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Dogs and people: The history and psychology of a relationship Coren, Stanley Mar 28, 1998

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54  Stanley Coren  55  DOGS AND PEOPLE: THE HISTORY AND PSYCHOLOGY OF A RELATIONSHIP Professor Stanley Coren Department of Psychology UBC March 28, 1998 Biographical Note: Dr. Coren is a psychologist and author of a number of best selling books dealing with psychological topics, including “Sleep Thieves,” and “The Left-hander Syndrome.” His book on dog behaviour, “The Intelligence of Dogs,” went into 18 printings in hardcover and has been translated into 16 languages. His recent books include “What Do Dogs Know” and “Why We Love the Dogs We Do” which was released in June.  We’re going to be talking about dogs and people and their relationship to each other. During the course of this I will give you a little bit of information about why we love dogs and the personalities of people who pick particular breeds of dogs. The first thing which I think is really important to know is that most of us don’t know an awful lot about dogs because our canine education comes from Walt Disney and his ilk — you know, 101 Dalmatians or Lady and the Tramp. For real-life experience we might have a little bit of Lassie, Benji or Rin Tin Tin. This often results in a number of misperceptions about dogs, such as the belief that they are all heroic, incredibly intelligent and actually sort of four-footed people in fur coats. Learning about dogs through the media can also cause us to gloss over differences between the various breeds of dogs. You have to recognize that if you were a Martian biologist and you came down to earth and you looked at a Great Dane, who stands about 32 inches at the shoulder, can weigh up to 135 pounds or so, has long elegant straight legs and short hair, and then you looked at a Pekingese who stands about 8 inches at the shoulder, weighs around 12 pounds, has crooked legs, has more hair than it has body weight — you would  56  probably, in fact, classify these as being in different species. The thought of how these guys could get together to produce offspring boggles the mind, but the truth of the matter is that if we could somehow or another get the sperm and egg cells together, they would in fact produce live, fertile offspring (although they might be rather strange looking). Both of these breeds of dogs are part of the same species. If you think about what would produce the kind of gene pool that you need to create a Great Dane and a Pekingese, you’d begin to understand the complexity of the dog. There is a long standing controversy as to where dogs come from. The current belief is that dogs started out originally as wolves. Early in our history we domesticated the wolf and that eventually became our pet dog. There are a couple problems with this theory, however, such as the fact that many wolves have oval pupils in their eyes, not the round pupils of domestic dogs, and wolves don’t sweat through the bottom of their paws, the way that dogs do. None the less, if you bred a dog and a wolf together they would produce live and fertile offspring, just like the Great Dane and the Pekingese, which is usually the sign that we are dealing with the same species. Another candidate for the grandfather of the dog is the jackal. Now that’s not as popular as the wolf. Farley Mowat writes stories about wolves and makes them all seem like elegant and noble animals. On the other hand, jackals are smelly little garbage eaters, and we don’t want to think of the fact that the great grandfather of the dog sleeping at the foot of our bed was a smelly little garbage eater. However, jackals have the familiar round pupils in their eyes, they do sweat through their paws, and we can successfully interbreed domesticated dogs with jackals and produce live offspring. If we are using interbreeding ability as the measure of ancestry it is important to note that we can also interbreed dogs with dingoes, with coyotes, and the various African wild dogs. We can’t interbreed dogs with the common red fox, because he’s got the wrong number of chromosomes. However, there are several different kinds of foxes, such as the Arctic Fox and the Niger Black Fox, which in fact can breed with dogs and produce those live, fertile offspring that suggest that we’re dealing with, if not the same species, certainly species with the same  Stanley Coren  57  great grandfather. Probably what happened is that back in the stone age some primitive man simply grabbed hold of a wolf puppy, or a jackal puppy or in the case of Australian aborigines, a dingo puppy, and they domesticated them. Mostly they just kept them around the house (as playmates for the kids of course) and they eventually became tame. Then one day when Ug and Og, our Paleolithic cavemen, were trading goods, their domesticated wolf, domesticated jackal or dingo or whatever else, were out behind the hut doing what dogs do — namely trading genes. Because of pairings like this, it is likely to be the case that our domestic dog is some part wolf, some part jackal, some part fox, some part dingo, some part wild dog, and some part coyote. We know that this works because informal interbreeding experiments  FIGURE 1: Although many people believe that dogs are simply domesticated wolves, their ancestry also includes jackals, coyotes, dingos, wild dogs and even some foxes.  58  have been recorded through the ages. For instance, the early Egyptians had a dog-headed or jackal-headed god called Anubis who was to guide the soul of the dead to paradise. In honour of the god Anubis they deliberately bred dogs back with jackals to produce the Pharaoh Hound. This breed of dog is still around, and he looks incredibly like a jackal in many ways. Actually the dog had been sharing their lives with humans for a long time before Egypt became civilized. There is a lot of evidence which suggests that dogs have been living with us for at least 14,000 years. Now that doesn’t sound like a lot to many of you because we’ve all been watching Jurassic Park, and we know that Tyrannosaurus Rex was around 150 million years ago — now that sounds like a long time ago. While 14,000 years doesn’t sound like much, it becomes more significant when you recognize that organized agriculture didn’t start until about 10,000 years ago. That means that dogs were with man for 4,000 years before we knew how to grow our own food and, in fact, the paleontological evidence suggests that they were probably the very first domesticated animal. Dogs’ function at that time was as a hunter, and we have lots of evidence of dogs pulling down game or tracking from Paleolithic cave paintings. The earliest dogs were the hounds and there are actually two types of hounds. The first type is the sight hound. Sight hounds, such as the Greyhound, are supposed to look across the field, sight their prey, chase and drag it down. Please understand that grey in Greyhound has nothing to do with their colour. It’s a corruption of the word grue, meaning old. They were then gruehund, meaning “old dogs” or more precisely dogs of an ancient lineage. These dogs are running machines. It is the narrow hips, long legs and flexible backs of these dogs that make this kind of dog so incredibly fast. As its name suggests, the Greyhound has remained thoroughly unchanged through the ages. There are Greek and Roman statues of greyhounds at play which can be dated from before the birth of Christ, and they are still quite clearly identifiable, still physiologically identical to our contemporary Greyhounds. Because their job was to pursue the game and kill it, they didn’t need a person’s assistance at all. The  Stanley Coren  59  human hunter simply loped along behind the dogs and eventually got to the site of the kill. There was usually enough meat left over for him to haul home for his own cooking pot, especially if it was a large quarry, such as a deer or antelope. If the game was particularly large or nasty, such as the wild boar, the dogs were not expected to actually kill it, but rather to run it to exhaustion and then corner it and hold it at bay until the human party arrived with weapons to actually dispatch it. Although the Greyhound remains in its original form, we’ve changed some of the sighthounds quite a bit. We have created some very elegant versions of this kind of dog. Consider the Borzoi, with its long coat and its bright coloration. We used to call these dogs Russian Wolfhounds, but then somebody decided that it was inappropriate to have a dog living in North America named after the “Evil  FIGURE 2: Greyhounds have remained virtually unchanged for over 30 centuries.  60  Empire” — so we renamed them after an evil family, the Borzois. Sighthounds were also modified to make the huge Irish Wolfhound. It is the tallest dog in dogdom, standing 46 inches at the shoulder. The Irish Wolfhound did his job very well, and he completely wiped out all of the wolves native to the British Isles. In the process he almost extinguished himself as breed — after all, why do we need a 46-inch dog if there are no wolves for it to hunt? The elegant Afghan Hound, which many people have come to look upon more as fashion accessory for well dressed women than a working dog, is also a sight hound. If you ever saw them running you would not doubt that they were well designed to pull down antelope and gazelle. They do their work well. It doesn’t require much intellect to do this, just a lot of speed. The fact that they are beautiful is just a bonus that the high fashion crowd has taken advantage of. The second variety of hound which man developed was the scent hound. They hunt by tracking the scent of their prey. The prototype of the scent hound is the bloodhound. The bloodhound has a bit of a bad reputation which is a carry over from earlier days. Many people still harbour images from before the American Civil War, where the vicious pack of bloodhounds chases some poor runaway slave and then tears him to pieces at the end. Well, of course, that never happened. They did track the runaway slaves, but bloodhounds are so kissy-faced that they don’t do anything vicious. Even if you are an escaped rapist or murderer all that these dogs want to do when they find you is to lick you all over. It is impossible for us as humans, with our mostly ornamental noses, to recognize just how good the scenting ability of these dogs is. My favourite all-time bloodhound actually had her picture on display in the Smithsonian Institution in Washington D.C. Her name was Buttercup. Let me tell you about Buttercup. Buttercup was called into service when James Earl Ray, the killer of Martin Luther King, had escaped from prison. Somehow or another, nobody noticed that he was gone for 18 hours and then it took another six or seven hours for them to finally call out the hounds to go find him. Ray had expected that he was going to be tracked, so he found some rubber boots, which he put on in order to keep the dogs from  Stanley Coren  61  following his scent. Now this is where Buttercup was called into play. Remember the situation, she’s got a track which is 26-27 hours old and it was laid down by somebody wearing rubber boots. Despite all of this, she put her nose to the ground, and with that beautiful song that scent hounds sing when they know that they are on the right trail, she tracked Ray for more than 11 kilometres and found him. This is certainly a dog whose nose is not just a pretty face ornament. There is something about dogs that it is important to know. While it is the case that God created man, it’s probably the case that man should be given the credit for creating dogs. We have systematically, through seat-of-the-pants, applied genetics, been changing dogs. We have been modifying them to fit our immediate needs and even to fit our technology. I can show you an example of what I mean when I say, to fit our technology, if we look at the evolution of the gun dog. The earliest gun dogs were the Pointers. Now remember what the earliest guns were like. These were things where, in order to load them, you had to take the powder horn and dump the  FIGURE 3: The silent and slow moving Pointer was initially designed to hunt with a man using a short ranged muzzle-loading rifle.  62  gunpowder down the barrel, then you had to wrap a lead ball with a bit of paper or cloth, then you had to and take the rod from its holder against the barrel and tamp down the shot and powder. Then you had to put the ramrod and powder horn back, cock the trigger, aim and fire. This whole process could take an expert 30 seconds and an average person 15 to 30 seconds longer just get the gun loaded and ready to fire. After all of this you had a weapon with a range of maybe about 25 to 50 yards with any accuracy. For hunting with this kind of technology, the Pointer was designed to move very slowly, very silently, and then to hold on point long enough so that the hunter can get close enough so that the stupid gun could actually pull down a bird. Then, after the lucky shot killed the bird, because as a species humans are so lazy, the dog was expected to go out, collect the bird, bring it back intact, and to place it in his master’s hand. Now as weapons technology improved, guns began to become more efficient, were faster loading, and they had better range. To match this new equipment we developed a new kind of dog, the Setters. The Setters move along much more quickly than do the Pointers, and you can tell how near they feel they are to the game by the beat of their tail — it beats faster and faster as they get closer to the game. If you have a couple of setters, they triangulate, and you can sight down their heads and figure out where the bird is. As the technology progressed, we created bolt action and semi-automatic guns which could fire several rounds quickly and were accurate over a good long range. With this new equipment the great fun of hunting behind Spaniels began possible. Spaniels are totally undisciplined hunters. They just quarter the ground in front you and they flush anything which is there. You’ve got to have a good gun if you’re going to be able to get any kind of shot with this kind of hunting, and so the Spaniel emerged as a later development which allowed us to take advantage of these new hunting tools. The final development in terms of gun dogs was the Retriever. The Retriever was developed when good shotguns came into existence and the idea of hunting from lairs or blinds became popular (or necessary because of the encroachment of urban areas on what had  Stanley Coren  63  FIGURE 4: Faster loading, accurate and long range rifles allow hunting behind unpredictable and excitable Spaniels.  been open hunting grounds). This meant that you had to wait for the ducks instead of going out to where you thought they might be. Under these circumstances you needed a dog who would remain quiet and totally attentive to the handler, and not do anything like flush things, or run around and try to point at things, or bark in excitement. This was a dog that was supposed to wait quietly until it was needed, and then be willing to go through swamps or swim through cold water to bring a bird back to its master. That’s why the Retriever was developed, and that’s also why Retrievers are among the most obedient and attentive dogs in all of dogdom. As an aside, the Poodle actually is a retriever that was developed from the now extinct German Water Retriever. In fact in French they are called caniche, after the French word canard for duck, since they were duck retrieving dogs. The foo-foo hair cut, which most of you associate with the breed, was actually designed to be fairly functional. Poodles have hair instead of fur, and hair grows continu-  64  FIGURE 5: Poodles were originally bred as retrievers, and their fancy show fashion styles derives from a functional hair cut used to make retrieving in water easier.  ously. So if this dog got into the water with its full unclipped coat, it would end up carrying a lot of water weight. So the trick that the French arrived at was to strip off all of the hair, except from around the joints and the vital organs where it was needed to keep the animal warm. In this way there would be was less water weight to drag the dog down, and it could stay in the water longer and carry a larger load. Now the major interest that most of us here have is not in hunting dogs, working dogs or guard dogs. Most us are looking for companion dogs. We want dogs who are going to keep our kids company, and who are going to engage in nice, down-to-earth, homey kinds of behaviours. These are the dogs that we engage in secret behaviours with. We dance with our dogs, we sing to them, we say things to them that we would never say to another human being, and we talk using silly words and tones otherwise only reserved for small children. Of course we’d never admit these behaviors to anybody in  Stanley Coren  65  the real world. Also, dogs give us unconditional and continuous love, so they’re a great stress reliever for most of us. Companion dogs are not a new thing. When we are feeling sorry for ourselves we tend to make statements which suggest that all nobility and quality of life have been gradually deteriorating, and we say things like “Civilization has rotted everything away and companion dogs are just one way of showing how we’ve ruined a noble species.” Not so. Companion dogs have been around for a long time. I have a picture of a grave from an archaeological excavation at Ein Mallaha, located on the coast of what is now Israel. The grave contained the body of an old man buried with his hand gently resting on a young puppy. He clearly wanted that puppy to go with him wherever he was going. That’s nearly 11,000 years ago! There is more evidence that these companion dogs have been around for a long time, and we find lots of examples of it. For instance there are Egyptian funerary paintings and many pieces of painted pottery for early Greece, which show tiny dogs, on thin leashes, accompanying their masters on their daily activities, or resting quietly at the foot of their master’s chair, or even beside him or her on a sofa or lounge. These dogs are recognizable as the breed that we call the Maltese. Now Maltese are just totally, marvellously, useless dogs, if you believe that a dog has to go out and hunt birds and guard the house. If you believe that being a good companion is a proper and acceptable role for a dog, then in fact these dogs are very functional. They became very popular in the Greco-Roman era. In fact so many Roman women had these dogs that Julius Caesar once complained to one of his aides: “Have Roman women forgotten how to bare children that they must press small dogs against their breasts?” In fact, that’s what these women were doing; they were carting around their own little wee dog, holding it much like a child. Furthermore, these dogs were not just being around, but sharing in some of their master’s most intimate moments. Someone once sent me a picture of a piece of Roman sculpture from the time of the Caesars. In it there is a couple depicted in bed, clearly in the process of making love. Nestled on the bed at their feet is a small dog. Several surveys of contemporary behavior have shown that about 40%  66  of all people who own dogs say that their dogs sleep with them. Now, of course, it’s sleep on the bed with them. Let’s not push this too far — humans don’t produce live offspring with dogs. Whether the dog is on the bed or not turns out, in some instances, to be a point of conflict among couples. About 13% of couples surveyed claimed that the issue of whether the dog is on the bed or not became so great that it put stress on their marriage. One of these marriages where the dog on the bed became a point of conflict involved General George Armstrong Custer of Little Big Horn fame. His wife Libbie hated the fact that he insisted that he had to have his dogs with him on the bed. She finally threatened that she was going to go sleep in another room if he continued with that practice. In the end they compromised; the dogs slept in the bedroom, but not on the bed. However, in the field, engaged in military activities, things were different. Then the famous Indian fighter always had one of his greyhounds, Blucher or Byron, or his white bull terrier, Turk, resting on the field bed with him. Dogs do lots of intimate things. I had an embarrassing conversation with George Bush, the former president of the U.S. He admitted to me that during his years in the White House, every morning when he went to take his shower, Milly, his springer spaniel would join him in the shower. This was an image I had not asked for. The thought of the nude president of the United States standing next to a wet dog first thing in the morning is beyond even my fathoming. Let’s talk a bit about companion dogs and about breeds of dogs in general. Humans have been developing specific breeds of dogs for many, many years. We keep the dog breeds separate because each was developed for a specific purpose. If you have a purebred dog, and you like what you have, you can have that same dog forever. Each dog in a particular breed is the same. They are not just the same in terms of their size and their shape; they’re the same in terms of their behaviour and their temperament. There are some individual differences between members of the same breed, however these are small compared to the differences across breeds. So there it is — if you find the perfect dog, you can find that perfect dog  Stanley Coren  67  again. If you have a mixed breed dog and if you wanted another just like it, you probably won’t be able to do it. By definition it is a random bred animal. All we know is that mommy may have been a pure-bred and daddy came from a good neighbourhood. When you pay a bit more for a pure bred dog, what you’re basically paying for is predictability. The beauty of this becomes clear when you find the breed of dog that fits your personality perfectly. Since breed characteristics are consistent you never need be without that dog through your whole life. Take the case of Frederick the Great of Austria. He loved Italian Greyhounds, which are a miniature version of the Greyhound. How much did he love them? Well he loved them so much that this was the only breed of dog he had. He even took the dogs out with him on military campaigns, and when they died, he had them buried in a special place — each one with its own separate sandstone marker. The mausoleum where he was supposed to be laid to rest is set in a  FIGURE 6: Frederick the Great always surrounded himself with Italian Greyhounds that he took with him everywhere.  68  place overlooking their graves. When he died, Frederick was supposed to buried in that mausoleum along with the bones of one special dog who was destined to rest beside him for eternity. Well it turns out that his wishes to be with his perfect breed of dog forever did not come true. He was initially buried in Potsdam and then later on during World War II, when his countrymen were afraid that the Russians were going to desecrate his grave, they moved his remains to a salt mine, and then later moved them again. It was not until 205 years after he died that he was finally put in his mausoleum next to the bones of the dog that he loved so well, and that’s where he is now. Different people buy dogs for different reasons. For some people it’s a matter of image. The early film actress Jean Harlow was once asked why she had old English Sheepdogs. She replied that she loved any dog which made her look beautiful when she stood beside it. Let’s consider another case where a dog was chosen for image. Gypsy Rose Lee was a burlesque queen — she was the first one who did it well enough that we could honestly call it exotic dancing. Like Jean Harlow, she also selected a dog for the image it conveyed, but in her case it was an image which is a little bit different. She selected dogs which are called Chinese crested dogs. They used to be called Chinese naked dogs because they are hairless over much of their body. She claimed she loved these dogs because they looked just the way that she did at the end of her act — a lot of skin and a few bits of feathers or fur. People other than actresses have also selected dogs for image. We find a lot of people — especially professional athletes — who have selected dogs to fit their sort of macho or powerful image. Given that, you might expect that the popular dogs among professional athletes nowadays are the massive dogs, such as Rottweilers, Mastiffs, and Akitas, and you would be right. To give you an idea, Evander Holyfield, the current heavyweight championship boxer of the world, has seven Akitas. He never replaced his German Shepherd because he said it turned out to be a bit of wimp. He wanted something a little bit tougher. Now many of you will remember that Evander Holyfield lost a chunk of his ear to Mike Tyson in their last  Stanley Coren  69  fight. Well Mike Tyson also selected a dog based upon image. He really loved Sylvester Stallone, especially in his role as Rocky. In the first two Rocky films, Stallone appeared with a gorgeous red Bull Mastiff whose name is Butkis. So Tyson decided that if he wanted to complete the image — to be just like Rocky — he had to have a Bull Mastiff. His advisors looked around and they found that AllStar Kennels was turning out the best Bull Mastiffs in North America. So they ordered a Bull Mastiff from All-Star which is owned by Mimi Einstein. She was a little bit worried because Tyson wasn’t personally going to be taking care of the dog. He had hired a couple who had the job of looking after the dog, among other things. So, like the concerned breeder that she was, she kept calling up to check to make sure the dog was okay. One day she got a phone call from the couple who said that they’d been fired. They were calling her because they liked the dog and were worried about it since nobody in Tyson’s household seemed to be willing to take care him. At the thought that her dog would not be adequately cared for she became incensed, as most good breeders might under similar circumstances. She stormed down to Mike Tyson’s estate in New Jersey and barged into his living room. There he was, surrounded by his body guards and his cronies while she stood, with her hands on hips and she demanded, “Where’s the dog?” The group was startled, however somebody pointed towards the kitchen. Einstein walked through the door and found this morose dog tethered on a three-foot line to a heavy table. She unsnapped the dog, put a leash on it and marched it out. Afterwards she would claim “It didn’t dawn upon me until later that I was kidnapping a dog from the heavyweight champion of the world.” A couple of days passed before Tyson’s people got back to her, but when they demanded “Give us back the dog,” she answered “No. You’ll only get it back if you are going to take care of it.” They started to make some threats. She replied that she would return the dog if they followed certain basic dog care procedures, which were not much different than the recommendations you get from the SPCA if you adopt a dog. That was apparently too much for Tyson’s group, and they eventually let the matter go. So she now has his dog permanently. Tyson wanted the dog for the image it created, not for com-  70  FIGURE 7: Sylvester Stallone appeared with his Bullmastiff, Butkis, in the first two Rocky films, causing Heavyweight Boxing Champion Mike Tyson to get a similar dog to complete his own image.  panionship. If you buy a suit of clothes for the image it creates, you are probably willing to give it the minimum care it needs, such as keeping it clean. On the other hand, you don’t expect to have to love the suit, provide it with company, spend time with it and so forth. To Tyson, the dog was of no more importance than such a piece of clothing. Now most of us, when we are selecting a dog, are not doing it because of the image it creates, but because of certain characteristics of the dog itself that we prize. Maybe we want a dog which has a sense of humour about life. Maybe we want an athlete, or maybe we want a really intelligent dog. I became interested in what it was that resulted in a good fit between a person of a given personality and a particular dog. In order to study this, we had to first reclassify dogs. Kennel Club groupings were not going to work since they are based on function (such as sporting dogs or herding dogs) rather than the behavioral characteristics of the dogs themselves. As a first step I contacted 96 dog experts and they rated all the dog breeds on 22 different dimensions. This is a long, hard task. On the basis of their  Stanley Coren  71  ratings and some mathematical and statistical magic, I ended up classifying the dogs, or reclassifying them, into seven different groups based on their behaviors. I named these groups Friendly Dogs, which includes spaniels and retrievers; Protective Dogs, which includes the Bull Mastiff and the Akita; Independent Dogs, where you will find the Greyhound; Self-Assured Dogs, mostly terriers; Consistent Dogs, including the Maltese and Pekinese; Steady Dogs which includes the Newfoundland; and Clever Dogs, with Poodles and Border Collies. These dogs are grouped together on the basis of their dominant personalities. We felt that if you had a group of dogs which all had a particular set of behavioral characteristics, then it was likely to be the case that if you liked one dog in that group, you would also be fond of all the others in that group. That prediction turned out to be pretty good. Let’s take, for example, Elizabeth Taylor. In the public’s mind she is probably mostly identified with Collies. This is because she was in the very first Lassie picture, Lassie Come Home, and followed it up as the lovely heroine of the second Lassie film The Courage of Lassie. It’s true that she’s had collies on and off throughout her life. In fact, for her birthday, when she turned 60 years of age, they gave her an eighth generation dog from the original Lassie. Lassie, by the way, was a male dog by the name of Pal. For some reason or another, the viewing public — even in those great scenes where the dog leaps over the camera — has not noticed that he’s got the equipment of a laddie and not of a lassie. He is probably the greatest female impersonator in film history. Anyway, Liz Taylor was given this descendent of Lassie, and the dog became an issue in her last divorce. It seems that her husband of the time, Larry Fortensky, wanted the dog. He said she didn’t like collies, and decided to fight for it. Liz won custody, since the dog was clearly a gift to her. What kind of dogs does Liz Taylor really like? Well, she started out loving Pekinese. These dogs are in the Consistent group. She later on moved onto the Lhasa Apsos; they’re again in the consistent group. Right now she has Maltese, also from the Consistent group. One of them is named Sugar and the other is named Honey. She loves these dogs and they’re always with her. No matter where  72  she goes or what she does, she’s surrounded by her dogs, whether she’s in her bath or whatever else. At one point, when she was married to Richard Burton, they had to make a film in Britain which has a 6-month quarantine. She certainly wasn’t going to put up with being away from her dogs for 6 months. Instead she hit upon a fairly expensive solution to her problem. She and Burton rented a yacht which they moored in the Thames River. They lived on the yacht, so that their dogs never had to set foot on British soil, which meant that they never had to be quarantined, and she could be with them all during that time. Liz Taylor is very good with her dogs, and her husband Richard Burton also liked dogs. Sometimes he became a bit annoyed by the fact that these dogs would respond to Liz Taylor and not to him. So at one point he brought home a one-eyed Pekinese by the name of Een So, and he told Liz Taylor that he had “rescued” the dog. She immediately adopted the dog. Shortly thereafter it was Liz that was becoming annoyed by the fact that this dog listened to Richard Burton and seemed very inattentive when she talked to it. Burton later admitted that in fact Een So was bought fully trained, but only to commands in Welsh, which he spoke fluently and she spoke not a word. Notice that all of the dogs that Liz Taylor loves are from the Consistent group. While it looks as if she is changing breeds, her choices remain in the same group, as we would expect. From this we can predict from this the fact that Liz Taylor would also like most of the other dogs in the Consistent group, such as the Pomeranians, Pugs, and so forth. The next phase of my research was supposed to find out about the personalities of the people which actually went with each of the different groups of dogs. This involved giving personality questionnaires to over 6,000 people. I also asked them the breeds of dogs that they have lived with that they have loved and hated. From the resulting data I found that there was a very consistent pattern, and you could, in fact, predict the kinds of dogs that people with varying types of personalities would have. I restricted myself to four personality dimensions. These were dominance, introversion versus extroversion, warm versus cold, and trusting versus controlling. Now since you have to look at all four dimensions, the process a little  Stanley Coren  73  complicated, but if you tally up a person’s scores, it really turns out that you can make some fairly accurate predictions. For example, if we just look at the personality extremes, we can get a flavour of the kinds of relationships that we find between people and dogs. Let’s look at people who are very dominant. Here you tend to find that there’s a preference for dogs which are in the Self-Assured group. This includes a lot of the terriers — the Cairn terriers, the West Highland Whites, the Scottish Terrier, that sort of thing. Now if that’s the case, then if we study some people who are obviously dominant, we ought to find a lot of Self-Assured dogs happily living with them. For this reason I looked at the presidents of the United States. Obviously you don’t rise to the Presidency of the most powerful country in the world unless you are a pretty dominant person. What I found was that, just as predicted, the most preferred dogs among presidents were from the Self-Assured Group. Now it’s really important when you study this sort of thing that you pick out the dogs which the presidents had chosen for themselves. When we think of the Kennedy White House, it’s full of dogs. It had nine dogs at one point. It had a German Shepherd, it had an Irish Wolfhound, it had Spaniels and a variety of other dogs.  FIGURE 8: Charlie, a Welsh Terrier, was John F. Kennedy’s favorite of all of his dogs.  74  However, most of these dogs were gifts. They were not the dogs which the President selected for himself. For example, the most famous gift was Pushinka, the daughter of Strelka. Strelka was the first living thing to go into orbit and successfully return to earth. I suppose we could call it a Russian caninenaut. Nikita Khrushchev gave Pushinka to Kennedy as a way of saying, “Look, the Cold War’s winding down.” Of course, the CIA didn’t believe that. They immediately took the dog to test it, before they let it roam the White House. First they x-rayed it, then they did thermograms, they even did an early sonogram on it. They were afraid somehow the Russians had planted some secret transmitter for relaying private conversations that might go on around the president. However, all they found inside was the usual puppy stuff and the dog was given to Kennedy children. The dog which Kennedy loved the most was a Welsh terrier by the name of Charlie. That’s the only dog the family brought with them when they entered the White House. This was Kennedy’s favourite. In fact he was such a favourite that in the middle of the Cuban Missile Crisis, when everybody was running around with bits of paper trying to coordinate information about what was going on, Kennedy found time to pause and to tell the White House kennel keeper, Traphes Bryant, “Go bring me Charlie.” Bryant was startled. He ran down and brought Charlie. Next thing you know Kennedy is sitting with his dog on his lap observing everybody running around like chickens without their heads. Kennedy’s stress seemed to dissipate, just from having the dog with him. After a few minutes he looked at Bryant, “Ok, you can take Charlie back.” He looked a lot more relaxed than he had been a few minutes before, and he turned to the busy room and said, “OK, now we can make some decisions.” Perhaps Charlie was one of the most valuable diplomats of that particular era. Scottish Terriers were the most commonly found dogs amongst presidents. A lot of presidents had them. Ronald Reagan had Scotties before he went to the White House, when he was still married to Jane Wyman. He had two of them -- one of them he named Scotch and the other one he called Soda. Teddy Roosevelt’s  Stanley Coren  75  Scottie, Jessie, had one broken ear. Roosevelt used to explain that it was “an old war wound.” Eisenhower had numerous Scotties during his life. He had Scotties which he desperately cherished. When he was still allied commander and was stationed in North Africa, he wrote back to his wife Mamie: “The friendship of a dog is precious. It becomes even more so when one is so far removed from home as we are in Africa. I have a Scottie. In him I find consolation and diversion. He is the one person to whom I can talk without the conversation coming back to the war.” Now in fact he had two Scotties, Caacie and Telek. Telek was given to him by Kay Summersby, who was his driver and some say an additional companion who may have shared his bed with him. Eisenhower also brought a Scottie named Spunky with him when he went to the White House. Probably the most famous Scottie of all presidents is Murry the Outlaw of Fala Hill, the dog owned by Franklin Delano Roosevelt. The nation knew him as Fala, and he was with FDR all the time. He went with him on major diplomatic missions. He was on the U.S.S. Augusta when the Atlantic Charter was signed. Fala was also beside his bed during his last minutes of life. Fala became a symbol to the  FIGURE 9: Franklin Delano Roosevelt made his Scottish Terrier, Fala, virtually a national symbol.  76  whole country. This companion dog who was always with the president became an honourary private in the army, a mascot for fund raising activities, and that sort of thing. During the 1944 campaign for president, Roosevelt’s political opponents tried to use his love for Fala against him. They made up a dirty tricks kind of story which claimed that after FDR had gone to some meeting which was held off of one of the Alaskan Islands, the dog had accidentally been left behind. According to this story, FDR supposedly sent back a destroyer to pick up the dog and this cost the American public several million dollars. Roosevelt managed to turn the tables on the Republicans however. He went on the radio and in a national broadcast he said: Republican leaders have not been content with attacks on me or my wife or my sons. No, not content with that. They now include my little dog, Fala. Well of course I don’t resent attacks and my family doesn’t resent attacks, but Fala does resent them. You know Fala is Scotch, and being Scotch, as soon as he learned that the Republican fiction writers had concocted a story that I had left him behind on the Aleutian Islands and had sent a destroyer back to find him at a cost to the taxpayers of two, or three, or eight, or twenty million dollars — his Scotch soul was furious. He has not been the same dog since. Of course there is a Canadian connection to dominant people and Self-Assured dogs. William Lyon McKenzie King had a little Irish terrier called Pat. Actually, there were three Pats: Pat, Pat II and Pat III. Now King had some personal problems, however it is interesting that people have tended to focus in on his relationship to his dog, as if there was something wrong with it. They would complain “He’s crazy, he talks to his dog.” Well, I’m crazy then, after all I talk to my dog. Most people talk with their dogs. Perhaps King took things just a bit too far, however. According to King’s diary, when Pat (the first) was in the process of dying, he refused to have  Stanley Coren  77  the dog put down. King walked around with the dog in his arms for the entire night singing hymns to him. He even admitted that he had whispered in the dog’s ears, giving him some messages for his dead mother, his father, and for Wilfred Laurier. The dog was to deliver these messages when he arrived in heaven a few hours later. Enough of dominant folks for now. Let’s consider people whose personality is characterized by a whole lot of warmth. These people tend to chose dogs from the Friendly group, which includes most of the Retrievers, and the Spaniels. A classic example of this kind of personality was the actor Jimmy Stewart, who actually is one of the few people who had a private persona which was very similar to his screen persona. He really was a very warm, loving individual. I was lucky enough to get a chance to speak with Jimmy Stewart rather late in his life. He was already getting to be a bit fragile by that particular point in time. We had a long conversation in which he spoke about how much he loved his dogs, which were a series of Golden Retrievers, from the Friendly group. He told me: “I suppose the truth is that I’d rather have a happy dog than a trained one. My dogs have never been good at things like ‘sit’, ‘stay’ or even ‘come.’ I think that we’ve given the tourists a few laughs, especially when the dogs hit the end of their leashes hard enough to drag Gloria down the street.” He did get the well known dog trainer and author Mathew Margolis to help train the dogs, but Stewart’s heart wasn’t in it. “I don’t mind it when the dogs jump up. Matthew showed us how to jerk the leash to correct that kind of thing. I suppose that it does have to be done — you know to keep them from knocking someone down or messing their clothes — but it seems kind of cruel to me. If my dog jumps up on me I figure that he wants to kiss my face and tell me that he thinks that I’m a really nice person. I don’t believe that you should punish a dog for saying ‘I love you.’ When your dog’s face is up looking at yours like that I think that you should tell him just how nice you think that he is too. Gloria told me that Matthew says that we mother the dogs too much and that they’ll never really be well trained. Well, they’re a lot better now than what they were before, so some of the training must be working. The difference between ‘trained  78  OK’ and ‘trained perfectly’ doesn’t really matter all that much to me. I once did a film with Lassie. When that dog got excited it jumped all over Rudd Weatherwax [Lassie’s trainer]. Now that’s the smartest dog in the world. If the world’s best trained dog can jump around to show he’s happy then my dogs should be allowed to do the same.” I remember that Stewart’s eyes got a bit misty when he told me “The truth is that it’s just really hard for me to get to sleep without a dog in my bedroom. It’s funny about that. I once had a dog named Beau. He used to sleep in a corner of the bedroom. Some nights, though, he would sneak onto the bed and lie right in between Gloria and me. I know that I should have pushed him off the bed, but I didn’t. He was up there because he wanted me to pat his head, so that’s what I would do. Somehow, my touching his hair made him happier, and just the feeling of him lying against me helped me sleep better. After he died there were a lot of nights when I was certain that I could feel him get into bed beside me and I would reach out and pat his head. The feeling was so real that I wrote a poem about it and about how much it hurt to realize that he wasn’t going to be there any more.” There are many well known people who we identify with dogs, and often particular dogs. Remember I just pointed out to you that the dogs from Friendly group tend to go best with people who are warm and caring. I don’t think that most of you would classify former U.S. president Richard Nixon as a warm and loving person, yet most of you have in your mind the idea that Richard Nixon’s favourite dog was a Cocker Spaniel, Checkers. That’s certainly one of dogs from the Friendly Group. Well, Checkers saved Nixon’s career, but Checkers was not his favourite dog. How did he save his career? Well, Nixon was accused of taking money and gifts during his campaign for the vice-presidency under Eisenhower. In this particular case, he was innocent. Nixon used television very well, he was highly manipulative, and a very controlling individual. He went on television and he gave this heart-rending talk filled with all sorts of family values, of which he said, “my wife Pat does not have a mink, she wears only a respectable Republican cloth coat,” and he went on like that. Then he brought the speech to an emotional cli-  Stanley Coren  79  max when he said that there was one gift that he had accepted, and he went on to explain: “A man down in Texas heard Pat on the radio mention the fact that her two daughters would like to have a dog and, believe it or not, the day before we left on this campaign trip, we got a message from Union Station in Baltimore, saying they had a package for us. We went down to get it. You know what it was? It was a little Cocker Spaniel dog in a crate that he sent all the way from Texas -- black and white, spotted. And my little girl, Trisha, the sixyear old, named it Checkers, and you know, the kids love that dog. And I just want to say this right now, that regardless of what they say about it, we’re going to keep it.” Well, I want you to know, people broke into tears; I mean, this was terrific stuff, right? But this wasn’t Nixon’s dog. This really was Trisha’s dog. What kind of dogs did Nixon like? Well, he liked the kinds of dogs which individuals who are very controlling tend to like, and that includes dogs from the Independent group. In  FIGURE 10: Although identified in the public’s mind with the Cocker Spaniel, Checkers, Richard M. Nixon’s favorite dog was his happy-go-lucky Irish Setter, King Timahoe.  80  his particular case, it was an Irish Setter. This particular Irish Setter was named King Timahoe, after the Irish town where the Quaker family of Nixon’s mother came from. This dog could be seen with him everywhere. He was often in the Oval Office. Nixon always had cookies in the Oval Office for the dog. Nixon really went out of his way to make the dog happy. The dog liked to go on a golf cart, so Nixon used to ride the dog around the White House lawn in a golf cart, because “Tim likes it.” However, even King Timahoe was not completely immune to Nixon’s machinations. It turns out that at that particular time, the most eligible bachelor in the world was Prince Charles. Nixon had this notion that somehow or another, if he could get Charles and his own daughter, Trisha, together, then this would be his entree into the circles of royalty. So he arranged a state visit for Charles, with Trisha to be his escort and guide. As the time came closer for the Royal visit, a memo went out to the White House staff over Nixon’s signature, which said, “during the time that Prince Charles is here, the dog will be referred to as Timahoe. It would be inappropriate for the Prince to be outranked by a dog.” It was all for naught since, as we all know that Trish and Chuckie never hit it off with each other. What of people who are the other end, not the controlling type, but the very trusting, accepting kinds of people? Well, a lot of them don’t become famous, so we have to dig a little in order to find them. Consider the famous Bronte sisters: Anne, Emily, and Charlotte. Anne was the pussycat of the group. She was very warm and as we might expect, she had a Spaniel. Charlotte was the tough one who organized their careers and their daily activities. Of course, she had Terriers. This all fits. And then there’s Emily. Emily is best known for her poems and of course for her novel Wuthering Heights. She was so trusting and accepting, she basically let Charlotte run her entire life. Now, what are the kinds of dogs that these people get? Well, surprisingly, they get Protective dogs, really big heavy ones, the ones that the athletes like for their tough image, such as Rottweilers, Boxers, Akitas, and that sort of thing. In truth, Emily’s favourite dog was a Boxer. Now, it didn’t look exactly like our Boxers today be-  Stanley Coren  81  cause they were just beginning the breeding experiments to create Boxers as lighter and faster versions of Bull Mastiffs. They were breeding in a bit of the Great Dane to lighten them up. Emily was warned to never ever be harsh with this particular dog because this breed of dog would “tear your throat out.” Everybody else in the family was terrified of her dog, whose name was Keeper. Nonetheless, she loved this dog and the dog even slept with her. Unfortunately, Keeper developed what was called a “bad house habit.” During the day he would go up and sleep on whatever beds happened to be made. Since they were all done with white linen coverlets which were difficult to wash and press at that time, the house maid was getting quite upset. Of course, nobody was going to chastise Keeper because he was supposed to be such a vicious dog. So Emily said, “OK, I’ll take care of it.” Now, remember, this is a tiny little wee woman who lets everybody else run her life. Well it turns out that the very next day, not only was the dog up on a bed, but it was on her father’s bed. So Emily announces to everybody, “I’ll go take care of it.” The whole family is huddled downstairs, looking like a scene from some kind of TV situation comedy, all moaning “Oh God, Emily’s going to die. The dog’s going to eat her.” Then she appears at the top of the stairs and the next thing they see is Emily dragging this dog down the steps, one step at a time shouting, “No, that’s bad! You bad dog!” She dragged him all the way down, put him behind the steps where he was supposed to rest during the day. Then with her tiny little hands, beating on him she said, “You bad dog, you never do that again!” Well, to tell you how strong she was in comparison to Keeper, the dog just stood there, while she’s sobbing and beating away on him. Finally Emily stops, and with as much grace as she could muster, she takes the dog into the kitchen to wash him and tend to him. Keeper clearly deserved the trust, and they never had the problem again. One of the last things Emily did the night before she died, was to get up to go feed Keeper. The dog walked at the head of her funeral procession, next to her father, a short time thereafter. Now there are some people who are cat people who probably shouldn’t own a dog at all. An example of that is Bill Clinton with  82  his neutered cat, named Socks. Clinton has a personality profile which says that he should definitely not have a dog. With that in mind, I was very surprised to find that, in fact, he had just recently acquired a dog. I thought to myself, “Oh well, science is all probabilistic; I guess I was wrong on this one.” But I was curious and decided to check this situation out. First of all, I thought that the Labrador Retriever people would be very happy, because the president’s new dog was a Lab puppy. Instead, when I checked the internet, I found out that many Labrador Retriever lovers were incensed. If you visited their web sites and their news groups they were complaining about the abuse of their breed. According to them the story goes as follows. You see it began in the pre-Monica scandal time. Clinton’s political advisors felt that he was going to lose his family image when his daughter Chelsea went off to California to go to school. So they thought that if he had a dog, then his wife Hillary and the dog could fill in for the family image of Hillary and the daughter, meeting him as his helicopter touched down on the White House lawn. The image of “family” could thus be preserved. They needed an all-American dog, not too foo-foo looking, it had to be  FIGURE 11: Bill Clinton arrived at the White House with no dog at all. He had only his neutered cat, Socks.  Stanley Coren  83  friendly, and a breed that was very popular so that many people could identify with it, hence they decided on a Labrador Retriever. Now remember, this is a dog that is being chosen for image, so it couldn’t be a Black Lab because they don’t photograph well, and it couldn’t be a Yellow Lab because they photograph too well and would detract from the focus on the president, so it had to be a Chocolate coloured Lab. Once the dog was chosen for him, they brought it to the White House for a couple of photo opportunities, and he gave it the inspired name, Buddy. Clinton returned the dog to his advisor in New Jersey, who then took him off to a trainer who kept the dog for six or seven weeks to housebreak it and train it. The dog stays in the White House kennel and is marched out with Hillary to meet the helicopter and on other “informal occasions” when photographers might be around. That’s the whole life of this particular dog. So maybe it is the case that people with certain personalities should not own dogs — for the dog’s sake. The beauty of finding the perfect dog representing the perfect breed for you is that you can have the dog over and over and over again. The classic example of this for me, maybe because I’m a psychologist, is the case of Kurt Koffka. Koffka is one of the founders of Gestalt psychology. His favourite dogs were Dachshunds and they were always the same kind of Dachshunds; they were always the standard Dachshunds, always the chestnut colour, with smooth hair. I spoke with a very well known psychologist by the name of James J. Gibson, and Jimmy told me that he knew that Koffka had had at least seven Dachshunds and every single one of them was named Max. So he asked him, “Why do you name all your dogs Max?” Koffka said, “Well the first one’s name was Max. Then we had another one. We named him something else. But you know, he looked liked Max, and he acted like Max, and I found myself calling him Max. So I thought to myself ‘If he wants to be Max, he’s Max.’” He said, “They always start out as something else — Rolly or Jolly, etc. — but sooner or later they all turn into Max.” In fact, that is the beauty of it all — if you can find the dog which matches your personality, and it’s a known breed, a pure bred dog, you can have that dog over and over and over again.  84  Of course, you are all great seat-of-the-pants psychologists. So let’s give you a test to see how much you’ve picked up from this personality matching game. I’m going to give you some names and you have to guess what kind of dog they would have. Humphrey Bogart? Given his dominant nature, you’re obviously going to see him with his great pack of Scotties, right? How about Alfred Hitchcock? Now he may look like a Blood Hound but he loved Terriers too; West Highland Whites, Sealyhams, and so forth. Here’s an easy one. Clark Gable? He had a beautiful Irish Setter. Michele Pfeiffer? She has a white German Shepherd. How about Jack Lemmon? He has a great Black Poodle. How about James Earle Jones, the voice of Darth Vader? He has a smooth-haired Fox Terrier. How about Tanya Tucker, the country singer? She has a Bichon Frise, which, by the way, means “stared up beard.” How about Maureen McGovern? She has Yorkshire Terriers. How about a little bit of Canadian content? Emily Carr? Old English Sheepdogs. She had an Old English Sheepdog breeding kennel in Victoria, and she used to run her dogs in the park out along Fortview Road. Now there’s a big sign which says, “No dogs allowed.” I don’t know what she did to ruin it for the rest of us. How about Sigmund Freud? Freud had Chow Chows. His favourite Chow was named Jo-Fi. He used to say that Jo-Fi would attend all of his therapy sessions. The dog helped to relax any kids who were in therapy, and Freud claimed that Jo-Fi could tell him how tense a patient was by how close he stayed to him. Freud’s son claimed Jo-Fi had a little clock in his head. At the end of 50 minutes, he would get up and walk to the door, and that’s how Freud knew that the session was finished. How about Sophia Loren? She has Labs which fits my notion of what Sophia Loren should be like. Try another contemporary one: Michael Douglas? You’re never going to get this one. He has big beautiful Borzoi, the elegant running sighthounds. How about Lucille Ball from “I Love Lucie”? There’s a Poodle person, if ever there was one, with a whole house full of miniature Poodles. Now how about a tough guy? A mean, miserable, sleazy character who we all have great joy seeing on the Academy Awards each year, Jack Nicholson? He has tiny, little, wee Shih Tzus. A great flock of them.  Stanley Coren  85  FIGURE 12: Sigmund Freud claimed that his Chow Chow, Jo-Fi assisted him in psychotherapy sessions.  The take home message from all of this is that there is a perfect dog out there for each of us. It’s going to be a dog who has the behaviour pattern which fits our personality. I believe that there is nothing wrong with a person who doesn’t own a dog; however, there may be something wrong with their life. Appendix: Your Personality and Your Dog I have added this appendix especially for this volume. In it I will show you specifically how you can select a group of dogs that fit your personality. First you have to know about your own personality. The best way to do this is to take a formal test like the one that I provide in my book Why We Love the Dogs We Do, by Stanley Coren, published by Free Press/ Simon and Schuster. For our purposes here, we’ll just get you general feeling as to what your personality is like on four dimensions. To do this just answer these questions:  86  1) Do you consider yourself to be extroverted, introverted or somewhere in between? 2) Do you consider yourself to be dominant, non-dominant, or somewhere in between? 3) Do you consider yourself to be trusting, controlling or somewhere in between? 4) Do you consider yourself to be warm, cool, or somewhere in between? Now consult Table 1, with your answers from the questions above. Notice that for each personality score, there are two dog breed groups that are recommended. Simply count the number of times that each group of breeds is mentioned as being appropriate for you for the four traits. Since personality is a complex thing and you are measuring several aspects of it, you will certainly get a number of different recommended dog breeds. This is because different aspects of your personality may be best suited by different types of dogs, and this is a normal outcome. However, the count that you have just made will easily allow you to choose the best dog breeds for your personality. It works this way: Any category of dogs that is mentioned two times as being compatible with your personality scores is a reasonable candidate to fit in with your wants and needs. There may be occasional times when such a dog breed will exasperate you, but these should not be very frequent, nor should the problems be very intense. Most of the time you will find a dog from this breed group to be a welcome companion. If a breed group is mentioned three times, this means that a dog selected from that group will be very strongly suited to your temperament. If we were arranging a marriage between humans, this degree of fit would be about as strong as we could ever hope for. If a breed group is mentioned 4 times, you have a match made in heaven. If you can work out the details of size and activity level, then a dog selected from this group is almost sure to fit into your life. We seldom get that degree of fit, however. If that dog’s group is mentioned only once as fitting your personality profile, it might be the case that you and dogs from that group of breeds can get along reasonably well. However, in this case, there may be some rocky periods which could stress the rela-  Stanley Coren  Table 1: Dog groups that are most preferred by men and women for all four personality dimensions and all levels of trait level.  87  88  tionship. Much like in human relationships, if the number and intensity of good experiences outweighs the number and intensity of the bad ones, a strong fondness can develop. With only one mention of the breed group, however, the likelihood of a good match is probably a cosmic roll of the dice. A dog from a breed group which was only mentioned once may well produce a sort of love-hate relationship, with certain aspects of the dog’s behavior that you really like and other aspects of its nature that you detest. If a dog group is never mentioned in your profile, regardless of how much you like its looks or appreciate the stories told about it, your best advice is to stay away from this group of dog breeds. The likelihood that you and the dog will clash is very high indeed. Furthermore, there is a high probability that your disagreements with such a dog will be fairly intense. Presuming that you are looking for a companion, rather than a continuing challenge that may increase your stress level, selecting a dog from a different group seems wise. Now that you know the breed groups that will work for you, you need only two more bits of information. How large a dog do you want, and how active a dog do you want? If you are in doubt, always err on the side of smaller and less active, since these are easier breeds to handle. Finally, you need to know which dogs fit into each breed category. This is shown in Table 2. I wish you good luck with your search for a good canine companion.  Stanley Coren  Table 2: THE BREED GROUPS Group 1: Friendly Dogs — includes affectionate and genial dogs Bearded Collies Bichon Frise Border Terrier Brittany Spaniel Cavalier King Charles Spaniel Cocker Spaniel Collie Curly Coat Retriever English Cocker Spaniel English Setter English Springer Spaniel Field Spaniel Flat Coated Retriever Golden Retriever Keeshond Labrador Retriever Nova Scotia Duck Toller Old English Sheepdog Portuguese Water Dog Soft Coated Wheaten Terrier Vizsla Welsh Springer Spaniel Group 2: Protective Dogs — includes territorial and dominant dogs Akita American Staffordshire Terrier Boxer Briard Bull Terrier Bullmastiff Chesapeake Bay Retriever Chow Chow German Wire Haired Pointer Giant Schnauzer Gorden Setter  89  Komondor Kuvasz Puli Rhodesian Ridgeback Rottweiler Schnauzer Staffordshire Bull Terrier Weimaraner Group 3: Independent Dogs — includes personable and strongwilled dogs Afghan Hound Airedale Alaskan Malamute American Foxhound American Water Spaniel Black And Tan Coonhound Borzoi Chinese Shar-Pei Dalmatian English Foxhound German Short-Haired Pointer Greyhound Harrier Irish Setter Irish Water Spaniel Norwegian Elkhound Otterhound Pointer Saluki Samoyed Siberian Husky Group 4: Self-Assured Dogs — includes spontaneous and sometimes audacious dogs Affenpinscher Australian Terrier Basenji Brussels Griffin  90  Cairn Terrier Irish Terrier Jack Russell Terrier Lakeland Terrier Manchester Terrier Miniature Pinscher Miniature Schnauzer Norfolk Terrier Norwich Terrier Schipperke Scottish Terrier Shih Tzu Silky Terrier Smooth Fox Terrier West Highland White Terrier Wire Hair Fox Terrier Wire Haired Pointing Griffin Welsh Terrier Yorkshire Terrier Group 5: Consistent Dogs — includes self-contained and homeloving dogs Bedlington Terrier Boston Terrier Chihuahua Dachshund Dandie Dinmont Terrier English Toy Spaniel (King Charles Spaniel) French Bulldog Italian Greyhound Japanese Chin Lhasa Apso Maltese Terrier Pekinese Pomeranian Pug Sealyham Terrier Sky Terrier Tibetan Terrier Whippet  Group 6: Steady Dogs — includes solid, good-natured and tolerant dogs Basset Hound Beagle Bernese Mountain Dog Bloodhound Bouvier De Flandre Bulldog Clumber Spaniel Great Dane Great Pyrenees Irish Wolfhound Mastiff Newfoundland Saint Bernard Scottish Deerhound Group 7: Clever Dogs — includes observant and trainable dogs Australian Cattle Dog Australian Shepherd Belgian Sheepdog Belgian Malinois Belgian Tervuren Border Collie Cardigan Corgi Doberman Pinscher German Shepherd Maremma Sheepdog Papillon Pembrook Corgi Shetland Sheepdog Toy Poodle Miniature Poodle Standard Poodle  91  INSTITUTE MEMORABILIA  

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