Vancouver Institute Lectures

Some aspects of forestry in B.C. [typescript] Knapp, F. Malcolm 1940-03-16

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SAMSome Aspectsof ForestryinBritish ColumbiaF. MALCOLM KNAPP, M.S.F.Associate Professor of Forestry,the University of British ColumbiaAn AddressDelivered at the Vancouver InstituteMarch 16, 1940Preprint and Reprint ServiceW1!rLibrargr1e ittittti GluirnubtaApril, 1940,ISOME ASPECTS OF FORESTRYIN BRITISH COLUMBIA,. N a conversation with an acquaintance of mine a few weeksago, sympathy was expressed in my choice of forestry as aprofession. Having lived in this province only a short time,this gentleman had the impression and belief that forestry isa steadily decreasing field of endeavor and would in a comparatively short time cease to exist. In his opinion it was unfortunate that the forestry profession was such a passingphase and that foresters would soon be out of jobs. I hastenedto point out the true facts of the case, which require no argument, and I believe he was convinced that his former impressions Were entirely erroneous.This experience convinced methat in speaking to this audience to-night on “Some Aspects of Forestry in British Columbia” there might be some to whom the term is not clear, andthat it might be well first to define the meaning of the term“forestry” and to explain what it includes.The general public has a good idea of what is meant byagriculture or mining or medicine, but forestry seems to be avague term and there are many hazy notions concerning it.For example, to many people forestry is synonymous withtree planting—regenerating the barren or burned hillsides,artificial reforestation. This is one phase of forestry, importantin certain regions in North America. But it is costly. It maybe a last resort to be undertaken because of previous mismanagement of the forest resources.To others, the protection of forests from fire is forestry. InBritish Columbia this is a very important part of forestry andis one of the first steps to betaken. It is useless to attempt togrow timber if we allow it to burn faster than it grows. Butfire protection again is only one step in the practice of forestry.To many more people of the general public, logging, or perhaps more recent1y selective logging is synonymous withforestry. If we practise selective logging we are practisingforestry—at least this is so in the minds of some. Logging, orlumbering, is the process by which the crop is harvested andthere is room for much improvement in logging methods.Basically the process is similar to the harvesting of wheat,corn or oats. Everyone realizes that the harvest season is onlyone phase of agriculture; so it is also in the case of harvestingforest products.-Forestry an All-Inclusive TermThere are many more catch phrases which have been thoughtto be synonymous with forestry—forest conservation, keepingthe forest green, tree culture, and so forth; but I have saidenough to illustrate how vague the term is to many.What then, in a nutshell, is forestry? Perhaps the broadestand best definition is that forestry is the management of forestlands for the purpose for which they are best suited, maintaining their resources in a permanently productive condition, andprotecting them from any damage which would lessen theirusefulness.The land referred to as forest land may be best suited fortimber production and this is the use most generally thoughtof in connection with forestry. But other uses are includedwhich may in many cases be more important than the timberproduction use. Forest land may be more useful for Watershed protection; for recreation, including the maintaining of afavorable habitat for fish and game; for scenic attractions, suchas national or provincial parks; for grazing; and for othercombinations of uses which are beneficial to man and whichon certain areas may be more important than the timber.All of these benefits obtained from forest land are to be usedand enjoyed by all mankind—not simply hoarded. But itisimperative to see to it that the capacity to produce these benefits is not destroyed by use. Forest land must be protected andmaintained in a permanently productive condition. This is thefundamental principle underlying forestry. It is both aneconomic and a social principle.Stages in Forest DevelopmentIn British Columbia it is obvious that this goal has not beenattained—nor is it likely to be fully attained for some time,perhaps not for another several generations. The conqueringof a wilderness is a slow process and the orderly attainment ofhighest productivity of forest lands is even slower.A study of the forest history of older countries will showwhat may be expected to take place in British Columbia.Thereare four fairly well-defined stages passed through in attainingthe goal of forest development.First, in time sequence, there is the stage of exploitation.In this stage the resources seem inexhaustible.The accumulation of growth of centuries in the past has built up astorehouse of timber which will supply forest products forseveralgenerations. No one has turned a hand to accumulatethiswealth of wood. It just grew and was there. At first ithascomparatively little value because of its abundance, but itissoon attacked with vigor and exploited wastefullyand destructively.The second stage might be termed the era of protection.Markets have been developed now which have madeforestproducts more valuable, and it begins to be evident thattheresources of virgin timber have a limit. Protectionmeasuresare inaugurated to prevent, or at least to lessen, furtherlossesby fire. In this stage, however, there is still agreat deal ofWaste.In the third stage, there comes the realization of the vastpossibilities for growth on the cut-over lands. It isseen thatprotection alone is not enough to assure adequate reforestationor to maintain sufficient quantities of raw materialfor thelarge forest industry which by this time has developed. In thisstage the exploitation of visible supplies without regardforthe future is changed gradually to a policy of forest management for permanent production. Little by little the forests aremanagement to secure prompt reforestation, to correlatetheannual cut with the amount grown, and to eliminate the waste.Gradually the forest industries are geared to the utilization ofthe amount of wood which the land can grow; instead of beinga migrating industry, it becomes stabilized. The cut of timberis on a sustained-yield basis.As further markets for wood products develop,more intensive methods of silviculture are practisedin order to increasethe growth per acre or to improve the quality.Finally, in the economic and social best interests of themajority, the best use of forest land is worked out—somelands for timber production, some for watershed protection,some for recreation or scenic attraction, and others for otherforest uses—and each is managed permanently for the highestvalues.Judging by older countries which have passed through thesestages of development, this is the road we will eventuallyfollow.Development of Forestry in British ColumbiaBritish Columbia is still a young and pioneering provinceand forestry in this province is still in its early stages. Let ussee how recent the development has been.The first lumber sawn was in 1806 during the building of theHudson’s Bay post at Fort St. James, and it was sawn by hand.The first power-driven sawmill built in B. C. was at Parson’sBridge, Victoria, in 1846. It was not until the 1860’s that thelumber export trade developed as a result of the building ofsawmills on Alberni Canal and Burrard Inlet. Even by 1908 thelumber industry had hardly more than just started. The cutin that year was only a little over one-half a billion feet. Compared to all of Canada it was less than 20 per cent of the total.The total lumber cut for the 60 years up to that time was estimated to have been only 5 or 6 billion board feet. Nowadaysthat much timber is cut in 2 years. For the past quarter of acentury the cut has increased rapidly until in 1939 three andone-third billion feet of timber (log scale) was cut for lumber,pulp and allied products. The lumber cut in B. C. is now greaterthan that for all the rest of Canada.During most of this period the forest resource was considered to be practicaly inexhaustible. Naturally it was exploited with little or no regard for the future.The second, or protection stage, started with the enactmentof the Forest Act and the creation of the Forest Service in41912-13. Organized forest fire protection had its beginning atthis time. In 1918 the first comprehensive survey of the forestresources in British Columbia by Whitford and Craig showeda large reserve of timber, but pointed out the need for greatlyincreased protection. Even then it was thought that withmoderate care in guarding against fire, cut-over land wouldquickly reproduce itself and that with the large amount of old-growth timber available, coupled with a relatively small cut,the forest resource was in no way endangered.But the cut of the timber did not remain long at a comparatively low figure of 1% billion feet. The post war periodresulted in greatly increased demand for forest products, andthe cut increased by leaps and bounds. By 1926 it was around3 billion feet. During this time logging methods were changing.Starting with the introduction of the high lead in 1915, loggingwas speeded up. The old methods of bull teams, skidroads andground yarding gave way to high lead, slack lines and skidders.The forests were clean-cut and waste and destructiveness increased.B. C. Entering Third StageIt seems evident that in British Columbia we are now nearthe close of the second stage or possibly at the beginning ofthe third. We now know that the forest resource is not inexhaustible, we now know that fire protection alone is not enoughto insure perpetuation of the timber supply, and we are coming to the realization of the large potential growth possibilitieson cut-over lands adequately restocked with young trees.Attention has been focussed on these facts by the bookletentitled “The Forest Resources of British Columbia,” writtenby F. D. Mulholland and publishd by the B. C. Forest Servicein 1937. This booklet is the result of forest surveys, timbercruises and land classification work extending over the past 15years. It gives a very accurate picture of the status of thetimber resources, areas and volumes in the province today.The Forest ResourcesIn order to give you a clear picture of the situation I willhave to resort to a few statistics. We think of British Columbiaas a forested province—and it is. There seem to be trees—ofsome sort—everywhere. But a great deal of this tree-coverdarea is not commercial timber. The total area of British Columbia is 234 million acres. Roughly two-thirds of this or 154 million acres is above the timber line, barren or alpine, or supportsonly a scrub growth.Now because this is not commercial timberland, it does notmean that it is valueless. Quite the contrary. Much of it has ahigh value for minerals. Certain areas may and do have highvalue for scenic attractions, outdoor recreation, skiing andhiking. It is a tourist attraction and a sanctuary for certaingame animals and birds, and its snows and glaciers act as areservoir from which our electric power industries derive theirpower and from which our cities and towns obtain their Watersupply.The productive timber area, or rather the area capable ofproducing commercial timber, is 75 million acres. Thisisroughly one-third of the total area of the province and is50per cent greater than the productive forest area of Finland—the country about which we are reading so much these days.The area of forest land in BritishColumbia is 15 timesgreater than the area suitable foragriculture. Less than 5 million acres is classed as agriculturalland and of this a littleover a million acres are now undercultivation. These figuresindicate the basic importance of forestry,in its various phases,to the welfare of the people ofthis province.Considering again theproductive timber land, it will benoted that the lumber industryis concentrated on the lowerCoast. Nearly 90 percent of the industry is locatedhere.Obviously this is becauseof larger and better timber,goodtransportation facilities and because it iscloser to markets. The10 million acres of productive forestland located on the Coastis of relatively greater value thanthe 65 million acres in theInterior and it is these 10 million acreswhich should be andare receiving first attention.The amount of standing timberis of interest to those whowould attempt to forecasthow long the supply will last. It ismeasured in board feet. The amountfor the whole province isexpressed in billion board feet.To the ordinary person this isan astronomical term and may havelittle actual meaning. Itwill help if we illustrate using asolid timber wall as an example. If you piled up lumber in a solidwall and made thiswall 10 feet high and 10 feet wide andextended it across countryfor a mile in length, it would containonly 6-1/3 million boardfeet. You would have to keep on building thatwall for a distance of 157 miles before a billion board feetof timber wouldhave been used in its construction. Thisis about the distancefrom Vancouver to Seattle.Last year the cut of timber, logscale, was 3-1/3 billionboard feet. Some of this was made intopulp, paper and otherproducts, but if all were sawninto lumber it would be enoughto build 500 miles of wall 10 feethigh and 10 feet wide.With this yardstick in mind,it is easier to grasp the significance of the figures of standingtimber in the province.According to latest estimates thereare 254 billion board feetof merchantable timber of allspecies in British Columbia. Asimple calculation of dividingthe timber stand by the yearlycut will show that there is about 80years of timber left atthe present rate of cutting.Arithmetically this is correct, butactually the problem is far more complex.There are to manyvariables for a simple solution.For example, less than half thetotal timber is accessible—that is, only 110billion is estimatedto be located close enough to transportationfacilities so thatit could be profitably logged by present-daymethods and atpresent prices. Undoubtedly a considerable partof the timbernow considered inaccessible will become profitable tolog in10-20-30 years’ time.Another variable is the amountcut each year. Will it remain at 3 billion feet as at present?Judging from the pastit will tend to increase as long as the demandfor forest prod-ucts is steady and as long as an ample supply exists. The operation of these two variables tends to shorten the length of timethat the supply of virgin timber will last.The predicted future for a single species may be very different from that predicted for the timber supply as a whole.Douglas fir is in a more critical position than either hemlockor cedar owing to a smaller reserve supply and a larger yearlycut. The lumber industry has beea built on Douglas fir and itstill supplies over 50 per cent of the amount of timber cut eachyear. A decrease in the cut of fir may be expected within thenext 10 to 12 years. While some mills will still be cutting fir 20years or more hence, others will have to turn more and moreto hemlock or cedar and develop markets for these and otherspecies, as the supply of fir decreases.GrowthBut thus far we have not considered growth. Timber is arenewable resource. It is not like a copper or coal mine or anoil well which when mined out is gone. Trees can be renewedand they do grow. The growth on a single tree in a year seemsinfinitesimal, but when this is multiplied by several hundredtrees on an acre and that product by several million acres offorested land, the result is staggerng.Just a word of caution about growth. Net growth is takingplace only on young or immature stands of timber. In maturetimber the growth is offset by the loss from windfalls, decayor insects. Many acres of mature trees have less volume todaythan they had 50 years ago owing to this loss.Sustained YieldThe potential growth on the 10 million acres of productiveforest land on the Coast might be enough to support our presentforest industries in perpetuity. But as long as we have stagnant old-growth timber which is not making net growth, thispotential growth cannot be realized. At present there are1,200,000 acres of immature timber on the Coast which areputting on growth. The yearly growth on these areas is estimated to be 275 million board feet.Now how can we estimate how much we can afford to cutso that as growth takes place, the forest resource is renewed—in other words—so that we can continue to cut this amountindefinitely or on a sustained-yield basis?It is apparent that it will take 80 years, on the average,for Douglas fir or hemlock or spruce to grow to a merchantable size on the Coast. Theoretically our present timber standof 155 billion board feet on the Coast should be cut graduallyover that 80 year period of time. If the areas cut in 1940reproduced satisfactorily and the young trees grew normally,they should be ready to be cut again in 80 years when the lastof the virgin timber had been removed. 155 billion dividedby80 equals 1,937 million feet. Add to this the 275 million nowbeing added yearly to immature stands and the total is 2,200millions. This is the amount we should remove yearly onasustained yield basis. Last year we over-cut this amount byabout 35 per cent.Summarizing these statistics, just quoted, it is evident thatBritish Columbia has a large area of forest land suitable forthe most part only for timber growing, that the reserve ofsawtimber is still large, and that the potential growth is sufficient to meet our needs. However, the present growth isrelatively small and we are overcutting. The situation is notvery satisfactory from a long range standpoint.This brings us to a consideration of the difficulties confronting us in an attempt to work out a solution of the forest problem. On first thought it would appear that the solution is simpleand lies in limiting the yearly cut to that of the sustained yieldcapacity. Unfortunately this is not possible because timber ismostly in private hands. The people of British Columbia,through their Government, own the land and have a share inthe timber through ground rentals and returns from stumpageand royalties. But the right to cut, when and how much, is inthe hands of private individuals and companies.When the timber is cut and these lands revert back to thegovernment and a second crop matures, then we may have moreto say about limiting the cut. This is a long time in the futureand in the meantime we have more immediate and more pressing problems to consider andto solve.Problems in ForestryThe five most pressing problems in forestry today have todo with fire protection, natural reforesting of burned or cutover lands, planting of barren areas, markets for less valuablespecies and material now not used, and bound up with all ofthese—what will be the cost and who will share it? It is tosome of the aspects of these problems that I wish to directyour attention.Fire ProtectionFire is still public enemy No. 1 of B. C. forests. Fire willcontinue to be a serious hazard as long as virgin old-growthforests with their century-old accumulations of dead wood anddecaying windfalls remain, and as long as we cannot utilizethe entire tree. The fire problem may be far simpler when ourvirgin forests have been replaced by thriftily-growing immature forests and when markets have developed for material nowleft after logging to be consumed in slash fires.Contrary to popular belief, it is not the logger or lumberman who starts the bulk of the forest fires—although some severe fires are started as a result of logging operations—butit is the berry picker, the fisherman, the picncker and camper,the hiker, the land clearing settler and just the general publicwho use the highways and byways. Over 50 per cent of theforest fires in British Columbia, according to government figures, are caused by thethoughtlessness and carelessness of thegeneral public, comparedto less than 10 per cent which arecaused by the industry.I)SFor the past 10 years an average of half a million acresof forest land have been burned over annually—200,000 acresin the Vancouver district alone in 1938. It should be apparentthat we cannot grow a crop which takes 80 years or more tomature if we continue to allow our forest land area to be burnedover on an average of once in 50 years.There are many small but complex problems to be solved inthe large one of fire protection and manyof them are beingtackled by both private and public agencies.It would be impossible to go into them tonight. A solutionwill require anattack on all fronts—the prevention of occurrence offire byeducation and regulation of the public, better methods of firedetection, more and better fire-fighting equipment and a largerforce of protection officers and men. All this will cost moneyboth by logging companies and government but is absolutelyessential if we intend to solve the whole forest problem.Second GrowthClosely allied to fire protection is the problem of securingprompt and adequate second growth on cut-over or burned-over lands. It is essential that this regeneration be prompt anddense enough to fully restock those areas, if the forest landis to remain fully productive and if we wish to avoid a tremendous economic waste. Every thousand acres that remainsbarren for a decade means the loss in growth of at least 2%million board feet. Twenty years ago it was generally thoughtthat full regeneration of Douglas fir would promptly followlogging if successive fires were kept out. Surveys of cut-overland, both burned and unburned, have shown this expectationto be optimistic. Less than 50 per cent of areas logged duringthe past 20 years have restocked adequately. True, in manyareas there are some trees but it takes more than a few dozenseedlings to the acre surrounded by willow and vine maplebrush to make a good stand of timber. There should be morethan 500 seedlings to the acre, evenly spaced, to be consideredadequate second growth from the standpoint of future merchantable timber. Open-grown trees are limby and full of knotsand make very inferior lumber or other products. They shouldbe grown in dense stands to make valuable timber.Now, why have the results of second growth been so disappointing in many instances? Douglas firwhich has beenand is, now, the most important timber tree in British Columbia, does not bear seed every year. Abundant seed cropsareborne at irregular intervals of three to seven years. The seedis scattered by the wind normally a distanceof only two orthree hundred feet from a single tree, or perhaps a quarterofa mile from a block of uncut timber—and in the direction ofthe prevailing wind in September and October. If, betweenseed years, logging has pushed back the edge of uncut timber fora distance of half a mile to several miles, most of the areawillreceive no seed, and natural regeneration of the forest will bea failure.But suppose the area has receivedan adequate seed supply—there are still many adversefactors to be overcome before anadequate stand of timber is assured.Squirrels, mice, and otherrodents are very fond of Douglasfir seed. It constitutes a largepart of their diet. In a fair seedyear much of the seed may be10eaten before it has a chance to germinate. It usually takes agood seed year to feed the squirrels and have enough to reproduce the forest.Another critical period awaits the seed at the time of germination. A hot dry period in early May when the soft-stemmedseedlings are just emerging will cause sun scald and results inthe death of thousands of young fir seedlings. If some escapethis, there is the possibility of prolonged drought in later summer when the water table sinks below the penetrated depth ofroots. Even if the young tree escapes all this there is still thecompetition of faster growing willow and alder brush to overcome. When all these adverse factors are considered, is it anywonder that the cut-over areas have not restocked 100 per centor even 50 per cent?The direct cause of this failure to regenerate is man’s upsetof the balance of nature. By clear-cutting large areaswithincreased rapidity he has placed a barrier between harvest andseed time which even the abundance of nature cannot overcome.The remedy lies, at least in part, in a modification of loggingmethods to give nature a more even chance. Large areas shouldnot be clear-cut. Seed trees or patches of timber should be leftin advantageous locations to assure a source of seed for restocking the cut-over areas.Selective logging, as a fairly recent development, is notnecessarily the answer. By selective logging is meant theharvesting of the most profitable trees here and there, eitherindividually or by groups or areas, rather than taking all treesas they come regardless of value. In too many cases in theDouglas fir region it has been simply a method for removingthe highest values—or high-grading the forest—without anyconsideration for the conditions left behind. In many instancesthe results have been worse than clear-cutting. With properapplication selective logging could be beneficial.Whatever logging methods are employed in the future tocorrect this failure in regeneration, they will entail some inconvenience and expense undoubtedly, but the obstacles are nottoo great to be overcome by careful thought and planning.Surely the continued productivity of our forest land is a firstprinciple in forest policy and is worth some little trouble andexpense to attain.Artificial ReforestationThe question is sometimes raised, why rely on nature at alltd reseed the cut-over areas, Why not replant immediatelyafter logging, A project to replant all the cut-over and barrenareas would be a colossal undertaking. There are nearly amillion acres of cut-over or burned-over forest land on theCoast which are now barren. This is being added to at therate of 40,000 to 50,000 acres a year due to logging, althoughhalf of these 40,000 acres may be reforested by nature in spiteof man. Planting in this province is just getting under way.This year the Forest Service will plant approximately onemillion young trees on about 1,000 acres of cut-over land. Thecost for raising the trees and planting them amounts to tenor twelve dollars an acre. Production of young trees is to be11increased to 10 million by 1942—enough to plant 10,000 acresat a cost of $100,000. Even at this increased rate it would take100 years to reforest the areas now barren, and in the meantime many thousands of acres more would have been added tothem unless other means are taken to halt this trend.The mere physical and organization obstacles to be overcome in raising millions of young trees,transporting them tothe planting site and providing thelabor for such a short-season job as tree p1anting—to say nothing of the financialcost—is one answer as to why artificial reforestationof all cutover areas is impracticable.Planting is necessary on certain areas but it should not berelied upon entirely. It should be used only to fill in the gapsleft by nature and after man has done all else that is possibleto assist.Utilization and MarketsThus far we have considered only some of the problemspressing for solution in the field of forest production. Thereis also a vast field for research and improvement in forestutilization and in markets for forest products—particularlymarkets are needed for the lesser used species and for trees ofsmaller size. The waste of wood material in British Columbiaafter logging seems appalling, especially to anyone from Eastern Canada. As much as 20 per cent to 25 per cent of thecubic volume of the original timber stand is left on the groundto rot or create a bad fire hazard. But this is not an economicwaste if this material cannot be used profitably—and underpresent conditions it cannot be used profitably. The farmer isnot accused of waste because he burns his piles of wheat strawfor which there is no profitable market—neither should thelogger for leaving small or broken logs and tops which he couldonly harvest at a loss.It must be remembered that our local market for forestproducts is small and that 85 per cent of our production competes with that of other countries in world markets. We are9000 miles from our principal market, the United Kingdom,and transportation is a big factor in costs. Small trees whichare profitable to harvest in the Scandinavian countries becausethey are close to large consuming centers are highly unprofitable to utilize in British Columbia. Judging from past experience this situation will change as new uses and markets aredeveloped. When this time comes it will be possible to utilizethe forests more closely and there will be less material left onthe ground to rot.Markets are even now being developed for hemlock andcedar. Both of these woods have excellent properties. In thepast hemlock has been sold with difficulty and at a low price.Due to trade promotion efforts of lumbermen and governmentsthis situation is being corrected. This work should continue andbe increased not only to provide markets for “Cinderella woods”but to develop profitable uses for small material now wasted.The degree of intensity to which forestry can be practisedin any country depends upon the existence of a profitable out-let for forest products. British Columbia, then, should not besatisfied simply with efforts to protect and grow new forests,but should also see to it that these products will have a realvalue when grown.CostIn any human endeavor, sooner or later the question of costcomes up. Forestry is no exception. The full benefits ofastabilized and permanent industry will not be attained withoutsome expense. But the time to undertake this is while thereisstill a large reserve of raw material available and while financial returns are still coming in.The yearly value of forest production for the past ten yearsis in the neighborhood of 65 million dollars. One-thirdof thewage earners in B. C. are directly supportedby this industryand the entire population is indirectly affectedby prosperityor depression in this the leading basic industry inthe province.In addition the forests havereturned directly to the government an average of over 3 milliondollars yearly from royalties,rentals, stumpage, taxes, andso forth. This represents theshare we ll have in the forests.This share, during the past25 years, has amounted to a totalqf approximately 70 milliondollars. It has been pointedoutby various Royal Commissions—mostrecently by the Report ofthe RowellCommission—that this money is capital andnotrevenue in the usual sense ofthe term. As capital, then, mostof these funds should beused in protecting the forest andinmaintaining forest productivity.In the past, 75 per centof this capital—over 50 milliondollars—has been turned overto the Consolidated RevenueAccount and used for otherpurposes. Last year 37 per centofthe income to the governmentfrom forests was spent in maintaining the forest—includingthe entire cost of the forest service, research, reforestation,and fire protection.This is not a criticism of present or past governments.Without doubt in a pioneering province, funds are needed for manyother purposes. But finances are now needed forforest maintenance and are available from ordinary forest revenue.Insome provinces and countries forest expenditures matchforestreceipts dollar for dollar. In others, more money isspent thanis received in an endeavor to bringback to productivity previously denuded lands. This latter situation must notbe allowedto develop in British Columbia. To forestallit, a larger proportion of forest revenue must be put back intothe business bothby the government and by the industry.My remarks to-night were intended to convey a clear pictureof the forest situation at this time in British Columbia, but Ido not wish to sound too discouraging. There are many adverseconditions to be overcome. A start towards solving the problems has been made—much remains yet to do. I think all willagree that the land use problem in general eventually mustbesolved. The continued prosperity of the people of this provincedepends upon it.12In conclusion I would like to leavewith you the EleventhCommandment, which was suggestedin a recentarticle*by Dr.Walter C. Lowdermilk, Chief of Researchof the U.S. Soil Conservation Service. This is the commandment:“Thou shalt inheritthe holy earth as afaithful steward, conserving itsresources and productivityfrom generation to generation. Thou shaltsafeguard thy fields fromsoil erosion, andprotect thy hills fromover-grazing by thy herds, sothat thouand thy descendants mayhave abundanceforever. If any shallfail in this stewardshipof the land, thyfruitful fields shallbecome sterile stonyground and wastinggullies, and thy descendants shalldecrease and live in povertyor be destroyedfrom off the face of theearth.”*January 1940 issue, “American Forest.”14

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