GSS cIRcle Open Scholar Award (UBCV Non-Thesis Graduate Work)

Decolonizing and reclaiming Tsilhqotin identity through story-telling Alphonse, Grant Phillip 2012

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DECOLONIZING AND RECLAIMING TSILHQOTIN IDENTITY THROUGH STORY-TELLING by  GRANT PHILLIP ALPHONSE B.Ed., The University of British Columbia, 2006  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF EDUCATION in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA (Vancouver)  April 2012  	
    	
    © Grant Phillip Alphonse, 2012  Purpose:	
   The	
  purpose	
  of	
  this	
  major	
  paper	
  is	
  to	
  create	
  an	
  instructional	
  resource	
  for	
  teachers	
   that	
  will	
  help	
  encourage	
  students	
  to	
  reclaim	
  their	
  Tsilhqotin/Chilcotin	
  identity	
  through	
   stories	
  in	
  the	
  Tsilhqotin/Chilcotin	
  language.	
  It	
  is	
  intended	
  to	
  help	
  the	
  teachers	
  better	
   understand	
  their	
  Tsilhqotin	
  identity	
  and	
  become	
  more	
  aware	
  of	
  their	
  surroundings,	
   heritage	
  and	
  land	
  base	
  thus	
  providing	
  a	
  greater	
  opportunity	
  for	
  successful	
  teaching	
   especially	
  in	
  regard	
  to	
  meeting	
  the	
  needs	
  of	
  Tsilhqotin	
  students.	
  This	
  resource	
  allows	
  the	
   teacher	
  to	
  have	
  a	
  greater	
  understanding	
  of	
  students	
  and	
  the	
  territories	
  that	
  they	
  are	
  from	
   and	
  in	
  doing	
  so	
  bring	
  this	
  knowledge	
  and	
  awareness	
  into	
  the	
  classroom.	
  A	
  teacher	
  who	
   knows	
  a	
  bit	
  about	
  the	
  background	
  and	
  is	
  able	
  to	
  say	
  a	
  few	
  words	
  in	
  the	
  Tsilhqotin/Chilcotin	
   language	
  reflects	
  an	
  open-­‐minded	
  and	
  effective	
  educator.	
  The	
  teacher	
  provides	
  a	
  learning	
   community	
  with	
  greater	
  comfort	
  and	
  trust,	
  which,	
  ultimately	
  will	
  enhance	
  student’s	
   performance	
  and	
  promote	
  a	
  family	
  oriented	
  environment.	
   My	
  Life	
  Path	
   The	
  focus	
  of	
  the	
  instructional	
  resource	
  is	
  on	
  the	
  knowledge	
  and	
  language	
  of	
  my	
   community,	
  Tsilhqotin/Chilcotin,	
  which	
  is	
  from	
  the	
  Athapaskan	
  Linguistic	
  family.	
  The	
   Tletinqotin	
  First	
  Nation	
  is	
  located	
  in	
  the	
  Cariboo	
  Chilcotin	
  of	
  British	
  Columbia.	
  	
  English	
  is	
   my	
  second	
  language	
  and	
  was	
  introduced	
  to	
  me	
  at	
  the	
  Chilcotin	
  Indian	
  Day	
  School	
  from	
   1968	
  to	
  1975.	
  The	
  school	
  was	
  operated	
  by	
  nuns	
  from	
  the	
  Catholic	
  religion.	
  The	
  school	
  had	
   policies	
  focused	
  on	
  assimilation,	
  which	
  is	
  common	
  to	
  the	
  many	
  residential	
  schools	
  across	
   Canada.	
  This	
  specific	
  policy	
  did	
  not	
  allow	
  students	
  to	
  speak	
  their	
  language.	
  I	
  continued	
  my	
   education	
  at	
  St.	
  Joseph’s	
  Mission	
  Residential	
  School	
  located	
  near	
  Williams	
  Lake,	
  BC.	
  It	
  was	
   approximately	
  160	
  kilometers	
  away	
  from	
  my	
  home.	
  The	
  residential	
  school	
  was	
  not	
  much	
   	
    2	
    different	
  from	
  the	
  day	
  school	
  that	
  I	
  attended;	
  the	
  focus	
  on	
  assimilation	
  was	
  the	
  same	
  and	
   students	
  were	
  not	
  allowed	
  to	
  speak	
  their	
  language.	
  At	
  this	
  time,	
  older	
  students	
  in	
  junior	
   and	
  senior	
  high	
  schools	
  were	
  bussed	
  to	
  nearby	
  Williams	
  Lake	
  to	
  attend	
  public	
  school.	
  I	
   continued	
  my	
  schooling	
  over	
  the	
  years	
  from	
  adult	
  upgrading	
  to	
  undergraduate	
  and	
  then	
   currently	
  to	
  the	
  graduate	
  level	
  at	
  the	
  University	
  of	
  British	
  Columbia.	
   I	
  feel	
  that	
  I	
  have	
  plenty	
  of	
  experience	
  in	
  the	
  Provincial	
  schools.	
  I	
  am	
  fortunate	
  to	
  say	
   that	
  my	
  experience	
  was	
  positive	
  even	
  though	
  there	
  were	
  many	
  obstacles	
  along	
  the	
  way.	
  I	
   hope	
  to	
  speak	
  on	
  behalf	
  of	
  my	
  people	
  in	
  a	
  respectful	
  and	
  thoughtful	
  manner.	
  	
  As	
  an	
   educator,	
  I	
  continue	
  to	
  witness	
  colonization	
  and	
  assimilation	
  of	
  First	
  Nations	
  people	
   through	
  many	
  outside	
  influences	
  as	
  well	
  as	
  the	
  hidden	
  school	
  curriculum.	
  These	
  influences	
   are	
  in	
  conflict	
  with	
  the	
  ways	
  of	
  our	
  ancestors	
  and	
  interfere	
  with	
  Tsilhqotin/Chilcotin	
   identity.	
  In	
  order	
  to	
  re-­‐introduce	
  the	
  ways	
  of	
  our	
  ancestors,	
  it	
  is	
  necessary	
  to	
  teach	
  and	
   speak	
  to	
  them	
  in	
  their	
  language	
  at	
  all	
  times.	
  Additionally,	
  it	
  is	
  important	
  to	
  have	
  them	
  learn	
   the	
  history	
  of	
  colonialism,	
  imperialism	
  and	
  capitalism,	
  and	
  at	
  the	
  same	
  time	
  introduce	
  them	
   to	
  the	
  original	
  approach	
  of	
  their	
  ancestor’s	
  teachings.	
  This	
  can	
  be	
  done	
  through	
   storytelling,	
  dancing,	
  singing,	
  and	
  drama.	
  The	
  language	
  must	
  be	
  spoken	
  to	
  students	
  at	
  all	
   times	
  so	
  that	
  they	
  can	
  get	
  used	
  to	
  listening	
  and	
  eventually	
  to	
  speaking.	
  	
  	
   I	
  want	
  to	
  acknowledge	
  my	
  ancestors	
  and	
  elders	
  that	
  provided	
  guidance	
  and	
   teachings	
  with	
  regard	
  to	
  my	
  understanding	
  of	
  the	
  stories	
  and	
  language	
  and	
  recognize	
  those	
   that	
  have	
  walked	
  on:	
  Great-­‐Great-­‐Grandmother,	
  Tudud.	
  Grandmother,	
  Mabel	
  	
   Alphonse	
  (The Lady Who Turned to Stone);	
  Grandfather, Charlie Alphonse (Bull Canyon Squirmish); Tsilhqotin Elder, Donald Stump (Story of the Salmon Boy); Tsilhqotin Elder, Helena Myers (How the Owl Stole a Baby); Father, Tsilhqotin Elder, Raymond Alphonse (Raven Obtains Fire) 	
    3	
    	
  Introduction:	
   The	
  Tsilhqotin/Chilcotin	
  language	
  is	
  diminishing	
  and	
  it	
  will	
  eventually	
  become	
   extinct,	
  unless	
  the	
  language	
  is	
  kept	
  alive	
  within	
  the	
  community.	
  	
  This	
  is	
  of	
  great	
  concern	
  to	
   those	
  that	
  are	
  fluent	
  speakers	
  of	
  the	
  language	
  and	
  also	
  community	
  members	
  of	
  the	
   Tsilhqotin/Chilcotin	
  in	
  the	
  Cariboo	
  Chilcotin	
  of	
  British	
  Columbia.	
  Currently	
  Tsilhqotin	
   people	
  in	
  the	
  mid-­‐life	
  age	
  bracket	
  are	
  fluent	
  speakers.	
  It	
  is	
  the	
  newer/younger	
  generation	
   children	
  who	
  are	
  in	
  jeopardy	
  of	
  losing	
  the	
  language	
  over	
  time.	
  Many	
  are	
  at	
  the	
  50/50	
   range:	
  therefore,	
  they	
  are	
  only	
  partially	
  fluent	
  or	
  can	
  understand	
  their	
  language,	
  but	
  are	
   unable	
  to	
  speak	
  it.	
  	
  Presently,	
  in	
  the	
  classroom	
  where	
  the	
  language	
  is	
  taught,	
  instruction	
   tends	
  to	
  follow	
  the	
  Provincial	
  curriculum	
  and	
  does	
  little	
  for	
  Tsilhqotin	
  students.	
  The	
  focus	
   on	
  Tsilhqotin/Chilcotin	
  language	
  is	
  directed	
  toward	
  too	
  much	
  paper	
  work	
  and	
  not	
  enough	
   talking.	
  Originally,	
  the	
  language	
  was	
  taught	
  and	
  spoken	
  orally	
  with	
  no	
  written	
  assignments.	
   This	
  was	
  done	
  through	
  storytelling,	
  singing,	
  dancing,	
  or	
  drama	
  where	
  one	
  would	
  act	
  out	
  the	
   story	
  while	
  translating	
  or	
  communicating	
  to	
  the	
  audience.	
  Everything	
  was	
  done	
  and	
  spoken	
   in	
  the	
  language	
  from	
  first	
  contact	
  between	
  the	
  student	
  and	
  teacher.	
  The	
  Provincial	
   curriculum	
  does	
  not	
  focus	
  on	
  Tsilhqotin	
  language	
  in	
  the	
  classroom,	
  learning	
  is	
  focused	
  on	
   and	
  directed	
  in	
  the	
  English	
  language.	
  	
  Students	
  leave	
  the	
  classroom	
  without	
  learning	
  many	
   words	
  in	
  the	
  Tsilhqotin	
  language.	
  Attendance	
  problems	
  occur	
  such	
  as	
  making	
  excuses	
  to	
   skip	
  class	
  or	
  do	
  things	
  other	
  than	
  learn	
  the	
  language.	
  This	
  Euro-­‐centric	
  approach	
  devalues	
   the	
  language	
  and	
  the	
  traditional	
  approaches	
  to	
  language	
  learning.	
  It	
  is	
  important	
  to	
  keep	
   the	
  language	
  alive.	
  The	
  Tsilhqotin/Chilcotin	
  have	
  been	
  under	
  external	
  control	
  for	
  the	
  past	
   150	
  years	
  or	
  more.	
  Many	
  elders	
  have	
  been	
  influenced	
  by	
  mainstream	
  society	
  and	
  have	
   experienced	
  assimilation.	
  	
  Social	
  pressures	
  create	
  the	
  process	
  of	
  accepting	
  the	
  mainstream	
   	
    4	
    value	
  system.	
  	
  “I	
  go	
  to	
  church	
  to	
  socialize	
  and	
  out	
  of	
  boredom,	
  I	
  do	
  not	
  necessarily	
  go	
  to	
   pray,	
  it	
  is	
  not	
  our	
  way”	
  (Alphonse,	
  1990).	
  This	
  is	
  the	
  case	
  for	
  many	
  First	
  Nation	
  community	
   members.	
  They	
  know	
  it	
  is	
  not	
  their	
  way	
  and	
  would	
  like	
  to	
  be	
  given	
  the	
  opportunity	
  to	
  be	
   reintroduced	
  to	
  the	
  familiar	
  teachings	
  of	
  their	
  people	
  instead	
  of	
  the	
  dominant	
  foreign	
   influence,	
  which	
  continues	
  to	
  hold	
  strong	
  like	
  glue.	
  This	
  instructional	
  resource	
  and	
  lessons	
   are	
  an	
  attempt	
  to	
  bring	
  back	
  some	
  of	
  the	
  old	
  history	
  and	
  identity	
  of	
  the	
  Tsilhqotin	
  peoples.	
   Once	
  introduced	
  in	
  the	
  schools,	
  it	
  is	
  anticipated	
  that	
  the	
  community	
  will	
  also	
  make	
  an	
   attempt	
  to	
  follow	
  the	
  approach	
  or	
  at	
  least	
  be	
  interested	
  in	
  getting	
  more	
  information.	
  Some	
   community	
  members,	
  elders,	
  and	
  scholars	
  are	
  already	
  working	
  for	
  this	
  kind	
  of	
  change.	
   There	
  are	
  youth	
  that	
  are	
  excited	
  about	
  having	
  their	
  language	
  and	
  connection	
  to	
  culture	
  re-­‐ established	
  and	
  about	
  being	
  able	
  to	
  speak	
  the	
  language	
  of	
  their	
  ancestors	
  in	
  their	
  own	
   community.	
  Students	
  feel	
  much	
  closer	
  to	
  the	
  culture	
  through	
  the	
  introduction	
  of	
  their	
   language	
  through	
  stories,	
  storytelling,	
  song	
  and	
  dance.	
  These	
  resources	
  provide	
  a	
  way	
  of	
   bringing	
  back	
  the	
  tradition	
  of	
  oral	
  history	
  with	
  which	
  the	
  people	
  are	
  very	
  familiar.	
  The	
   translation	
  in	
  English	
  as	
  part	
  of	
  this	
  project	
  is	
  necessary	
  for	
  those	
  that	
  do	
  not	
  speak	
  the	
   language	
  such	
  as	
  teachers	
  or	
  other	
  community	
  members.	
  The	
  stories	
  shared	
  as	
  part	
  of	
  this	
   work	
  mention	
  the	
  philosophy	
  of	
  the	
  Tsilhqotin/Chilcotin	
  and	
  how	
  they	
  continue	
  in	
  their	
   everyday	
  life	
  as	
  human	
  beings	
  in	
  the	
  traditional	
  lands.	
  Without	
  the	
  Tsilhqotin	
  language	
   there	
  will	
  be	
  no	
  connection	
  to	
  the	
  land:	
  the	
  language	
  will	
  become	
  less	
  and	
  less	
  important	
   since	
  many	
  place	
  names	
  and	
  stories	
  are	
  told	
  in	
  relation	
  to	
  the	
  land.	
  The	
  Tsilhqotin	
  language	
   and	
  land	
  go	
  together,	
  it	
  is	
  essential	
  to	
  also	
  include	
  the	
  spiritual	
  connection.	
  	
  Many	
  First	
   Nations	
  languages	
  are	
  irreplaceable	
  resources	
  that	
  require	
  protection	
  and	
  support.	
  It	
  is	
   important	
  to	
  move	
  toward	
  official	
  status	
  of	
  First	
  Nation	
  languages	
  in	
  Canada,	
  constitutional	
   	
    5	
    recognition,	
  and	
  the	
  accompanying	
  legislative	
  protection.	
  In	
  addition,	
  provincial	
  and	
   federal	
  schools	
  can	
  provide	
  credit	
  within	
  the	
  school	
  system	
  for	
  First	
  Nation	
  language	
  study	
   (Battiste,	
  2000,	
  p.	
  203).	
  Battiste	
  indicates	
  that	
  without	
  the	
  language,	
  there	
  is	
  a	
   disconnection	
  to	
  the	
  land	
  and	
  history.	
  The	
  community	
  is	
  very	
  aware	
  of	
  the	
  importance	
  of	
   language	
  revitalization	
  and	
  elders	
  gather	
  each	
  week	
  with	
  the	
  youth	
  and	
  do	
  things	
  like	
  arts,	
   crafts,	
  beadwork	
  and	
  feasts,	
  while	
  the	
  language	
  is	
  spoken	
  fluently.	
  By	
  maintaining	
  the	
   language,	
  there	
  will	
  be	
  continued	
  ties	
  to	
  the	
  land,	
  culture	
  and	
  history.	
  Continued	
  legal	
   battles	
  in	
  the	
  courts	
  must	
  address	
  the	
  use	
  of	
  First	
  Nations	
  language.	
   Story-­‐telling	
  Approaches	
  in	
  the	
  Classroom	
   The	
  five	
  stories	
  addressed	
  here	
  are	
  from	
  the	
  Tsilhqotin/Chilcotin	
  people.	
  The	
   instruction	
  can	
  vary;	
  however,	
  students	
  have	
  to	
  sit	
  and	
  listen	
  without	
  taking	
  notes	
  and	
  to	
   comprehend	
  as	
  much	
  as	
  they	
  can.	
  Specific	
  objectives	
  and	
  follow-­‐up	
  activities	
  are	
  included	
   with	
  each	
  story,	
  but	
  in	
  general,	
  the	
  idea	
  is	
  to	
  read	
  the	
  stories	
  to	
  an	
  audience	
  first	
  in	
  English	
   then	
  in	
  Tsilhqotin/Chilcotin.	
  It	
  is	
  my	
  belief	
  that,	
  the	
  students	
  will	
  learn	
  by	
  listening	
  to	
  how	
   the	
  story	
  evolved	
  or	
  if	
  there	
  is	
  a	
  lesson	
  to	
  be	
  learned.	
  Through	
  the	
  follow-­‐up	
  activities,	
  they	
   will	
  have	
  plenty	
  of	
  opportunities	
  to	
  deconstruct	
  the	
  stories,	
  or	
  use	
  their	
  imagination	
  and	
   come	
  up	
  with	
  new	
  ideas.	
  The	
  teachers	
  can	
  either	
  have	
  a	
  discussion	
  afterwards	
  or	
  re-­‐tell	
  the	
   story	
  and	
  have	
  them	
  act	
  it	
  out	
  or	
  make	
  a	
  song	
  from	
  the	
  story.	
  	
   The	
  students	
  can	
  answer	
  questions	
  such	
  as	
  where	
  did	
  the	
  story	
  take	
  place,	
  was	
  it	
   from	
  a	
  male	
  or	
  female,	
  how	
  many	
  characters	
  were	
  involved,	
  was	
  it	
  teaching	
  a	
  moral	
  lesson,	
   was	
  it	
  happy	
  or	
  courageous	
  and	
  so	
  on.	
  It	
  depends	
  on	
  the	
  teacher	
  as	
  to	
  how	
  they	
  would	
  like	
   to	
  introduce	
  the	
  stories.	
  They	
  can	
  distribute	
  it	
  in	
  different	
  ways	
  as	
  appropriate	
  to	
  students	
   in	
  different	
  grade	
  levels.	
  A	
  teacher	
  can	
  say	
  some	
  words	
  in	
  the	
  original	
  language	
  especially	
   	
    6	
    those	
  that	
  are	
  repeated	
  in	
  the	
  story	
  to	
  make	
  the	
  students	
  familiar	
  with	
  some	
  of	
  the	
   reoccurring	
  vocabulary.	
  By	
  listening	
  and	
  repetition	
  they	
  will	
  remember	
  some	
  of	
  this	
   vocabulary	
  after	
  the	
  story	
  is	
  read.	
  Some	
  students	
  will	
  have	
  already	
  heard	
  it	
  from	
  their	
   household	
  family	
  storytelling	
  making	
  it	
  easier	
  for	
  them	
  and	
  more	
  meaningful	
  for	
  their	
   peers	
  especially	
  if	
  the	
  teacher	
  has	
  the	
  student	
  who	
  is	
  familiar	
  with	
  the	
  story	
  share	
  about	
   how	
  they	
  know	
  it	
  with	
  the	
  rest	
  of	
  their	
  class.	
  All	
  in	
  all,	
  these	
  activities	
  are	
  designed	
  to	
  make	
   students	
  practice	
  the	
  art	
  of	
  oral	
  tradition.	
  Teachers	
  can	
  have	
  the	
  story	
  on	
  an	
  overhead	
  for	
   everyone	
  to	
  see	
  so	
  that	
  it	
  becomes	
  familiar.	
  It	
  is	
  easier	
  to	
  point	
  out	
  a	
  word	
  as	
  well.	
  	
   Another	
  exercise	
  that	
  will	
  benefit	
  the	
  students	
  is	
  to	
  have	
  them	
  tell	
  the	
  story	
  to	
  each	
   other	
  in	
  the	
  best	
  possible	
  way	
  they	
  can	
  without	
  help	
  from	
  the	
  reading.	
  This	
  will	
  help	
  in	
   practicing	
  oral	
  history.	
  Perhaps,	
  the	
  students	
  would	
  be	
  introduced	
  to	
  cues	
  on	
  how	
  to	
   remember	
  a	
  story	
  and	
  small	
  techniques	
  to	
  tell	
  a	
  story.	
  This	
  would	
  depend	
  on	
  the	
  age	
  of	
  the	
   audience.	
  Their	
  homework	
  could	
  be	
  to	
  tell	
  the	
  story	
  to	
  their	
  family	
  at	
  home	
  and	
  then	
  retell	
   it	
  again	
  the	
  next	
  day	
  in	
  class	
  either	
  orally	
  or	
  through	
  a	
  recorded	
  video.	
   An	
  important	
  message	
  for	
  the	
  teacher	
  is	
  that,	
  storytelling	
  has	
  to	
  be	
  fun;	
  they	
  have	
  to	
   be	
  creative	
  and	
  interesting	
  to	
  encourage	
  learning.	
  It	
  is	
  possible	
  that	
  non-­‐ Tsilhqotin/Chilcotin	
  teachers	
  might	
  find	
  it	
  a	
  challenge.	
  They	
  have	
  to	
  remember	
  that	
  if	
  a	
   student	
  finds	
  their	
  teacher	
  interested	
  in	
  them	
  and	
  their	
  background,	
  they	
  will	
  have	
  a	
   different	
  approach	
  and	
  will	
  likely	
  be	
  more	
  motivated	
  to	
  learn	
  further.	
  So,	
  it	
  has	
  positive	
   benefits.	
  One	
  of	
  the	
  policies	
  that	
  we	
  came	
  up	
  with	
  earlier	
  in	
  our	
  community	
  was	
  for	
  a	
   teacher	
  to	
  learn	
  or	
  do	
  a	
  brief	
  study	
  of	
  the	
  Nations	
  history	
  or	
  learn	
  a	
  few	
  words	
  in	
  the	
  local	
   language	
  before	
  they	
  started	
  teaching	
  at	
  the	
  Reserve	
  School.	
  We	
  found	
  many	
  have	
  little	
   knowledge	
  and	
  did	
  not	
  understand	
  the	
  student’s	
  family	
  lifestyle.	
  For	
  example:	
  during	
  the	
   	
    7	
    summer	
  and	
  towards	
  the	
  late	
  fall,	
  many	
  students	
  are	
  out	
  with	
  their	
  families	
  hunting	
  and	
   gathering	
  for	
  the	
  winter	
  months.	
  	
   Fishing	
  is	
  also	
  done	
  later	
  depending	
  on	
  whether	
  one	
  prefers	
  a	
  “fat/rich”	
  or	
  “lean”	
   fish.	
  Without	
  knowing	
  this	
  history,	
  a	
  teacher	
  may	
  not	
  understand	
  and	
  mark	
  students	
  down	
   as	
  absent	
  and	
  as	
  having	
  missed	
  school.	
  It	
  is	
  a	
  great	
  honour	
  for	
  students	
  to	
  tell	
  the	
  story	
   learned	
  by	
  their	
  people	
  in	
  their	
  communities.	
  Field	
  trips	
  are	
  one	
  way	
  to	
  encourage	
  a	
   greater	
  story	
  sharing	
  for	
  the	
  students	
  and	
  teachers,	
  especially,	
  when	
  one	
  approaches	
   families	
  in	
  the	
  camps	
  where	
  they	
  fish	
  or	
  hunt.	
  Even	
  better	
  is	
  to	
  have	
  community	
  members	
   participate	
  and	
  tell	
  stories	
  during	
  the	
  camp	
  visit.	
  The	
  idea	
  is	
  to	
  bring	
  back	
  the	
  history,	
   culture	
  and	
  identity	
  of	
  the	
  students	
  so	
  that	
  it	
  becomes	
  familiar.	
  Another	
  way	
  is	
  to	
  teach	
  and	
   identify	
  where	
  foreign	
  religion	
  came	
  from.	
  They	
  have	
  to	
  be	
  introduced	
  to	
  Colonial	
   Institutions	
  and	
  what	
  they	
  are	
  about.	
  	
   As	
  an	
  example:	
  use	
  a	
  timeline	
  from	
  the	
  Tsilhqotin/Chilcotin	
  and	
  European	
  history	
   and	
  determine	
  the	
  similarities	
  and	
  differences.	
  And	
  then,	
  instruct	
  how	
  important	
  the	
   language,	
  land,	
  culture	
  was	
  and	
  still	
  is	
  to	
  the	
  Tsilhqotin/Chilcotin	
  since,	
  time	
  immemorial.	
   Sharing	
  the	
  five	
  stories	
  is	
  one	
  method	
  of	
  creating	
  this	
  awareness	
  of	
  our	
  people	
  to	
  be	
  proud	
   of	
  who	
  they	
  are	
  as	
  Tsilhqotins/Chilcotins.	
  	
  	
  	
   Background	
   The	
  stories	
  that	
  are	
  shared	
  as	
  part	
  of	
  this	
  project	
  are	
  from	
  the	
  Tsilhqotin/Chilcotin	
   Nation	
  originally	
  from	
  the	
  interior	
  of	
  British	
  Columbia	
  in	
  the	
  Cariboo	
  Chilcotin.	
  They	
  come	
   from	
  the	
  Athapaskan	
  Linguistic	
  Family.	
  They	
  have	
  been	
  living	
  in	
  the	
  area	
  prior	
  to	
  European	
   contact,	
  which	
  was	
  approximately,	
  150	
  years	
  ago.	
  It	
  has	
  been	
  recorded	
  that	
  they	
  lived	
  there	
   since	
  time	
  immemorial.	
  The	
  stories	
  are	
  from	
  the	
  original	
  people	
  and	
  have	
  been	
  passed	
   	
    8	
    down	
  from	
  generation	
  to	
  generation.	
  As	
  is	
  always	
  the	
  case	
  with	
  most	
  languages:	
  the	
   translation	
  to	
  English	
  is	
  not	
  the	
  same	
  as	
  it	
  would	
  be	
  if	
  the	
  stories	
  were	
  told	
  orally	
  in	
  the	
   original	
  language.	
  A	
  few	
  of	
  these	
  stories	
  are	
  from	
  my	
  late	
  grandmother	
  who	
  was	
  the	
   descendant	
  of	
  one	
  of	
  the	
  powerful	
  female	
  matriarch,	
  Tudud.	
  Tudud	
  was	
  my	
  great-­‐great-­‐ grandmother.	
  The	
  name	
  translates	
  into:	
  “	
  waiting	
  for	
  water”;	
  she	
  was	
  considered	
  similar	
  to	
   the	
  “Queen	
  Bee”	
  of	
  the	
  nation	
  and	
  many	
  protected	
  her	
  from	
  any	
  misunderstanding	
  or	
   conflicts.	
  Everything	
  and	
  everyone	
  had	
  to	
  abide	
  by	
  her	
  policy.	
  The	
  nation	
  was	
  also	
  known	
   as	
  a	
  warring	
  nation.	
  As	
  a	
  result,	
  she	
  often	
  lost	
  a	
  husband	
  due	
  to	
  wars	
  and	
  conflicts	
  with	
   other	
  nations.	
  She	
  was	
  kept	
  in	
  the	
  dark	
  or	
  had	
  a	
  “low	
  profile”	
  in	
  order	
  to	
  be	
  protected.	
  This	
   rule	
  was	
  in	
  place	
  until	
  the	
  colonizers	
  arrived.	
  After	
  that,	
  matriarchy	
  was	
  taboo	
  and	
   patriarchy	
  became	
  the	
  dominant	
  rule.	
  An	
  elder	
  once	
  said	
  after	
  witnessing	
  the	
  women	
   leading	
  and	
  in	
  control	
  during	
  a	
  feast/gathering,	
  “It	
  is	
  good	
  to	
  see	
  the	
  females	
  leading	
  again,	
   this	
  is	
  the	
  way	
  it	
  was	
  and	
  no	
  wonder	
  we	
  are	
  lost	
  today	
  with	
  all	
  the	
  males	
  trying	
  to	
  lead.	
   They	
  need	
  to	
  go	
  back	
  in	
  time	
  and	
  reorganize	
  in	
  order	
  for	
  us	
  to	
  go	
  on	
  the	
  right	
  path”	
  (Petal,	
   1988).	
  	
   There	
  was	
  a	
  time	
  and	
  a	
  place	
  for	
  storytelling	
  within	
  the	
  nation.	
  Originally,	
  it	
  was	
   done	
  mostly	
  during	
  the	
  winter	
  months	
  and	
  during	
  the	
  later	
  hours	
  of	
  the	
  night	
  after	
  supper.	
   The	
  very	
  old	
  (sadanx)	
  stories	
  were	
  told	
  at	
  a	
  certain	
  time	
  and	
  not	
  just,	
  anytime.	
  There	
  is	
  a	
   protocol	
  that	
  is	
  in	
  place	
  for	
  different	
  stories.	
  For	
  example,	
  if	
  one	
  tells	
  an	
  old	
  (sadanx)	
  story during	
  daytime	
  when	
  it	
  was	
  not	
  appropriate,	
  that	
  person	
  would	
  be	
  warned,	
  “Be	
  careful,	
  you	
   might	
  go	
  blind	
  talking	
  about	
  the	
  old	
  history”.	
  It	
  was	
  all	
  that	
  the	
  person	
  needed	
  to	
  hear	
  and	
   they	
  immediately	
  quit!	
  There	
  are	
  also	
  other	
  protocols	
  that	
  existed	
  within	
  the	
  community;	
  it	
   depended	
  on	
  what	
  the	
  story	
  is	
  based	
  on.	
  Normally,	
  a	
  non-­‐Tsilhqotin/Chilcotin	
  would	
  not	
   	
    9	
    have	
  a	
  clue	
  unless	
  instructed.	
   There	
  are	
  many	
  different	
  ways	
  to	
  deliver	
  the	
  stories	
  depending	
  on	
  the	
  age	
  group.	
   One	
  way	
  is	
  to	
  read	
  it	
  in	
  English	
  and	
  then	
  Tsilhqotin/Chilcotin.	
  It	
  is	
  important	
  for	
  the	
   students	
  to	
  listen	
  verbally	
  whether	
  they	
  fluent	
  or	
  not.	
  The	
  more	
  they	
  hear	
  the	
  better.	
   Another	
  way	
  might	
  be	
  through	
  a	
  cartoon	
  and	
  have	
  the	
  English	
  captions	
  at	
  the	
  bottom.	
   Although	
  it	
  takes	
  time	
  to	
  make	
  a	
  video	
  but	
  in	
  the	
  modern	
  world	
  this	
  type	
  of	
  learning	
  is	
  also	
   common	
  and	
  works	
  for	
  all	
  ages.	
  Many	
  of	
  the	
  stories	
  that	
  I	
  will	
  share	
  as	
  part	
  of	
  this	
  project	
   were	
  told	
  and	
  introduced	
  to	
  me	
  when	
  I	
  was	
  a	
  young	
  boy.	
  Personally,	
  it	
  is	
  exciting	
  for	
  me	
   since	
  I	
  am	
  the	
  storyteller	
  rather	
  than	
  the	
  listener.	
  My	
  goal	
  is	
  to	
  pass	
  on	
  these	
  stories	
  to	
  the	
   young	
  to	
  be	
  utilized	
  as	
  a	
  tool	
  that	
  will	
  continue	
  to	
  educate	
  and	
  make	
  them	
  aware	
  of	
  who	
   they	
  are	
  as	
  Tsilhqotin/Chilcotin.	
  	
   The	
  stories	
  are	
  based	
  on	
  events	
  that	
  happened	
  in	
  the	
  life	
  of	
  the	
  Tsilhqotin/Chilcotin.	
   The	
  stories	
  may	
  have	
  an	
  introductory	
  lesson	
  or	
  it	
  may	
  be	
  up	
  to	
  the	
  audience	
  to	
  determine	
   what	
  the	
  story	
  is	
  about.	
  The	
  stories	
  encourage	
  them	
  to	
  visualize	
  and	
  be	
  aware	
  of	
  the	
  land	
   and	
  the	
  nation’s	
  world	
  in	
  it:	
  therefore,	
  reinforcing	
  the	
  historical	
  consciousness	
  of	
  a	
  student	
   knowing	
  that	
  their	
  people	
  have	
  been	
  here	
  and	
  continue	
  their	
  existence.	
   The	
  story	
  about	
  the	
  Salmon	
  Boy	
  is	
  to	
  teach	
  about	
  the	
  salmon	
  and	
  how	
  the	
  cycle	
   works	
  in	
  the	
  salmon	
  world.	
  Without	
  this	
  story,	
  one	
  is	
  not	
  aware	
  of	
  how	
  the	
  salmon	
  exists.	
   Transformation	
  is	
  positive;	
  it	
  teaches	
  and	
  reminds	
  them	
  that	
  it	
  is	
  not	
  just	
  the	
  environment	
   capable	
  of	
  this	
  action.	
  This	
  story	
  is	
  good	
  for	
  all	
  ages,	
  it	
  teaches	
  them	
  to	
  respect	
  the	
  salmon	
   and	
  how	
  they	
  migrate	
  to	
  spawn	
  and	
  how	
  they	
  came	
  into	
  the	
  world.	
  It	
  also	
  teaches	
  them	
   about	
  respect.	
  	
   	
   The	
  other	
  story	
  about,	
  The	
  Lady	
  Who	
  Turned	
  into	
  Stone	
  is	
  a	
  lesson	
  to	
  respect	
   	
    10	
    someone	
  who	
  had	
  her	
  first	
  menstruation.	
  The	
  flow	
  of	
  the	
  person	
  is	
  powerful	
  and	
  strong.	
  If	
   not	
  careful,	
  mishaps	
  can	
  happen	
  throughout	
  the	
  universe.	
  During	
  their	
  first	
  menstruation	
   women	
  are	
  highly	
  recognized	
  and	
  considered	
  closest	
  to	
  the	
  spirits	
  and	
  considered	
  have	
  the	
   powers	
  to	
  do	
  almost	
  magical	
  spiritual	
  feats.	
  The	
  ability	
  to	
  have	
  children	
  is	
  in	
  a	
  sense	
  the	
   most	
  powerful	
  gift	
  given	
  by	
  the	
  creator.	
  The	
  energy	
  of	
  these	
  women	
  is	
  at	
  the	
  highest	
  during	
   times	
  such	
  as	
  when	
  they	
  are	
  giving	
  birth,	
  therefore,	
  respect	
  is	
  regarded	
  towards	
  them.	
   	
    The	
  other	
  stories	
  are	
  similar	
  in	
  nature.	
  They	
  appear	
  almost	
  mythical	
  to	
  the	
    unfamiliar	
  audience.	
  Many	
  of	
  the	
  events	
  are	
  teachings/lessons	
  that	
  happened.	
  Some	
  are	
   hard	
  to	
  explain	
  in	
  English	
  but	
  nevertheless	
  represent	
  the	
  original	
  people	
  where	
  the	
  stories	
   took	
  place.	
  	
   An	
  additional	
  process	
  of	
  authentication	
  was	
  included	
  at	
  the	
  conclusion	
  of	
   documenting	
  these	
  stories.	
  Community	
  members	
  and	
  elders	
  Patsy	
  Grinder	
  and	
  Linda	
   Myers	
  Smith	
  were	
  contacted	
  to	
  listen	
  to	
  the	
  recorded	
  stories.	
   Stories	
  from	
  the	
  Tsilhqotin:	
   THE LADY WHO TURNED INTO STONE This link will provide a download of the story in Tsilhqotin	
  language	
  (Alphonse,	
  2012) http://yourlisten.com/channel/content/124093/LadyTurnedtoStone	
   During a girl’s first menstruation, a long time ago, she went off alone for about three days or so under the guidance of a mentor, who was usually an older person like an Aunty. She went alone, without seeing or talking with anyone. It was that time, for this particular young lady. She went down to the river to get a drink of water. In those days, there were no modern cups, so, she was drinking water out of a handmade basket made of birch. She was to drink only a certain amount of water. 	
    11	
    A young man followed her down to the river. Males were not allowed to be around them especially young and curious; it was powerful for a girl at a time like that. A women’s blood flow is precious and powerful, if not careful, one could damage others or self. Suddenly, she saw this young man and in disbelieve. To protect him and herself; she turned away from him and turned into stone. Today, she can be seen standing at the edge of a hill overlooking the Tsilhqotin River. In modern day, many use her stone figure as a pilgrimage. If you are ill or other related conditions, you are allowed to ask her for help, simply by asking: “Etsu (Grandmother), please help me as I am sick”. Continue and rub a cloth all over your body and then place it anywhere below or in between the rock. It is a belief that is powerful and cures the sick. Story by: Great-GreatGrandmother, Tudud.Grandmother, Mabel Alphonse told it in 1979. Discussion: The story is about a young women’s menstruation and the power they have during those times, the fact that they can have babies to make new life makes them that much more powerful. The women are respected and people are to be careful around them when they are menstruating. It is similar to them having a connection to the spirits within the outer world. The story takes place in the Tsilhqotin/Chilcotin land. The connection between normal and the spiritual life of a human being is important. One has to have a connection with Mother Earth and all life within it. It appears somewhat like working with the spirits who are no longer there but somehow continue to exist in different forms within the community. Questions: 1. Where did it take place and what was the name of the river? 2. What was the reason she went to the river?  	
    12	
    3. What is meant by respect in this story? 4. Is the lady who turned to stone still in existence? 5. Was there a lesson or advice in the story? Vocabulary: Menstruation, Pilgrimage, Etsu (Grandmother), Tsilhqotin (River people) BULL CANYON SQUIRMISH This link will provide a download of the story in Tsilhqotin	
  language	
  (Alphonse,	
  2012) http://yourlisten.com/channel/content/124092/Bull_Canyon?rn=v20hdlek85j4 The Chilcotins had many Chiefs; they had chiefs for different areas and each had their own group who united when needed. In the case at Bull Canyon, only one Chief was necessary. Chief Anaham and his group were invaded on top of Bull Canyon in the heart of the Chilcotin, a place where it overlooks many kilometers on either side and has a drop of 300-400 meters to the bottom. The old Chief and his people roamed freely in their territories. They wandered up and down the Chilcotin River fishing in many of the lakes in the region. They prepared and gathered plenty of meat for the winter. As a warring nation, it was not uncommon for different tribes of Indians to war against the Chilcotin Chief Anaham and the nation. It is understood; they were never defeated. One time the Stoney Creek Indians (Carrier) sneaked into the Chilcotin country to have a war against Anaham. One man was going from his camp to another camp along the river. Going by Bull Canyon near the Chilcotin River he saw a light, which looked like someone lighting a smoke. This man knew right away that somebody came to disturb the Chilcotins. So, he went up to the top of the hill and crept in amongst them and these people smoked out of one pipe taking turns. This Chilcotin was undetected and the Stoney Creek people gave him the pipe to smoke. Later, the Chilcotin left the people without notice. Then this man told the Chilcotin  	
    13	
    Chief Anaham and his people everything he had witnessed. The Stoney Creek people were at the highest cliff at Bull Canyon where they could see and view all the different camps, below. When Chief Anaham heard the story he sent some men to notify all the different camps to come and meet at his place. After the people arrived at Anaham’s, they talked and decided to deal with their enemies by going to the top of Bull Canyon to surround them. When the Stoney Creek people noticed they were overtaken by surprise and in dismay of being surrounded. The Stoney’s jumped to their death from the cliff and the rest were killed, except, for one man who upon stepping over turned into a feather and landed softly on the ground below. The Chilcotin’s recognized that this man was a powerful ‘deyan’ (medicine man). Warriors immediately started to run after him until one of the Chilcotin Deyan (medicine man) halted and told them to leave him. “Let him go and tell his people what has happened here and he will die soon after the message is given”. Sure enough, as soon as the message was delivered to his people, the Stoney warrior died. In the old days, people fought in many different ways, it was not always physical but with spiritual powers or transformations that made them unpredictable. (Alphonse. 1970) Discussion: The theme of this story is to protect, defend, and respect spiritual powers. Wars are not only fought, physically. It is about the land and how precious it is to them and they are willing to do whatever it takes to protect it from invaders. The people are connected and are willing to work together to protect themselves and the territories that belong to them. Questions/Activities: 1. Have the students write a short story about what they would do in this situation. 2. Who are the Chilcotins?  	
    14	
    3. What area/geography are they from? 4. Can you draw the location/scene? 5. How high is 300 meters? 6. What is a feather, what would it look like when dropped down the cliff? 7. What is a Deyan? 8. Discuss or describe how one can turn into a feather. 9. What is a chief? 10. What was the reason for not killing the Stoney warrior after landing? 11. Who are the Stoneys? Vocabulary: Bull Canyon, Chilcotin, Stoney, Deyan, Anaham, Unpredictable, Feather, Invader, Spiritual, and Transformation STORY OF THE SALMON BOY This link will provide a download of the story in Tsilhqotin	
  language	
  (Alphonse,	
  2012) http://yourlisten.com/channel/content/124096/SalmonBoy?rn=wv6jba650ef4 Once a lot of boys were playing on the bank of the river; one of them, seeing a piece of ice drifting by, jumped on it and floated away downstream. The others tried to rescue him, but could not; he was carried down nearly to the salt water, where he came ashore at a large village. In the open space of the village a number of young men were playing. He went up to a house, in front of which sat an old woman weaving a basket, and asked for food. The woman pointed to one of the boys playing about, and told him to kill him and eat him, for he was really a fish in human form. He did so, and when he had finished, the old woman told him to throw the bones back into the water. The eyes had not been cooked, but had been thrown out on the ground. As soon as the bones touched the water, the fish boy came to life again; but he had no eyes, and  	
    15	
    came groping up to the old woman, crying because he could not see. The woman gave the fish boy his eyes, and told him to swallow them and they would come back all right. He did so, and had his eyes again. The old woman told the boy who had come down the river that very soon all the people would turn into salmon and would go upstream. And before long he saw all the fish boys making hooks of wood, which he found were to hold them from being swept back when they got into rapid water. After a while they all turned into salmon, the boy who came to the village as well and they all started upstream. Every year at salmon-time the boy’s father used to make a salmontrap; and as he approached the place where his father usually placed it, the boy thought “Oh, if my father would only catch me, and then if my sister could take me up to the house!” And, sure enough his father did catch him, and his sister carried him up and hung him on a tree; and very soon he turned to human form again, and went toward his mother’s lodge. He met his sister outside, and told her to go and tell his mother to come and comb his head. But when she did so, the mother was angry, and said that her son had died the year before, and she beat the girl for telling a lie. At last the girl persuaded her to go see. She went out and found her son, and was glad, and began to comb his head. Now, the boy’s head had been bald after he became a salmon; but as soon as his mother combed it, his hair grew out long and beautiful, and hung down on his shoulders. One day the boy went out to hunt ducks, and took his sister along. On the way he asked her what had become of his brothers, and she told him that they had gone up to the sun to get wives, and had died there. He killed many ducks, and, having plucked the feathers and made a pile of them, he lay down on it, and told his sister to blow. She did so, and the feathers floated up into the sky carrying the boy with them. The girl went home and told what had happened, and  	
    16	
    her father was very angry. When the boy arrived in the sky country, he saw a village, and, going to the house of an old woman, he asked if she had seen his brothers. The woman told him that his brothers had come to the village, but not to her house, and that the Sun had killed them all; but that he should come into her house, and he would be safe, and she would tell him what he must do. So he went in, and the old woman gave him a piece of porcupine-gut and a piece of beaver-gut; and in the porcupine-gut was cold, and in the beaver-gut was heat; and, taking these with him, the boy went out to see the Sun. The Sun had an iron sweat-house into which he used to put men so that they could not get away, and then he would kill them. As soon as the Sun saw the boy, he seized him and put him into the sweat-house, and then heated it very hot. But the boy took the porcupine-gut and opened it a little, and the place became cool. Next the Sun made the sweat-house icy cold; but the boy opened the beaver-gut a little way, and it became warm. Now, the Sun who knew nothing of this, thought that the boy must surely be dead, and told his daughter to go and clear the bones from the sweat-house. When she came, she found the boy alive, and brought him back to the house; and when he came in, he was laughing. The Sun asked him why he was laughing, and he said because of the fun he had rolling the skulls about in the sweat-house. Then the Sun shook his head, and said he was a very clever boy, and the boy went back to the old woman’s house. The next day the Sun went down to the shore of the lake to gather firewood, and the boy and the old woman came to the place where he was working. Now, the Sun was splitting wood with a stone axe, and, as he was chopping at a tree which grew out over the water, the head of the axe flew off and fell into the lake, and sank, and he told the boy to dive down after it. He did so, but, when he started to come up again, he could not, for the Sun had placed two nettings  	
    17	
    at different levels in the water, so that he could not get through. But the old woman had warned the boy of what could happen, and had given him two charms. And so, when he came to the first netting; he took one charm and turned himself into a small fish and slipped through; and when he came to the second netting, which was finer, he turned himself into a hair and came through, and brought the axe to the shore. Now, the Sun, thinking that the boy had surely drowned, had gone to his house. So the boy followed him, and gave him back his stone axe. Then the Sun shook his head, and said he was a very clever boy. The boy went again to the old woman’s house and gave her back the charms, and told her that the Sun had said that there were two grizzly bears near his house, and had given him arrows, and told him to go and kill the bears. He showed her the arrows, and they were bad arrows made of soft bark. So the old woman gave him good stone arrows, and he went out and killed both the bears, and cut off a foot from each. Now, the bears were the Sun’s two daughters. And when the boy came to the Sun’s house and showed him the feet, the Sun was angry, and cried, “Oh, you have killed my daughters!” But he was able to bring them to life again. When the boy went back to the old woman’s house, she told him that he was in great danger, that the Sun would take him out to hunt mountain-sheep, and while they were hunting would push him over a precipice. And she gave him a charm, and told him what he must do. The next day they went out after the mountain sheep, and after a while the Sun looked over the edge of a cliff and saw a band of sheep, and called to the boy to come and see them too. And as he reached the ground, he turned into a flying squirrel, and came down softly. And when he came back the Sun shook his head, and said he was a very clever boy. The next day the Sun said. “I wonder which of us is the better at making rain?” and the boy answered, “You try first and we’ll see.” So the Sun tried, but could only make a little. Then  	
    18	
    the boy, for the old woman had told him how, made a great rain and it poured down on the Sun’s head and cracked it all over, until he cried, “That’s enough! If you will stop, you can have my two daughters.” So they went back to the house, and the boy got both the girls as wives. The next day the boy started back for his home, and his two wives with him, but he forgot to go and thank the old woman who had helped him. Just after they had started, the Sun called them back and gave them fire to take with them. Finally they came to the boy’s house, and he left the women a little way off, and told them to wait while he went in ahead. Soon his sister and he came out to fetch them; but when they came to the place, the fire surrounded the women, so that they could not get near them, and the women went back to their father the Sun. And so the boy lost his wives because he had forgotten to thank the old woman who had helped him (Stump, 1997) Discussion: The theme is to have respect, listen, obey, and be aware of the universe and the power within. Through a transformation, it tells about the cycle of a salmon through a human: in this case, a boy. The young man lives in a world under guidance with different lessons, instructions, powers, which comes from a human, animal, spirit or a higher power (creator). Questions/Activities: 1.  Have students make a comic book that includes sketches, drawings and paintings with Tsilhqotin/Chilcotin captions and also in English.  	
    2.  Who was the boy and where did he come from?  3.  How did he arrive near the salt water?  4.  Who scooped him out and with what tool?  5.  Describe and discuss who the old woman was and her role in the story.  19	
    6.  Describe how the boy went to the sky and why?  7.  What happened to his hair and how did he get it back?  8.  Did he defeat the Sun?  9.  Who became his wives?  10. What lesson was ignored? Vocabulary: Salmon, Sun, Salt water, Porcupine/Beaver-gut, Flying squirrel, Stone Arrows, Axe, Sky Country HOW THE OWL STOLE A BABY http://yourlisten.com/channel/content/124094/OwlStoleBaby?rn=x4l7bsbg35ds A mother was busy preparing her bed. She didn’t realize her baby had gone outside, and she called out, “Anish”, several times, but her baby didn’t return. Owl heard the baby crying, and said, “Chayi (grandchild), anish, ebedesk’ins (naastla) na#es/alh”. The baby walked towards the owl. Owl stole the baby and carried (him) to a nest, high up in a tree. The next morning, the parents went searching for their baby. They found him sleeping comfortably next to a rabbit leg in the Owl’s nest. The mother took her baby down and took him home. On finding out about “his new baby” missing, the Owl came searching for him. He hung around near the family camp for days, pleading, “Seding setl’ananlhtish”, to which the mother replied, “Lha nending nasestih”. By: Tsilhqotin Elder, Helena Myers Discussion: Always be careful where the baby is and never trust anyone. The life of an animal or a bird is no different than human. Many stories are in the form of an animal or from an environment. We are all brothers and sisters in the universe. We often include it in the stories as if they were human.  	
    20	
    Questions/Activities: 1. Have students act it out; they can make wings to look like an owl. 2. Draw the scene or make a comic book. 3. Discuss and come up with your own story in the situation. 4. What would you do if you were the parent? 5. What language did the owl speak and what do they mean? Vocabulary: Anish, Owl, Chayi, Ebedesk’ins, Naastla, Setl’ananlhtish, Lha nending nasestih, Nest, Rabbit RAVEN OBTAINS FIRE This link will provide a download of the story in Tsilhqotin	
  language	
  (Alphonse,	
  2012) http://yourlisten.com/channel/content/124095/RavenFire?rn=k0tycbqfo2yo In the old days there was no fire in the world except at the house of one man, and he would not give it to the other people. So one day Raven resolved to steal it, he gathered his brothers, friends, and went to the house of the fire-man. The fire was burning at one side of the house, and the owner sat beside it to guard it. As soon as Raven and his friends came in, they all started to dance. Now, Raven had tied shavings of pitch-wood in his hair; as he danced, he would come near the fire, so that the shavings would almost catch; but the fire-man kept a sharp watch that it did not happen. So they danced and danced, until one after another grew tired and dropped out, but Raven kept on. Raven danced all that day and night and all the next day, until even the fire-man was worn out with watching, and fell asleep. As soon as Raven saw that he put his head so that the pitch-wood caught fire, and, dashing out of the house, ran about over the country, starting fires in different spots. The fire-man waked, and, seeing smoke all about, knew at once what had happened, he ran about trying his best to get his fire back, but could not because it was 	
    21	
    burning in so many places; and since that time, people have always had fire. Now, when the woods began to burn, the animals started to run; and they all escaped except the rabbit, which did not run fast enough, and was caught in the fire and burnt his feet. And that is why rabbits have black spots on the soles of their feet today. After the trees had caught fire, the fire remained in the wood; and this is the reason that wood burns today, and that you can obtain fire by rubbing two sticks together (Alphonse, 1990) Discussion: The theme is not to be greedy and to share. To treat fire with respect so we do not burn ourselves like the rabbit. Questions/Activities: 1. Make a play, have students make their own costumes. 2. Learn to sing and dance, like the Raven and friends. 3. What is pitch? 4. Where can you make pitch? 5. Draw a cartoon and color them. 6. Retell the stories as a group. 7. Introduce it to the community as a scene with singers. 8. Have a field trip to gather pitch. 9. What other uses does pitch have? 10. What is Raven’s role? Vocabulary: Raven, Fire-man, Pitch-wood, Smoke, Rabbit, Pitch, Dance  	
    22	
    Bibliography	
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   Alphonse,	
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    23	
    

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