motivated me to research more details in and outside the collection for a better understanding of Ron Bick Lee himself as the creator of the collection and the historical and cultural setting he has lived in. Throughout the arrangement and the description stages of the collection, I felt as if I were getting to know Mr. Bick Lee as a person, his meticulous work habits, intellectual curiosity and generous personality. This was probably the most interesting and rewarding part of my experience with the collection. This overseas Chinese rare collection is a very valuable source to explore the Chinese Canadian history in the 20th century. Ron Bick Lee’s remarkable story depicted in the collection gives us a vivid image of a Chinese Canadian pioneer in British Columbia, particularly in Vancouver. Research methodology such as unstructured observation in the scope of qualitative research was employed during the research.  105        S20:4 Internment Notices in Newspaper Published in Cebu, Philippines: A Source for Chinese Bio-Profiles Gyo Miyabara Deputy Director, Associate Professor, Global Collaboration Center Osaka University This paper will review the collection of interment notices in several local newspapers published in Cebu, which dates back to 1960’s, and will discuss the bio-profiles of Chinese residents. The interment notices are from several newspapers published in Cebu; the Cebu Daily News, and the Republic Daily, the Sun Star Daily, the Freeman and so on, which are part of the collection of the Cebuano Studies Center, University of San Carlos. These newspapers are covering a certain period from 1950’s to 1990’s with some unavailability. To deliver an interment notice in a newspaper is a common custom among residents in Cebu. We can find plenty of “Chinese names” in the massive data collected from notices, although it is inevitably ad hoc one. With reviewing the collection of interment notices, I will focus two aspects for questioning the demographic implications of notices. Firstly, I will discuss how can we find “Chinese ethnicity” as the subject of the notices. The data includes “Chinese” interment notices as well as “non-Chinese” one. However, “Chinese” in this place cannot be presumed as a bounded social entity or category, even though we need an operational definition. The range of “Chinese ethnicity” must be discovered through overviewing the data. Secondly, the author will examine family structure, which the collection shows. Every notice includes the name and the age of the deceased, the date of deceased, and the names of the family and in-laws. The collection of these data will show the long-term tendency of life expectancy, birth rate, and the gender gap as well as consanguineous and affined relationship among people. These data will also show preferable first names in each decade, and some cases that illustrate the supplementary sharing letter among the same generation of consanguine family. Although the collection of the interment notices is useful, there are several limitations. Finally, I will point out the unstable and unsorted feature of the data, and the method for combining various sets of data into the overlook of demographic feature. I will also discuss the connection between an anthropological fieldwork and these data, which can be introduced to ethnographical reflections for studies on “Chinese Overseas.”  106        S20.5 The Tung Wah Coffin Home Archives and Studies of Global Chinese Networking Hon-ming Yip Department Chairman & Professor, Department of History Chinese University of Hong Kong In 2005, the Tung Wah Coffin Home, owned and managed by the Tung Wah Group of Hospitals in Hong Kong, won the Award of Honor in the Heritage Preservation and Conservation Awards (2004) presented by the Antiques and Monuments Office of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region government as well as the Award of Merit in the Asia-Pacific Heritage Awards presented by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization in recognition of the achievement of a large-scale restoration project carried out on the Coffin Home in 2003-2004. What should also be appreciated is a wealth of detailed textual information in the form of the archives of the Tung Wah Coffin Home, which, along with the architectural cluster, has borne silent witness to a significant phase of the history of Hong Kong and overseas Chinese all over the world. The archives consist of documents and records produced in the first half of the last century when the Coffin Home, planned in 1899 and completed in 1900, evolved into a hub for the repatriation of bones or remains of Chinese worldwide back to their hometowns in China. Testifying to this peculiar function of the Home, the archives constitute a rare collection, or maybe the only body of documents of this kind and in such quantity in the world, on the network of the global Chinese world which might have existed much earlier than imagined. Taking the opportunity of compiling a collection of selected archival source materials of the Coffin Home for the Tung Wah Group of Hospitals, I have had access to the voluminous relevant archives stored at the Tung Wah Museum and discovered the uniqueness of this kind of service and its great significance in the history of Hong Kong, China, and the world. A macro study of the Coffin Home can even shed light on the amazing phenomenon of global Chinese diaspora and Hong Kong’s function in networking overseas Chinese everywhere in the world and their motherland, as the Coffin Home played a pivotal role in making connection between Chinese charitable institutions overseas and those in China for transport of thousands of coffins and human remains back home every year. Until the 1950s when the embargo problem affected the communication between China and the world outside, the Home might have been the only agency in the world that shouldered this kind of charity work on such a vast scale. Few scholarly works however have ever been published on this subject specifically. This presentation will highlight the value of the Tung Wah Coffin Home archives in studying the global Chinese network to which Hong Kong has long been the pivot in one way or the other.  107        S21 华人文学中的文化与移民 主题说明 五篇论文,都不拘泥于“文学性”表现的本身,而注重透过文学来观察所谓的文化、语言、移民与 身份认同等多重历史语境,是如何被表现,并相互交错、影响和变迁着的。拓展文学研究的可能性 并寻求与离散华人、移民研究乃至其他社会科学研究所普遍关心的问题的对话,是这一专题小组的 共识。 其中,庄论文以华文文学的中心区域马来亚为舞台描述了马华抗战文学与民族、国家认同的关系、 以及文学大众化、通俗化和左翼文学的关系。而廖论文则以华人文学研究的边陲之地日本为舞台, 对战后直至最近的日华作家作品,从当代中国人的日本论与日本文化论的角度加以诠释,并藉此解 读战后日本华人社会与中日关系变迁的时代脉络。 而舛谷与及川两篇论文,都以旅台的马华作家为对象,讨论了多重移民身份、留学和异文化语境对 文学创作的投影,从中可以看出庄论文的主题在时空变化中的演化。其中,舛谷从文学史的视角讨 论了 90 年代以来的留台作家对 60 年代方修模式解构的尝试及其对本国的影响。而及川的研究,则 以作家的个案,分析了在倾听不同语言的过程中所形成的异样的创作语言,及其所建构的寓言世界, 以及由此映照出的马来西亚与台湾移民社会。 吕论文,则是对上述个案的提升与总括,并提出全球化视野下跨语言、跨文化实践的课题。 五位作者分别来自日本、韩国和马来西亚。作为华人文学研究的边陲的北东亚和中心的东南亚,又 通过作者的活动舞台和研究对象的台湾与香港被连接在一起。这一构成本身就是华人文学跨域性、 流动性和富于变化性的写照。  108        S21:1 日华作家的“日本论” 廖赤阳 (Liao, Chi Yang) 日本武藏野美术大学造型学部教授 日本论(日本文化论、日本人论)在战后日本言论市场上历久不衰。其中,对外国人的日本论尤其 敏感。而中国人则每每感叹在戴季陶之外少有人对日本作深入观察。然而实际上,不少日华作家的 作品,都可以从日本人论的角度加以解读。不过,对日华文学的研究本来就几付阙如,更遑论从这 一角度去解读了。 本文试图对二战以后直至最近的日华作家的文本(不包括研究论著类),就作家及其创作背景,作 品内容与影响,读者消费层和市场进行分析的基础上,进一步将其置于近代以来中国人的日本论以 及日本的日本文化论叙事文脉上予以定位。一方面,通过文学这一“史料”观察日本华人社会和中日关 系的变化,一方面,也为华人文学研究提供一个非文学的研究视角。  S21:2 后方修马华文学史建构上的冲突: 现实主义作家与留台作家 舛谷  锐 (MASUTANI, Satoshi)  立教大学观光学部交流文化学科教授 马华文学的史料及其文学,在1960年代的文学史的创生期,是围绕着已逝的方修为中心所建构 的。然而,上世纪90年代以后,以留台作家为中心,以出于对带有社会主义色彩的现实主义文学 的反感为背景,对于文学史的改写遂成为时代的要求。 本报告将以人员的迁徙,特别是由于留学所造成的价值观的变化,及其对本国的影响为中心,就最 近的个案进行分析。  109        S21:3 寓言书写和语言策略:以李永平、张贵兴为例 及川  茜 (OIKAWA, Akane)  日本学术振兴会特别研究员 李永平和张贵兴都是马来西亚沙捞越出身的旅台作家。两人的作品中,特别是李永平《海东青》、 张贵兴《猴杯》具有共同特点,这就是经过了高度提炼的,飘逸着某种异样的文体。那么,只有选 择这种特异的文体,才得以表现的“寓言”又是什么呢? 本文将注视作品中所反映出来的沙捞越与台湾这两种移民社会的形态,并通过寓言世界的建构及其 关连,来考察这种创作语言:一边倾听耳畔传入的其他语言的声音,一边进行创作的精心提炼。  S21:4 馬華抗戰文學:中國抗戰文學的傳播與接受的探討 莊華興(CHONG, Fah Hing) 馬來西亞博特拉大學外文系中文組高級講師暨中文文学硕博课程主任 發生於二十世紀上半葉的中國抗戰文學可説是一個時代的特殊文學現象,受其影響的範圍也非常大。 在地緣上,它延伸至東亞和東南亞區域,它在台港澳和東南亞華人社區引發的現象尤其值得注意。 抗戰文學所揭示的中國民族主義精神和近代民族國家觀,以及海外華僑的呼應與華僑地區之間對它 持有的迥異態度,具體揭示了近代中國自五四以降另一種現代化歷史進程。可以說,五四運動追隨 的是西方民族主義現代化路徑,而三 O 年代末爆發的抗戰衛國行為是反西化的中國民族主義現代化 表徴。兩者的差異在於前者是精英階層運動,而後者傾向于把民族主義推廣到更廣泛的社會層面, 因此在具體落實上不得不遵循通俗化和大衆化路綫,也因爲這個緣故,它獲得普遍由社會底層民衆 組成的馬華社會的熱烈響應,由此亦沾染了濃厚的左翼色彩。戰前馬華文學在這方面確實提供不少 具體的例子。從内在精神的延續性看,馬華抗戰文學是中國淪陷區,國統區和根據地文學以外的第 四脈文學風景綫,它被稱爲中國抗戰文學的南洋大後方文藝。本文嘗試探討馬華抗戰文學的民族認 同問題和國家認同的關係,以及抗戰文學大衆化和通俗化之一般情況,並從中進一步探討抗戰文學 與左翼文學的關係。  110        S21:5 全球化視野下的華文文學 吕晓琳 (Lu, Xiaolin) 韓國 巨濟大學 专任讲师 全球化及文化多元化直接或間接地促使離散文學逐漸成爲了世界文學的重要部分,如果能從跨文化、 跨語際的角度探討華文文學的獨立性與特殊性,則能够更清晰地理清理論框架,更便於理解。劉禾 曾提出“跨語際實踐”的槪念,目的是“重新思考東西方之間跨文化詮釋和語言文字的交往形式究 竟有哪些可能性”。(劉禾,2008:1)跨文化、跨語際研究常常涉及不同國家、不同民族的交流, 我們也完全可借用這一思想去探討華文文學在具體實踐中究竟有哪些變化的、發展的以及能動的空 間與可能性。在全球化視野範圍內,運用整體觀的思想及方法對華文文學進行更深層次、多角度地 探討與研究,一定能取得更具實效的成果。  S22:1-3 Canadian Law, Intermarriage and Ethnic Relations for Chinese Immigrants and Aboriginal Canadians  Presenters: Senator Vivienne Poy, Senator Lillian Dyck, Dr. Jack Leong  Our first paper focuses on the intermarriage among early Chinese immigrants and Aboriginal Canadians who both faced discriminatory laws. We argue that some of these laws may have facilitated intermarriage between the Chinese bachelors and First Nations women. We will illustrate this argument with two examples in Senator Dyck’s family. The Chinese-First Nation intermarriages were similar to English-First Nation and Scottish-First Nation intermarriages in that they were second marriages with the first wife and family residing in the man’s country of origin. Our research demonstrates that the history of the second families of ChineseFirst Nations unions needs to be documented, so that Canadian history includes their stories and the contributions that they made to Canadian society.  111       The second paper discusses the life experiences of Chinese immigrant women who immigrated to Canada between the repeal of the Chinese Immigration Act to 1990. We will examine the history of Canadian immigration law and regulations from these women’s perspectives. The paper presents the oral histories of a number of immigrant women, whose experiences have never been recorded in historical texts before. The study shows the significant changes inherent in the points system in 1967, which enabled women to enter Canada based on their professional qualifications, skills and education, rather than as dependents of men. This paper concludes that Chinese immigrant women with education and skills have greatly contributed to Canadian society, and brought about a rise in the status of the Chinese community in Canada. The third paper in this panel illustrates the cultural dynamics and integration of Chinese immigrations in Toronto after Canada adopted the policy of “Multiculturalism” to address issues of ethnic and cultural diversity in 1971. After almost 40 years of implementing this policy, what social effect does it have Chinese immigrants and their younger generation? We mainly draw on the data from the Ethnic Diversity Survey of Canada (2002) and the 2011 Census to investigate whether Multiculturalism enables Chinese-Canadians to embrace the identity of Chinese and Canadian at the same time? Using results of a series of individual and surveys on integration and cultural identities that my research team conducted from 2010 to 2011, we will explore the validity of the general findings and further analyze the cultural dynamic of East-Meets-West among first and second generations of Chinese in Toronto.  Individual Topics: 1. Intermarriage between First Nations women and the early Chinese male immigrants Senator Lillian Eva (Quan) Dyck, PhD, D Lit 2. Experiences of immigrant Chinese Women with Canadian Immigration (1950-1990) Senator Vivienne Poy, PhD, Chancellor Emerita of the University of Toronto 3. Challenges of Social Integration for Chinese Immigrants in Toronto Jack H.T. Leong, PhD, Director, Richard Charles Lee Canada-Hong Kong Library, University of Toronto Libraries  112        S23 Pacific Connections: Chinese in Australia and New Zealand  S23:1-2 Much of the history of the Chinese overseas in the late eighteenth to the early twentieth century is a history of capital and global actors in constant motion through and within the waters of the Pacific. As myriad migrant merchants, traders, and laborers moved across the oceans, they built long-standing and complex economic, social, and cultural relationships which resulted in a far-reaching web of global networks constructed for purposes of trade and migration. Colonies in Southeast Asia, villages in South China, state capitals in a young post-federation Australia, and port cities in the Americas were all connected by the travels of migrants at that time. In order to land at their destinations or be guaranteed entry upon return, travelers had to navigate varying systems of policies and ensure that they had the correct documents before embarking on each voyage. This panel takes into focus the travels between South China and the South Pacific. Together, the papers explore the experience of overseas travel and the negotiation of bureaucratic processes under the White Australia Policy. One paper discusses, in detail, the early twentieth century travels of Anglo-Chinese Australians, primarily to Hong Kong and China, on holidays, for education, business, and to visit family. Like other ‘non-white’ Australians, Anglo-Chinese Australians were subject to the regulations of the Immigration Restriction Act 1901, under which they did not have an automatic right of return to Australia, even though they were Australian-born British subjects. Another paper suggests that the primary concerns of migrant merchants were simply to navigate a space bounded by the confines of their decisions, interactions, and activities, all the while, attempting to accumulate the most capital at the least amount of expense. Like Anglo-Chinese Australians traveling abroad, Chinese overseas merchants in Australia also had to comply with immigration restrictions under the White Australia Policy. Furthermore, business transactions which required travel across state lines within Australia were subject to additional taxation. These expenses were merely figured into the cost of doing business, and the policies were understood and navigated, much like how the seas were divided into travel routes and traversed, entirely for the sake of capital accumulation. As the bureaucratic processes controlling travel under the White Australia Policy evolved, so too, did the responses of the migrant travelers. Despite the restrictive policies that were put in place to regulate and inhibit the movement of capital and bodies during this time, global actors were still able to forge ahead, plotting their courses across the Pacific, all the while, making connections between far-away lands and distant homes. “Paper trails: Anglo-Chinese Australians and the White Australia Policy.” Kate Bagnall Editor / Web content developer / Historical researcher “Navigating Policies and the Seas: Mobile Migrant Merchants of Wing Sang & Co. and Wing On & Co. Heidi H. Kong Ph.D. Candidate, History, The University of British Columbia, Canada Visiting Scholar, Asia Research Institute, National University of Singapore  113        S23:3 ‘Going Bananas’: the Chinese in bicultural New Zealand Manying Ip Professor of Asian Studies University of Auckland, New Zealand This paper seeks to explore the multiple historical factors which shaped the Chinese community in New Zealand, and analyse the contemporary issues arisen owing to the influx of new immigrants and the resurgence of racial tensions. While most of the immigrant nations profess to be multi-cultural, New Zealand is officially bicultural (Maori and Pakeha). Where do the Chinese fit within a bicultural New Zealand? The paper will start with an analysis of the New Zealand Government’s 2002 official apology to the Chinese community for the historical discriminatory legislation against the Chinese. While the apology marks a highly significant turning point of official attitude towards the Chinese as New Zealand’s immigrant minority, it also heightened the tensions with Maori—the country’s powerful first nation. Between 2005 and 2009, the Auckland Chinese held a series of high-profile seminars which explored the identity of the New Zealand Chinese community. The seminars chose ‘Bananas’ as its logo and its theme. Among the overseas Chinese, ‘Bananas’ is widely used as a rather derogatory term, often used to deride those Chinese who are ‘yellow on the outside, and white on the inside,’ i.e. those Chinese who have lost their Chinese values. By boldly claiming the ‘banana’ label, the local Chinese frankly admitted their separation from mainstream Chinese culture, and at the same time asserted their unique hybrid identity and multicultural heritage as Chinese New Zealanders. By using the tongue-in-cheek catch phrase ‘going bananas’, the New Zealand Chinese Association has embarked upon nation-wide activities of nurturing young leaders with cultural awareness and ethnic pride. The composition of the Chinese community is changing fast. The local-born Chinese is now vastly outnumbered by new foreign-born recent arrivals. How well the latter group integrates with the old-timers, and how they position the community vis-à-vis the indigenous Maori will determine the fortunes of the Chinese in New Zealand.  114        S24:1 The new Peruvian-Chinese Association (APCh) or the heirs of the Dragon Isabelle Lausent-Herrera Researcher at the French National Research Center (CNRS) In the past ten years the Chinese community composed mainly of descendants of Chinese, has completely changed its face. At the same time as new immigrants arrived and changed the community structure, a small group of Tusans (Tusheng) cluster around the emblematic figure of a rich businessman, Erasmo Wong, to form a new power group within the community. While there is a large number of very active Chinese's descendant associations (in the capital Lima, particularly), the newly created institution "Peruvian-Chinese Association" (APCH) has quickly developed on the basis of elitism but referring constantly to the pioneers, those early traders and trading houses that have made the richness of the Chinese community between 1890 and 1940. The APCH that emerged originally in connection with the reaffirmation of a sense of identity has been developing various activities in all areas (development of Chinatown, the creation of a journal, a constitution network of youth, cultural and religious events, investments, travel). Its founder has set a goal: to train and support a new generation of "heirs of the Dragon ("Los herederos del Dragón"), entrepreneurs, executives and officials trained in Chinese trade with China. Chinese virtues and values, constantly claimed, are the very foundations of this organization that gives new visibility to the Chinese community. In reality, the association is not very sensitive to the past history of the Chinese of Peru. Its purpose is primarily to gather the economic elite in the orbit of a powerful tycoon: Erasmo Wong. This arises as a rival deal with large numbers of new immigrants, less well organized that have undertaken to stay in Peru by occupying the same niche of the import-export activities. We'll analyze the changes induced on the existing Peruvian-Chinese community by the arrival of new Chinese immigrants combined to the impact that may have the newly created Association (APCH) on existing Tusan's associations. More precisely, to what extent the APCH will reinforce or weaken the Tusan community and subordinate all its institutions to the interest of a powerful economic group? Will the APCH contribute to the emergence of a new Tusan economic elite serving as a bridge between China and Peru? Up to what point membership to the Chinese community is being redefined by the new rules imposed by APCH and open the way to a more socially differentiated community? We'll try to answer to these questions by gathering and analyzing first-hand data coming from reviewing APCH's public and internal documents, interviews in the field with members and Officers of APCH as well Tusans and new Chinese non-members.  115        24:2 Lost Nation: Malayan Communist Party in the 1930s Anna Belogurova Centre for Chinese Research, IAR, University of British Columbia As a true Bolshevik party was supposed to do, the MCP spoke the language of class struggle in order to express the political disenfranchisement amongst Chinese immigrants under control of the British colonial government. In spite of the image of an ideologically well-rounded communist party portrayed by the MCP, the MCP was concerned above all with the wellbeing of the Chinese bourgeoisie in Malaya and furthermore the MCP was financially supported by them. MCP members at first enjoyed the communist language of the cult of proletariat that came with the global prestige of Comintern and brought with it a prospect of cash support. By the mid-1930s, the MCP abandoned their metaphorical language of excluding bourgeoisie as not a “revolutionary force.” This was dictated by the logic of survival of a Chinese association. The discourse of the second united front coming from the CCP and the Comintern, as well as British wartime policies, resulted in the MCP’s confusion over the question of “national bourgeoisie” one more time. As the result of MCP’s solution to this dilemma, the MCP lost its already thin support base. This paper is based on the MCP collection from the Comintern archives.   116        S24:3 Transpacific Steam: Mexico and the unexplored case of the China Commercial Steamship Company (1903-1913) Ruth Mandujano Sessional Lecturer, Department of History, University of British Columbia In May, 1903, Clavering arrived in Manzanillo, Colima with some 500 Chinese passengers aboard. Over a thousand people had gathered from all over the state to witness the landing. The event exerted such fascination as Clavering was inaugurating direct regular steamship runs between Asia and Mexico, by the recently-formed, Hong Kong-based, China Commercial Steamship Company (CCSC). From 1903 to 1913, the CCSC would contribute to the transpacific circulation of peoples, ideas, and merchandises, by offering a monthly service connecting Hong Kong, Yokohama, Manzanillo, and Salina Cruz. Its principle business: the transportation of thousands of Chinese to Mexico. By the end of its run, Chinese would reside in every Mexican state forming the second largest resident foreign ethnic community in Mexico, just after the Spaniards. Despite its importance in fostering transpacific relations, there exists no systematic study of the CCSC and its repercussions. Both Chinese Overseas and Mexican historiographies have put limited attention to the study of Chinese in Mexico and, with notable exceptions, the large majority has concentrated on Mexican xenophobia and anti-Chinese campaigns. Influenced by the works of Adam McKeown, Madeleine Hsu, Elizabeth Sinn, Evelyn Hu-DeHart, Robert Romero, amongst others, this paper aims to open up the historiography of Chinese in Mexico by highlighting the transnational routes and networks as well as the complexity of experiences of the Chinese traveling by steamer to Mexico. Drawing from archival documents found in Mexico and Hong Kong, the paper traces the history of the CCSC’s vessels and those who traveled in them, arguing that these are key to understand the mobility, the routes, and the plurality of voices, interests and experiences of the Chinese traveling to the Americas at the beginning of the 20th century.  117        S24:4 Chinese Thai Remigration: From Thailand to the United States Jiemin Bao Professor of Anthropology University of Nevada, Las Vegas In this paper, I examine how the remigration of Chinese Thai transmigrants has been shaped by time-specific socio-economic and political circumstances in China, Thailand, and the United States. Ethnic Chinese with Thai nationality were the pioneers of Thai immigration to the United States. Their stories of migration differ from those of the early Chinese, Japanese, and Korean labor migrants, and migrants who came from countries such as Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam. The first Chinese Thai who came to the United States that we have records for were Chang and Eng, the famous conjoined twins, who arrived in Boston in 1829. In Thailand, they were known as the “Chinese Twins.” However, in the United States, the twins called themselves “Siamese Twins,” emphasizing where they came from instead of their ethnicity. I will examine the ways in which the twins expressed their various attachments to China, Siam, and America in different contexts. After Chang and Eng, we know of very few Chinese Thai who immigrated to the United States up through the first half of the twentieth century. As for the second half of the twentieth century, especially during the Cold War period, I will focus on how Thai nationalism prompted Chinese Thai remigration, and how issues of class and gender played an important role in this process. Since the 1980s, the remigration of Chinese Thais has become more dynamic and variable. I argue that Chinese Thai remigration is a significant part of Asian American history, despite the relatively small number of migrants.  118        S24:5 The Ambivalent Alliance: Chinese Policy towards Indonesia, 1960-1965 Taomo Zhou PhD student, Department of History Cornell University This paper explores the “Indonesias” the Chinese foreign policy decision makers and practitioners imagined, perceived and encountered in 1960-1965. The paper first looks at how the Chinese central leadership in Beijing used its pre-existing ideological framework to make sense of Sukarno’s Indonesia. And then it shifts its focus to the communications between Beijing and the Chinese diplomatic apparatus in Jakarta and examines how the complicated reality in Indonesia eluded the framework of analysis and the political vocabulary of Beijing. It is argued that in Beijing’s overall international outlook, Indonesia was the epitome of non-white, non-Western country that shared with the People’s Republic of China (PRC) the memory of colonial oppressions and the struggle for national independence, as well as the aspiration to break away from the Cold War power structure dominated by the two superpowers. However, despite Beijing’s efforts to cultivate a sense of Afro-Asian solidarity with Sukarno’s regime, its connections with the overseas Chinese community and the Indonesian Communist Party (the PKI) prevented it from legitimately presenting its cause among the Indonesian audience: Beijing ended up symbolizing both the capitalist exploiter in Indonesian economy and the communist interventionist in Indonesian politics at the same time. The paper concludes that the ambivalence in Beijing’s diplomacy towards Jakarta during 1960-1965 was the product of the tension between two paradoxically interwoven identities represented by the People’s Republic in the Indonesian archipelagoes: as a revolutionary state and as the homeland to the ethnic Chinese who dominated Indonesian commerce.    119        S25:1 Moving Words and Images: Chinese Rare Collections at UBC Jing Liu Chinese Language Librarian University of British Columbia’s Asian Library This paper provides an overview of Chinese Puban (蒲坂) and Pang Jingtang (龐鏡塘) Collections at University of British Columbia (UBC) and the ways in which they integrate words and images from imperial China. Both collections were originally owned by Chinese elite families. UBC purchased the entire Puban Collection in 45,000 volumes from Macau in 1959; and received the smaller Pang Jingtang Collection in the year of 2000 from Mr. Paul Fang in Vancouver BC. The collections include very rare and unique materials. While the Puban best represents Canton and southern Chinese civilization; The Pang Collection has its own focus on Shandong Province and connections with famed northern Chinese scholars. Both collections’ moving routes represent the troublesome home country in the early 20th century. The research value of the these rare Chinese books is explored in this paper based on real-life reference questions and the author’s own study, including interviewing the previous owners’ descendants, tracing other portions of the two private collections, comparing the same editions with other rare collections in the world, as well as in-depth research on the historical figures and mysteries identified from some unique items. There are three-fold sense of "moving" of these rare books: transported ancient materials from China to Canada; "moving" emotionally as cultural heritage and virtually as historical resources. I argue that with new technology, we can make the hidden collections move yet again. It is time for us to better evaluate the collections and select important materials for digitization, so that we can preserve and share our hidden treasure with scholars around the world. The paper is organized in the following five sections with plenty of illustrations and examples. 1. OVERVIEW 2. MOVING ROUTES 3. RESEARCH VALUE 4. EMOTIONAL MOVING CULTURAL HERITAGE 5. MOVING THE RARE OBJECTS AGAIN  120        S25:2 Cambridge Chinese Rare Book and Manuscript Collections: Discoveries and Rediscoveries of Items Related to Robert Morrison and the Taiping Rebellion Kang Tchou (朱卫康) Candidate for Doctor of Philosophy in Chinese Studies at Cambridge University The Chinese collections in the Cambridge University Libraries are well known to British and European sinologists. My paper will focus on the discoveries and rediscoveries that I made while doing research in three collections at Cambridge. I will be presenting some of the latest finds that I have helped to bring to light in the University Library Chinese Collection, the Needham Research Institute Library, and St. Catharine's College Library. In the year that I have just spent in Cambridge doing research for my PhD in Chinese Studies, I have explored in depth three collections: The Wade Collection of rare Chinese books and manuscripts in The Aoi Pavilion of the Cambridge University Library; the Chinese collection of the East Asian History of Science Library in the Needham Research Institute; and the Thomas Jarrett Collection in the St. Catharine’s College Library rare books. My presentation will focus on one specific item from each of these collections: a rare Taiping calendar from The Wade Collection; a dramatic text entitled “‘Who Was Lindley’: A Colloquy for Six Voices” by Charles A. Curwen from the Chinese collection of the East Asian History of Science Library; and one part of Robert Morrison’s very rare Dictionary of the Chinese Language discovered in the Jarrett Collection in the St. Catharine’s College rare books.                    121        S25:3 論 UBC 亞圖所藏中文善本古籍的文物價值與文獻價值 管錫華 四川師範大學文學院教授 吳欣欣 加拿大卑诗大學亞洲系講師 UBC 亞洲圖書館先後購進澳門姚鈞石蒲坂藏書與接受龐鏡塘後人龐氏個人捐獻龐鏡塘藏書,中文善本 古籍達 3000 餘種。承蒙亞圖提供檢閲方便,我們對這批中文善本古籍特別是蒲坂藏書做了初步的調 查與研究,選擇出我們認爲價值較大者共 1,003 種撰寫出書目提要,並發表了相關的單篇論文。通 過這些調查與研究,我們總的認識,無論從文物價值還是文獻價值的角度去考察這批善本,這批善 本均可稱得上是上乘之收藏,彌足珍貴。 關於文物價值。我們所完成的 1003 種善本的書目提要,是以亞圖所藏比較大陸臺港日美等國家和地 區紙本善本目錄及網絡善本資訊,部分信息則是來自於我們對大陸善本收藏單位善本實物的檢閲。 於此僅提供提要所反映出的兩個方面的情況:一,大部分善本存世者僅三幾種到數十種;二,其中 約 110 種未見於著錄。即此已可知這批善本文物價值何如。 關於文獻價值。上世紀 80 年代起大陸大量影印古籍特別是善本古籍開始廣泛傳播。然亞圖善本文獻 價值仍不可小覷,如不同版本、名家手批本、手稿本等皆屬此列,特別是後二者乃是“獨一無二”。 我們發表的關於黎簡詩手稿的論文即其文獻價值之一證。當然,不少有文獻價值之善本同時兼有文 物價值。 亞圖善本價值有待於專家學者的進一步研究揭示,以嘉惠學林。             122        S26:1 以「加拿大华裔作家协会」出版的作品选集为例 试谈「加华作家」的家(加)国情怀与表现 陈露明 (Chan Lo Ming) 香港公共图书馆研究主任 1987 年于温哥华成立的「加拿大华裔作家协会」(简称「加华作协」),是加拿大具代表性的华裔 文学团体组织,会员主要来自香港、台湾和中国大陆的移民作家。「加华作协」出版的作品选集, 如编者所言是「加华作家队伍一次小小的检阅」。有评论者认为加拿大华文文学是「港台和中国大 陆文学的延伸」,作家们对他们这个长居或暂居的枫叶国已有相当的情感与关注,与此同时,他们 的作品也流露出另一种对「家」的深厚感情和回忆。 本文尝试以「加华作协」出版的作品选集,包括《枫华文集: 加华作家作品选》(1999)、《白雪 红枫:加华作家作品选. 二集》(2003)、《枫雨同路:加华作家小说选》(2009)和《枫华正茂: 加华文学评论集》(2009)为研究对象,分析加华作家移居异国后的创作内容和思想,探索他们在 作品中对原来故国及移民之国的家(加)国情怀和表现。  123        S26:2 本土身分的建構與反思 ──以阿濃的散文為例 馬輝洪 香港中文大學新亞書院錢穆圖書館主任 梁恒達 加拿大多倫多大學利銘澤典宬館長 阿濃(朱溥生)是香港著名的散文及兒童文學作家,出版的著作迄今已逾百種。無論從內容取材到 語言運用,他的作品極具本土色彩,深受香港青少年的喜愛,多年來再版不絕。1993 年,阿濃移居 加拿大,至今仍著述不斷,在香港和加拿大兩地發表作品。本論文以阿濃在移民前後的獲獎作品為 分析對象,從文化認同 (Cultural Identity) 的視角,探尋阿濃在作品中發聲位置 (Position of Enunciation) 的游移及其書寫策略的轉變,藷此審視他與香港本土寫作的經驗,以及他與加拿大華文創作的關係, 從中窺見海外華人作家對本土身分的叩問與反思。  The Construction and Reflection of Local Identity: A Case Study of A Nong’s Prose Leo F.H. Ma Head, New Asia College Ch’ien Mu Library The Chinese University of Hong Kong  & Jack H.T. Leong Director, Richard Charles Lee Canada-Hong Kong Library University of Toronto A Nong (CHU Pu-sun) is a renowned Hong Kong writer of prose and children’s literature, having published more than a hundred books to date. Whether it is the content of the writing and choice of expression, his works, which have been reprinted many times, often reflect his native consciousness and are widely read by young people in Hong Kong. After immigrating to Canada in 1993, A Nong has continued to publish books in both Hong Kong and Canada. Based on A Nong’s award-winning works published between his pre- and post-immigration days, this paper explores his shifting position of enunciation and writing strategies from the perspective of cultural identity. By investigating his writing experiences in both Hong Kong and Canada, while simultaneously exploring their relationships to each other, we can observe how A Nong, a Chinese Diaspora author, reflects on his cultural roots.  124        S26:3 Literature of Chinese Canadians and Its Collection Macy Zheng East Asian Studies Librarian McGill University Library Most Canadians have been proud of Canada’s “cultural mosaic”, benefiting from the contributions of the various ethnic and cultural communities in this country. This value derives from Canada’s background as a nation built on immigration. After Prime Minister Trudeau's "Announcement of Implementation of Policy of Multiculturalism within Bilingual Framework," at the House of Commons in 1971, Canada has become home to a more diverse population of readers and writers. The country's literature has been strongly influenced by international immigration. Each ethnic group has brought to Canada stories of its own background, as well as its own literary genres. Similarly, with the arrival of new Chinese immigrants during the past several decades, Chinese immigrants’ literature, including writings in Chinese, English and French started to appear and to develop in Canada. This article discusses briefly the development of Chinese Canadians’ literature in Canada, the characteristics of Chinese immigrants’ writings, and some literary organizations in Canada which help Chinese writers to communicate and to exchange ideas. Finally, the article examines the collection status of Chinese Canadians’ writings and offers some suggestions to reinforce the collection in this field.  加拿大的华人文学及其收藏 加拿大作为移民国家,是一个承认与保留多元文化的社会,这为各族裔保留自己文化与传统提供了 较为优越的环境。1971 年,杜鲁多总理在国会中特别宣布了在英法双语的架构下推行多元文化,从 国家政策上明确了移民保障各自祖裔文化的权利。近年来,华人不仅成为了加拿大最大的移民群体, 而且移民中受过高等教育,英法语基础良好的文学人才也在不断涌现。此外,随着许多中国移民在 经济和生活方面建立了较为稳定的基础,因此有机会与条件从事文学写作,将自己的经历和感受表 达出来。 本文简要地回顾华人文学的发展并介绍一些有代表性的作家,作品及其收藏状况,分析加华文学发 展的特点,以及加华文学在读者中引起的关注。本文作者对目前加拿大图书馆收藏华人文学的状况 进行了调查,并提出一些加强这方面馆藏的建议。  125        S26:4 Literary activities of early Chinese in Canada: the transformation of classical poetry in the Diaspora Laifong Leung Professor Emerita University of Alberta Until the late 1970s, the Chinese in Canada suffered from two systematic discriminations: the notorious Head Tax (1885-1923) and the Exclusion Act (1923-1947) by the host country; and the political persecution of their families in their homeland by the new regime from 1949-1979. Both resulted in the long separation of families or no possibility of having a family at all, not counting many other losses. Hence, at least up to 1947, the Chinese community was basically a marginalized bachelor society. This community also suffered from two misconceptions: that they were merely uncultured laborers, and that they were not active. All they did was work, make money and send money back home. In the course of researching through old literary materials - especially Chinese newspapers and magazines published in Canada in the early twentieth century, one is struck by the number and variety of cultural activities that the early Chinese immigrants organized, and their community’s devotion to these activities, particularly during moments of crisis in Canada and in China. This paper attempts to clarify the above misconceptions by examining the production of classical poetry by the early Chinese community from the late 19th century to the first half of the 20th century. It will begin with the wall poems written by early Chinese in the detention center in Victoria, B.C, to the huge Collection of Poetry in 1957 by Chinese Times. It will explore the major characteristics of these poems and particularly the incorporation of Canadian images in order to show the transformation of Chinese classical poetry in the diaspora.  S27:1-3 Chinese Women in the Northwest Americas Panel organized by CINARC (Chinese in Northwest America Research Committee) Panel abstract: It is an understatement to say that the early passage to North America was difficult for Chinese women. Yet, in spite of very high cultural, gender, economic, and political barriers, many Chinese women made it to this side of the Pacific. Some stayed, moved away, or returned. Their North American journeys sometimes were continued by their daughters, often faced with an even more challenging cultural maze. Stories of their bitter struggles have been told by many writers. This panel, however, aims to raise the issue from a different perspective. Should those female Chinese pioneers be regarded solely as helpless victims? Did any fight back? What happened to those who did? Even if their only common goal was 126       survival, surely some survived better than others, negotiating effectively with their harsh environments. If they had goals beyond survival, which they clearly often did, how did they step out of their boxes to achieve those goals? The presenters are interested not in abject failure but in strength and success. Ben Bronson will examine two groups of “privileged” Chinese women in North America who strived to take traditional Chinese womanhood beyond regular expectation. While it is not too surprising to find Chinese ladies in the Northwest with Christian affiliations appearing publicly in connection with charitable works, one is astonished to find not only Europeanized women pushing themselves forward but also traditional women taking part in non-religious political activities. The most striking example of the latter is the members of the Chinese Ladies’ Empire Reform Association, who in much of the Northwest during the early 1900s crafted a Chinese-style emancipation that may have influenced China itself. Ben’s presentation will be based on data from archives, libraries, and newspapers published before 1925. Larry Wong will review the lives of three Vancouver women: Nellie Yip (1878? -1949) Jennie Diment (1931-2011), and Sue Gee Jackman (1909-2008). All native-born, each of these ladies became a legend for doing things that no ordinary woman in the Chinese-Canadian world would have dared to attempt. Among many unusual acts, the first two married husbands not of their own ethnic groups. The last was a talented entrepreneur in her own right, succeeding in a part of Canada dominated by males, mostly white. Larry seeks to understand the psychology behind the strength shown by these strong, quite Chinese and very feminine, minds. Chuimei Ho will look at the bottom of the Chinese social stratum in the Pacific Northwest where second wives, housemaids, and free-spirited individuals were often being lumped into the category of prostitutes, sometimes by immigration policies and often by cultural prejudice. Yet these women’s need for recognition and affiliation was no less than that of the average immigrant. How did they acquire a sense of psycho-social balance and take pride in being themselves while just about everything else worked against them? Chuimei will cite cases prior to 1920. Her data primarily come from the U.S. National Archives and Records Administration.  Titles: •  Bennet Bronson: Public and Private Steps toward Chinese Women’s Rights in California and the Pacific Northwest  •  Larry Wong: Identity issues, Values, and Cultures as seen in Neillie Towers Yip, Sue Gee Jackman, and Jennie Wong Diment.  •  Chuimei Ho: Immigration Policies and Cultural Prejudice: Ladies who crossed the boundaries – “prostitutes” in the Northwestern region before 1920.  127        S28:1 Early Life of Yuan Shikai and the Formation of Yuan Family Kachuen Yuan Gee Lehman College City University of New York with &  Janey SheauYueh Chao Baruch College, City University of New York  Research Statement This paper is a revised and updated report of the authors’ research findings on the history of Yuan Shikai 袁 世凯 family. We began our research in 2008 when we traveled to China to collect archival documents and published books, as well as historical photographs, about the Yuan family. Upon returning to the United States, we presented the first report of our findings in 2009 and began the preparation of writing a book. However, since 2010, there has been a surge of renewed interest in studying and re-evaluating Yuan Shikai’s life and career. Based on evidences found in historical records, historians now realized that, despite his faults, Yuan was not just a total autocrat who selfishly betrayed China for his own gains. Actually, Yuan was proactive in modernizing and reforming China, and had made significant contributions. Simultaneously with the development of this new trend, the Yuan family was brought into focus again. Two associations of Yuan descendents were founded in Henan in 2010/11 to research the ancestry of the clan, to restore ancestors’ property, and to collect new information about contemporary members. Many stories about the family and biographies of members that were not made public in 2009 are published in various journals and internet networks now. Since we are writing a complete and up-to-date book about Yuan family’s history, it is necessary for us to review all these new materials, evaluate them for accuracy and validity, and then update and expand our research with the new data. This report is a summary of our new findings which will be incorporated into our forth coming book, The Yuan Chronicle.  Research Methodology We began our new research in early 2010 by first establishing contact with the Association of Yuan Descendents. The chairman and members of the association sent to us, by mail or electronically, documents about Yuan ancestry taken from Yuan family records and Xiangcheng gazetteers. At the same time, the authors also acquired several out of print books about the Yuan family through connections with publishers in China. Interviews by phone with several relatives whom we did not meet in 2008 were conducted and recorded. Starting in 2011, we consolidated the materials collected and began the evaluation of data. Stories that were fictional without proper documentation were discounted. Biographies were verified by at least two sources. Whenever possible, we also tried to confirm dates and names with the source supplier by phone or email. This process of validation is still ongoing, since our contacts in China continue to send us new 128       information. Next year, we plan to make another trip to China in March to meet the Yuan Association members and other contacts in person. We will ask them to review the data we collected and correct any possible mistakes. We also plan to visit Xiangcheng again to review original documents about Yuan ancestry. After we return from China, we plan to write a summary report to be presented in this conference, and then complete the book by the end of 2012. Structure The first part of the paper traces Yuan ancestors who settled in Xiangcheng, Henan 河南项城 in the 17th century, and recounts the rise of the family from its humble beginnings to prominence. New biographical sketches of Yuan Shikai’s elders and the impact of their teaching on his personality were introduced here. The second part of the paper focuses on the early life of Yuan Shikai, the shaping of his character, and the formation of his large family. Life of prominent Yuan sons, including Keding 克定 and Kewen 克文, were portrayed with more details and accuracy, with new information on the relationship between the two brothers added. Biographies of Yuan daughters, if known, were also introduced. Lastly, the paper presents selected records of interviews with contemporary Yuan descendents that were not included in the first report.  S28:2 Kuomintang’s Influence in East Canada and Beyond: A Case Study of Shing Wah Daily News Stephen Qiao China Studies Librarian, Cheng Yu Tung East Asian Library University of Toronto  First published in Toronto in 1922, Shing Wah Daily News (Shing Wah Yat Po, 醒華日報) was the official organ of overseas branch of Kuomintang (KMT, or Guomindang, Chinese Nationalist Party). Long span of publication and broad coverage of international, national and local news made it one of the most important Chinese language newspapers in Canada. KMT and its predecessor Xing zhong hui (Society for China's Regeneration) started their activities on Canada’s soil as early as 1910s. Dr. Sun Yat-sen made fund raising efforts in Vancouver and Victoria at the dawn of revolution. After the establishment of the Republic, KMT set its Western Canadian headquarters in Vancouver in 1911. Their influence spread from there eastward to the other parts of Canada. The KMT’s branches increased to 16 between 1911 and 1920, including three in Ontario: in Windsor, Toronto and Kinston. In 1921, after the second general conference of all delegates in Toronto, the party’s organization structure and working plan had been laid out and to publish an official newspaper was the one in their initial agenda items. Since then, the newspaper itself played a very important role in motivating Chinese immigrants during the Sino-Japanese War. Its influence as the voice of nationalist government in Taiwan continued during the Cold War era. Since the US normalized its diplomatic relationship with the PRC in 1979, the importance of KMT government on overseas Chinese communities 129       has been subdued by the communist China. Shing Wah Daily News finished its own historic mission as the organ of KMT and faded out eventually in early 1990s. During its over a half-century publication, Shing Wah Daily News was used by KMT to convoy their messages out to the Chinese community in Toronto and beyond. The current paper will discuss the role of the newspaper played and how it exerted influence upon the local Chinese immigrants in different periods of time based on the information extracted from the newspaper and other resources.    S28:3 The Hong Men Min Chih Tang Association of Cuba: 125 Years Developing Friendship, Fraternity, and Assistance Mitzi Espinosa Luis National Association Min Chih Tang This PowerPoint presentation demonstrates through text and photographs the work of the Hong Men Min Chih Tang in Havana, founded on January 15, 1887 as the San He Hui through the initiative of Li Sheng, Wen Zhuchi, Tan Gen Pin, Li Kai Rin, Chen Zhong, and Li Jin, with the fundamental goal of contributing to the integration of the Chinese in Cuban society and of assisting and defending the interests and rights of the group. The selected photos are from a documentary archive stored in this association, which loyally testify and preserve transcendental moments in its history. Through the images we observe the newspaper Hoi Men Kong Po, which came to light on May 3, 1922 and remained in existence for over 50 years, bonds to support the resistance against Japan from 1937 to 1945, and the purchase of the new building in 1945. Likewise, on one of the walls a picture of Li Zheng Zhen, one of the founders of the San He Hui, gazes at us from a remote past, and in the main salon are the flag of five colors and masonic symbols of the square and compass, while other pictures capture the writing of the three principles that govern the association. From the recent past are images of the faces of elders playing mahjong, celebrating their birthdays or Double Nine Day (el Día del Doble Nueve/el Día del Anciano), as well as celebrations of historical and traditional dates such as the Lunar New Year and Qing Ming Day, with a visit to the Chinese cemetery. Finally, a parade of photographs capture theater, martial arts, the lion dance, and violin, among many other cultural and recreational activities such as conferences, book presentations, expositions, and beach excursions. In this way, this project seeks to modestly contribute to preserving part of the patrimony of the Chinese community in Cuba, which is also part of the patrimony of all Cubans. It should be noted that the association has undergone changes in name over the years. In January 1902 it was named Hong Men Chee Kung Tong, and in 1946 at the conference of the Chee Kung Tong held in Shanghai it adopted the name Min Chih Tang. In 1967 it became the National Association Min Chih Tang (Asociación Nacional Min Chih Tang). Currently, of the thirteen Chinese associations that remain in Havana, the Min Chih Tang is the oldest and enjoys prestige within the community for its efforts toward the well-being of all of its members. 130        S28:4 Chinese Freemason’s Lantern and Chinese Canadians: The Transnational Vestige of Chinese Overseas Heritage Tzu-I Chung Curator of History, Royal British Columbia Museum In a transnational cultural studies and material culture analysis, this essay reveals the complex ways in which cultural identities and objects form and inform each other as illustrated by the stories of a unique Chinese Freemason’s lantern at the Royal British Columbia Museum (RBCM). By contextualizing oral history and interviews within historical research on transnational exchanges between Asia-Pacific in the first half of the twentieth century, I argue that Victoria Chinese communities during that time convey what Shelley Fisher Fishkin characterizes as “hybridities and fluidities” in their identity making and community building. This lantern demonstrates such fluidities in meaning making in the complex world system informed by multidirectional interaction, intersection, contact, and appropriation between nations, cultures and individuals. The stories surrounding this lantern thereby are part of the transnational Chinese migration that shed lights on the second-generation Chinese immigrants’ identities and cultures. This lantern came to RBCM as part of a large collection originally owned by a former Chinese Canadian businessman Jack Tang in Victoria, BC. This collection, including photos, lanterns, and many Lions Club artifacts, testifies to the rich history of Victoria Chinatown’s cultural heritage as well as the lively exchange between Chinatown and other local and international communities such as the Freemasons and Lions Club. The tall, hexagonal lantern, even in its current poor condition, exemplifies the perfect blend of classical Chinese culture heritage and the international connections of Chinese Freemasons in Canada. Its bottom panels list the “comrades’” names and contribution, revealing its original purpose of raising funds for Dr. Sun Yat-sen’s revolution. This evidence dates the lantern back to 1908-11 and testifies to the role the Chinese Canadians played in the transpacific cultural and political processes. In additional to the artistic and cultural value, this connection to specific transpacific process lends the lantern its historical value. As this lantern was passed down through the twentieth century, I trace the history of its ownership within the Victoria Chinatown communities and their association with the Lions Club and Freemasons. The lantern owner and the lantern contributors’ life stories from interviews collectively give us a glimpse into that generation’s cultural appropriations of the complex terrain of meaning making they operated within the transnational context. The history of the lantern thus transpires to be one of lived experiences of individuals and communities. The stories of the object, the lantern, and the stories of people, as Abby Clouse contends, are thereby inherently and inseparable bound together in the history making, identity making, and culture making process. As such, the lantern bespeaks the vestige of Chinese cultural heritage in Canada as well as Canada-born Chinese’s active involvement in Canadian and international organizations through their unique mobilization of transnational circuits which in turn helped define their identities and cultures.  131        On-Campus Events (May 15th-20th) 校园活动 (5 月 15-20 日)        Generation One – Art Exhibition ƒ An art exhibition produced by Vancouver Asian Heritage Month Society (VAHMS) artists & community partners in multiple locations to showcase Asian-Canadian artists’ creativity and vitality, featuring both established local artists as well as emerging artists who are firstgeneration Canadians. ƒ Time: May 1- May31 ƒ Location: Irving K. Barber Learning Centre ƒ Fee: Free admission      Reframing Waterscapes ƒ Exhibition about globalization and migration along the Yangtze River in China. This exhibit is drawn from on an 1800 km journey along the Yangtze River from Chongqing to Shanghai taken by multi-media artist Gu Xiong and research collaborators Chris Lee and Jennifer Chun in 2011. A series of public events in conjunction with the exhibit will further explore waterways as metaphors for displacement, survival, and renewal. ƒ Time: Mar 15- May 18 ƒ Location: Lobby Gallery, Liu Institute for Global Issues ƒ Fee: Free admission      Birding Bonanza: Discover the Amazingly Diverse Lives of Birds! ƒ  ƒ ƒ ƒ     View local birds like never before through displays and activities of bird specimens from our exclusive behind-the-scenes collections. Special programming will include hands-on activities with real bird specimens, birding activities and lessons, museum tours, puppet shows, scavenger hunts, crafts and more Time: Daily 12:45pm; Shows on weekends: 11am Location: Beaty Biodiversity Museum Fee: Free admission    132        Kesu’: The Art and life of Doug Cranmer ƒ Northwest Coast Kwakwaka’wakw art is renowned for its flamboyant, energetic, and colourful carving and painting. Among the leading practitioners was Doug Cranmer (1927-2006), whose style was understated, elegant, and fresh, and whose work quickly found an international following in the 1960s. He was an early player in the global commercial art market, and one of the first Native artists in British Columbia to own his own gallery. A longtime teacher, he inspired generations of young Native artists in Alert Bay, BC, and across the province. ƒ Time: May 17 to Sep 3 ƒ Location: Museum of Anthropology ƒ Fee: Regular admission    Forest One By Annie Ross ƒ Dr. Ross, a weaver and Assistant Professor in First Nations Studies at Simon Fraser University, completely transformed the car inside and out. Forest One speaks of colonization, urban sprawl, trash, and remediating the urban landscape through acts of salvage ƒ Time: Mar 20 – May 27 | 2pm to 7pm ƒ Location: Museum of Anthropology ƒ Fee: Regular admission    Yellow Signal: New Media in China Zhang Peili, Geng Jianyi, Huang Ran ƒ Featuring leading Chinese artists Zhang Peili, Geng Jianyi, and Huang Ran the Belkin Art Gallery will show a multimedia installation, photography and video art as part of a city-wide exhibition series of new media works by twelve internationally acclaimed Chinese artists ƒ Time: Apr 27 to Aug 29 ƒ Location: Morris and Helen Belkin Art Gallery ƒ Fee: Free admission    VSO: Bach & Beyond – Bach , Respighi, Mozart ƒ Presented by the Vancouver Symphony Orchestra as part of the Bach & Beyond Series at the Chan Centre of Performing Arts ƒ Time: May 18-19 | 8:00 pm ƒ Location: Chan Center of Performing Arts ƒ Ticket: $25-$70  133     

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