Vancouver Institute Lectures

Vancouver - History and destiny [typescript] Pickstone, Harry W. 1963-11-30

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RvkVANC0UVER -. HISTORY AN]) DST;LNYA Paper Given to the Vancouver InstituteOn30th November, 1963.______t)HarryA*tontL/an.C$tlFia,nir fkpt.I have called this talk, “Vancouver-’History and flestinybecause I with to stressthe fact that any city is contlrwouslyin a state of change, Partsdotty and are rebuilt IT thereis no rebuilding, there is nothing butdecay, and in tine —no more city.This scat on the globe trhich wenow call Vancouver is thusIn a constani state of change Like anyother crj, and itscondition or state at any tizzie is the result of abalance ofnany forces. Changes in the relativestrength of theseforces result In changesto the Cit7eI suggest that we can considertwo types of envrozmtent -the physical environment, aui what wemight call the cotta). .andeconomic anvirtmmant. I believe It was Winston Churchillwho-said, Wo shape ow cities, and they,In turn, shaze us.”.I proase tonight to sx&ard.ne morethe change that we have nadeto our cities, and, to a lesser extent, the changewhIch curcities have urought on us.I believe that for all of us,and partico3nr3r for me asa planner, it is uçortasit thatsue should humble ourselves bynaliztng that uht, e norially regard asthe hiotory of ourcity is, in fact, a very, very small partof th histry of ‘thisparticular spot en the globe.—2-Millions s.n.d millionsof years ago, the earthwas formed, and atthe time of itsfcrmation there was aparticular spoton itssurface tthchwas subseeuently to becomeVancouver as wenowknow it’Tremendous physIcalohan.ges took place- upheavals, iceages, the formatIonof rivers - and then, atsome stage, lifeappeared. Awide variaty of aniSe].types rmst have roem.edhere, manyof which are now extinct. Duringall thin time,changes In the balanceof forces resultedin chenges to eitherthe physitsl shapeof the land or the livesof the inhabitants.For SXai5, when a wstrnessappeared in the earth acrust, theesnlt waa a drastic changein its physical structureChengeein the balance of sniwllife were, perhaps,clever butncc’ertheleas I.eviteble Az1nlsNtiich fa3ied to adapt1tcselves beceiss ictinct -and there Is, nerhaps,a drastIclesson for us hero!Until the appearance ofmen, with their relativelyhigherintellects arc! relatIvelymore advanced techniques, Isuppcis;sthe beaver hsr3 the greatesteffect on the appearanceof thelandsapc by the ccthnuctionof his dam.s.The native 2adianc developedcertain t.eohac ccto maketheir liros safer and.mere ceetforteble tschniueewrathewnicited the resourconthat they had at heMand enabled hemto iktve a relatively foillife. The bigcangc;s due t ma&sactivIties only date franthe arrival of ZoropeansettlersThc olc3er 1’iiiations of Europe had developedvery liluchmore advanced techniquos thanthe Indians ,and these newtecuiques, transplanted intoa relativelr virgin envirornient,rneant ouorou opportunities for exploitationWhy wae this area. attractiveto European settlernent’In the first place, the site itselfprovided a ondrfulnatural harbour The riversand sea provided fishthe hirteriand provided tirnberand gold; and other mineralswars dicovared, To the peopleof the older, more crowdedand, in soie cazes,over-exploIted countries of the old torId,thIs opportniity was a wozderfulchallenge, and the adntrosand bold, as iL as the greedy,ee here to ta-a advantage ofthese oiportunities.I xould like to study the City(using the wrdHCityin a m&ropolItau sense by examiningthree particular a.ressin eoiie detail. These threeareas are the dontwn area,Kerrisdale, and Whaller, BeforeI do that, let a just sea hatin fact, Vancouver in 1963, asa total entity, consists ofThe City itself ntaina aboutkOO,000 people, with thiietropolitan populati.o about803,000. !st of the peoplelive ii 172,000 iIagl fenily dellinghouses and the iderlive in7,000 eriente and duplexes.Some indication of thechege :.n the physicalnent ian has eda overthe pasthundred years can bdud fro th fact that the totalprivateinvetrint in .ha Oltyitself (riot the metropolitanara) at thepresent time is no worth soeth±ngof the order of$2.1 billionand a matching totalpublic investment now worth somethIng oftheorder of$700 million.In the last sernty years or o, a verycnplex industrialeconomy ha been buIlt up in theCity with a total of 1,600industrial oncern, ranging in scope fronsawmifling to precisionItrumint anifacuring, employing, in 1963, about50,000 peoplewith an annual payroll o approxiiiate1y $200 üilion.I have nocomparable figures for the reiainder of tbe metropolitan areabeyond the City boundary.Tho centra1 part ofbuildings, has about 68moving or stori.g araa very large percentageand a Lrgs modern dockthe City, with rnany high-rise conier©iaiof its area devoted ex©luively toThere is a complex rail sytsm ocouyingof the land area in the centre of the CLtçsystemThe original svaips, r&vine and iud flate have 1srgydiapeared having been filled in and put to use as buildingsites In place of the Douglas fir, hemlock,and cedar in theWest End, now there are lerge apartment buildings with manypeople living 20 feet up in the air. Thepicture of the restof the City is mainly of 3ing1e-fad1y houses,sitting, for themain part, in attrective gardens, with thIrrelated schools,parks, and stores.Induetries are lo.ated mairly aloig therail lines or alongthe river, large s-eamships cc- ind goin the hrbour, tugs movewith their log bocis and scowe in I?alse Creekand in the FraserRier, and a ltiliity of siall bGat: - tugs, yachts,LnLa5,and owr boats use the birbour. Towards the edges of themetropolItan area, the density of developmentf8113 off, and thereare stil farms and iixideveloped areasuaiting hcefu1ly for theurban tide Thewhole area is tied togetherwith a vast complex-5-of streets, lanes, bridges, tunne.s, and Just onefreewsy,and the ivportanc; of this systmn can be judgedfrom the factthat in the City itself uore than a third of the land area ±3devoted to streets and lanes.What a tremendous change this is in about a. hundred yearsA hundred years ago most of the land occupied by this citywasetill primeval forest, with its balanceof wild life. Tcdaythere is still some wild life left in the City, with theactivities going on dountaim hein perhaps theaost significant!What are these techniques which have madethis tremendouschange possible?Well, I suppose the foremost is new sourcesof motiveporer from the horse to the steam angLes,to the gasolIneengine, to electrIcity and diesels. These enablemen to move,to change and to ship goods so thatone nan can now do, withthese new machines, what thousands of men wacQ.d haiebeenrsqcired to do a hundred years ago. Our present nyof lifeis only made possible by the use of exterzsinpcwsr appliedto such things as ships, trains, trucks, automobiles, and, ofcourse, the electric elnator which makes possible high’”risebuildIngs.Second, perhaps, comes stronger, rore durable, andhardermaterials such as steel, and concrete, endblacktc - Thisagain, means that higher buildings can be buflt,that moredurable roads can be construetad on which trucksand cars cenacne at a greator speod Sewers and watenainscan ha laidwhich make possible the relatively highconcsnt,rations ofpeople who occupy these highbuildings.Then, erhp . the comnunicationsare important OriSia11y,the teLegraph was . rapid meansof coziuncation, now aJotentire:.y superaedi by thet1elephone. No’aday, it iano Inecesiary t trw1 on horseback perhapsone day to have adiscussion with omone InNew Wetinter it can be done ina matter of eon by dllingthe approprirt nuher on thetelephone Fadi and t.. — another forit of riinicat1on --has changed the pattrn of our li.Fourth. the yte of automatic comtroLs areraptlychanging our lie, We no longerearly to et,oke thofurr o-t tho .hoatat then4.t before. A icrertmt rc.u1t i theapplication of thcee sy.te!s oind’y !eadinge’:t.iaily to the plant.I can only mention few of the chanLntschnique butthis list will il1utrte mypoint.What ociJ. and onondo changes havethere ber in helast hundred years whith havechanged our i:Lvee and tepattern of cur ctiae?Firt a nne total sum of knowledge haincreased,there is a temy Ccr ach :individal to epecializemcrThis iaa that mon. arno iore Interdp ont than theiever have been lx! th pEAt.eond the technique which havebccn v1sd for buildingand for faotirin.g things are,by their very riature orexpensive than tb:o eaiir hand iethods.This meani thataiifauring fie for mple,uet be larger than theyhave been in the pastto be able to afford the cpitaiiwestient ce$!a7.Third e no etay a choo1 longer than. we have in thpast This i, 8rhaps, partly indicative f th ncesityfor a ror thorough Education to cope ifti the change inteehe1or but alco hopefuiJ.y an ii ion that menrerd education as a ans to enjoy a fuller life Thi3,of course eans cre sohol, bigger schools, and betterequipped ehoola, which, in themselves, re rnore expensiveFourth, we have iore leisure than uafve ever had in the pastFifth, we have more spending capacity n we have ovrhad in the pasteSixth, we dand iors pbli services than we ever havein he past.Seventh, we have icra variety of choice, both for workand pla3r.we have greater mobility than we have ever hadin the past both persoiel iRohility in the wey of autoobi].etravel and also greater opportunity for moving rori one jobto another, as kiils beeore not only ializod hut alsocategoriedNInth, we tend to subject ourselves to reater controlover individual tions, ither by govarents r, directlyor indire t3;y, by private oriations.Theee are juit a few of the social and economic cbaethat have taken place in the last hundred years, and thetogether with the changing t hniques which I ussed earlier,acting in bal&nc prodce the city which I La just describcd..Now, I &id like to ex.amine three çartof the metropolitanarea in se dtai1 to see vhat. thay are, how they have becomelike this w1iat frc-os have acted on thca, and hat we mayezpect them to be in the near future.I would like to take,firet of i.i. the donto-n area,This wa the eite of the original ttlement related to thehbur - It -ias s vided in a grid pattern, whose dsionssre lergely tdnec by the 66-foot iezgth of thesurveyorchain. The original nse for thi3 pert of the CatyasGranviile. It was originally related mainly t the harbour,with hips stores, warehcises, Ioons, xid with sawxille furtherelon the ost1ie.I can iginc that stumps from the felled trees would bevery iuch in cvid-nce and I would igine alsothat there w1dbe almoet contiiuualy a pall of smoke, both ron burningtupand lah, end fi ths a ta-burners of the eaumills Sailiships used the harbour and personal transportation was by horse.Wooden sd€eIk cept people out of the mud of he streets durin;winter, and th hauling of fieight wae by horac and cnrt, andpossibly even by omen in eome eases. Aboet all the buildingswere made of wood a they were elu.st€ired fairr close together.The rest of the Ciy;aa very thinly developed, with just ascatteriii of houses bee and theL’e, an a few clearings anda few coa.-it--Then canx the fire which gutted Vancouver in a very ferhours. Very quickly, however, the sne patterp, or almostthe same patterr+ was repeatedI imagine that there was a very lively social life inold Granv:Ule totmaite - the legends that have survived about‘Gsy Jaccs” give some indication of the goings-on!increasing developeent of natural rezources and suchexternal factors as the Yukon Gold Rush meant g2owth for thesettlement and led to the land boom thich took place beforethe first WarThe advent of the d.ectric streetcar exploded the patternof develoimient fran the earlier tight Imo, making possibledevelopment in !ihnt we now call suburban locations I willdiácuas thin nore whey, I talk about ICerrisdals,Steanehipa replaced sailing ships and: carried more goo&which meant bigger handling facilities and, of tourse, theconstruction of the railway - the trans-continental ra±lway -transforated Vancouver from what would be considered now anobscure West Coast village to the largest western outlet of& rapidly grouing natlat All this meant more officebuIldings - Liti—ston2y office buildinga with the then-newelectric elevators; more stores and more warehouses relatedto the railways and the harbour. The warebousco of that timewere multi-storoy haildtngs, a development made possible bymechatd,cal hoisting devIces.-10-The fingers of the streetcar lines reached out to the neulydeveloping residential areas beyond the downtoeri peninsula.Vancouver was nolonger a viflage hut became the beginnings ofa city.This period real). y set the pattern for allthat fo1lovcd.A5 vacant sites ware used up, the old wooden buildings weredeol1shed ad replaced by new ones iii mazw casesconstractodof brick which had come to Vancouver as ballast in ships Asthe City became larger, epeci&Lisation started to make itselfapparent. Certain streets developed a speoiised characterwith either stone or offices fur exsnple. Buildings becamehigher eM, with the adrent of the automobile, the horsed1sapresred very rapidly, though the streetcar lingered oncntilabout ten years ego Tuo wars and a major depression haveaffected the rate at whtch change has taken place but on thewhole the basic pattern has renained, though with a gradualshift of the centre to the west fron its onigImil locationat Main and HastingsThe period icnediotely after the athent of the stnetcarsaw a very irap’wtant change in the character of the City and Ithink that pertwp.* the next nost significant changE has comesince 39A5. There are perhaps three factors which havecontributed to tins post Second World War change.First, bet nct necessarily the meet significant, is theaitsoat universal. ownershi and usage of the motor-Scar.Second is the matter of increased speciali.mtion - bothin business actIvity and in retelling.Third i the ests1’,lislnTt of larger ndlargercorooratone , and the tmdencyfor sIler firns to dippearI would lUce to exat1min snore detail the pattrri ofthaCzatr2i Buin’s Dirtrict ae it is at this pnbitin t.iie. Thcrare to in ret’dling areas, neither ofwhich is ierkablc forit stabilIty. The mainretailing areae are r$latcdtostcres. in adit1on, we hava the boglimingsotspecial enclrz hich consist of storesof very hibJ.ys,ciel1zed type or bving a veiy pticuier flavour, and thaespecial enclaves tend to ha characteristicof iirgr ciUWe have a r1l-tiihd fi nelal/officeth.&rict, with adeveloping new office ciiztrict to the westof rrard treetWe have two iiajor rehoe areae relat.dto th rail endharbour fzciUtie of the Burrard Inlet ancto ‘,he railwayyarde of the Fale Crek area. Boththese rohoue areasare in de1ine due to the I creaseduse f tracks to thedetrit of rallwaycrd to the changes in warehousingtethiqus due &U’.ly to the fork-lifttruck 1ch ake tb&’baid1i of ‘oode ich sip1er on one level rathrthex on a1ti1c’’el syst.i. ie have three enter ieitareas -that is, the OrvrLUo Sraet area round bou’ S’idthe, theHaiig Street area roind about Main Street,aid the (iiiabetS4jttie Theat ccplxto tich u hope to ath theColiieum,fl of thee aii groiApi1ge of une - eccepttheeased en the iain streetr, tha; is, nvilla.Strt, Hastirs Street, Garia Street,nd Surard tei,The win dev&.op;antB hee occurred on these streets andthe renaming stracts arc underdeveloped and tend to berun down by cozarinon with the main atraste.The. d lopnent is still barsd on a subdvisicn patternwhich &n’alopad ariginally as a quick end ezpedient way ofcenit U) a !tC? of virgin land for houtes about eighty yearsago We ban: mari oar tecfiniques, we hive changed ourof iranapctatiou frci thehoec to the automobile, weban theticaliy civrcged our economIc and socLC etnoture, andyetthe pattern, on whIch ‘ue build our cityis stifl :crecisely thesanr a it wan in thozo: curly daysL’L!hatnhodd: be t,ct forzction of a downtown area In thesecond half of th tteatisth century? TraditiraLly, thecentre of the City is a place where peo.e ve€tfo0reletin1jspatIalizod actii4tlee ‘ntilch cannot be supported by smellcrcentres. The fact that cIties, in the mttro’pcitan sense, arebeocting larger a?td lor:er indicates tho greater daee ofspeclansarion o ail of nan’s activities and i&ine desirezerslly ‘t,o aniil. thwsel’ies of the opportiritiesofferedthese‘ezy highla:cislized ecttvIties -in addition to the highde€ree of spociaJLi2;ation, there isthe elatewb of waricty. It Is not cuespecialisation but a. verylarge nutbsr of sreeiallcations, and as aci ouec la’ger,both thdetree and the range ci spactclis&’.ions beuae geater.These activIties fall roughlyinto three categories(a) Business auc ervices(b) Shopping(c) &r? ertaivtncnt-13—All of tb&oztiiritic provide 31r30 high proportion of thetotal plOTr1ert of a lar cityThe cntri of a 1arg tity orntropolitn area, thrfor’,differs ft’ a ll towncentre ox fr a sib etropolitan.centre in this dere of pciI:tzetion andin the r.a ofvariety In thc fiald of entertainment, for av.Lc,slltown o uh ban itr oir, peihp, a cineiawhich gillgerieri’J1y bm h’-rtm ftlre nd rnay, in soriecaee, offe a1iitO anount of live entertaizment cm asoradic basis Adontom centre i11 offer crntinuou lie entdnttent ofvarioii ty and th€ cinae will tendto show iong-rm, pec:.a3.interest type, 11rne.In the field of shping, a emall totn ornrbi cr:r1fl cffr a lhited iange of good generoilyoftype , thx there ay be ae degreo of speializat1onithrelaton to a p ricnIar local need. A typoal3O-arsshopping centre il1 havo a sil dp rtent tox’ecryth,occ’ of children s clothi and, probably, agood rene of ev-’d hotasehold quipt end ectr.oe1app1.iance Ths other tore will be those thihnorilyrelate t a depri.t a;ore, tich aten e and womenalothing ete11ers, et hut here againthe etock carriedwiiJ. be less tn that carried by thekrmtown qniva1ent.The euburhai ethe UJ. not have the iiorehighly spcia1iedetoree which can only be pported bya iare onuIationon tb: centre,-]j1-iy c parI8on, th€ omtown retuiling pattern idJ.1 besvera1 rjr prtt res, each with it$ attendantgroupi oi Ied pc&1ty stores, but, in additions ii;encThv of very hghiy $pcoiLied tore ‘dhichtend o rop tow.th by their epeoiaity or bysctie eiaJ.1ocI cht.racter; for xnip1e, ntiqu tore trid to groupther, hook anc iw1 tore tend to grotlp tegether.anourer i nct yet large enough to have iany of thehighly epec lid guin and it 13 ‘posibie to Idtifyotly, Iap3, foir or five, and ease of these re vei,y weakand unoortinOffie 2eo, tend to group together for peia1t:Ione t:at i, i rera tend to bo ir the ae biildizigr in building3 cios o each other, and the banks headoffie lccaed near t ornr of Gilc ann Ha3ting3tret3 ee typic.l cd this grouIr of office hnildkge.FeIrly reontly w h’re a trend for large corpation officesto be loted in the wrn or outheatern pxt. of thdorntcn area and the B C. Hydro building t the iost aijrecogni!ahle ex of this trend. ThGre er many oths,of course auch ae the new oil company buildngr Her€ Ispositicc evidence f t growth in the si of otion1i of the ccsey elated rouping, both the store and:he iral ofie, chow th beefita that .re doriv.d £reelcee re tiiye &ich give the opportunity for face•tafaeo fer toparson chopping in the ease of the retail areasThe teletbone ba t haned tI3ia and I, for ore,dor. t helIn’ethat televiion phone, ill either.With the pattarn that we have, therefore, which consistsbasicelly of a residwtial4ype, grdiro subdivision, developedfairly intensivti ntong the main streets but relativelyundeveloped on the int;nier etnests ,with a tendency towards aweetera drift, bearing in iilnd hat seers to be the desirablepattern, end %etth the tdmksl, social, and ec’caaic changesthat we can anticipate, what sort of changes are we likely tosee in the pattern of the downtown area?Perhaps the aost inportant change that we can expect isone related to Noelal change Goventtents sleeted by theneople have found that th must take a rnore positive role ifithe dsnlqaisnt of cities. Instead of just at.owing thingsto happen, cbsnga are anticIpated, planned and controlledthitegh such civiess as zoning, to the benefit of everybody.The worst fhature of our legacy frov the past era correctedthrough what we ccii redeveiepnent. Only through Governucntaction in the font of rtsdeveioxent can the basic pattern hechanged. No matter how large a corporatIon, and no netterhoc powerful, it eaniwt exercise the necessary azthcsflty aserhe nwlttplieity ef in&hridual owners to imako the ratherdrastIc changes to this. existing obsolete pat ternSecond, I behave tcit we have at lest recotrnissd thatthe autowebiic is haaw to stay - and in creentity and I believethat we are dust begInning to unriare tend that ee shall bavt toadapt our d t.vs] puen:t patt1ern to accomcdate the automobile andin fact, to take exth’antagrs of the mobility and cnvtniencc whichit offers us.ThIrd, i believe that ir€ shall t1a develnent ofotherfox of taporttion. This will undoubtedly include sce newty of aixrft f the helicopter or ‘vertical take-off and]fldj?type, mi sorne iiproved type ofsur face transportation.te sw.js, ioorails and electronically controlledbu5s or e,arate right •ofway. I n not 3ugge4ting that wewiU eea ny of these new devicei in the relatIvl near futnre.{any of thei are 1n th sxperiuental stage and are reistIvClyuntried as yet, and it is not possible to predict clearly whateffect thee new ethods of transportationwill have, except,I believe, that it can h said in general that they will increasertiobiity tovard centre of the City, zkinit, with all ite.arsty and richneze, aceesible to people cvera iuch widergeographical area.Fourth, I beieve that we will fiee iiore sopbiticatedforof climate contro. Canopies are the oeteleuentary form cfclimate control and it surprises e that the izens of Vancouverhaven t demanded rore in the way of cenopiea.It i conceivablethat ie rnight see air cndticned malls in the dowrton area, andit is not bey.d the bounds of poseihiily that very rnich widerareas iight be copletely encioed, There hivJ.end:r bnprposals for arctic cities tetilly Lcd in plstiehiepheres.Five, I beiive tha ye will hv az ireec a renes-s ofciviciety.TIare iz ce evidence that this is already withus I bliew that cc ildix will becos morebeautifulas a xelt of conscious for ancy that we will consciczelyconstnct attractive 6oc.ws beteon themI believe also thatwil:L more ivic works of art sculptures, founteinxosiacs - in the not-toodistxit future.Six, I belhws thatwe wiil see largArIndividual buildingsor relatad groups of buildirgeacknodedgi% thelarger sizeof corporations.Seven, I think that increasedleisure will bereflected ina larger namba -and alarger varIety ofplaces ftartainmentand recreationin the centre of the City.aght, I believe thatua will see more srecializadjobopportuiitiss in the CentralBusiness met-riot,d.th feierroutine clerical JdhsElectronic devices suchas mechanicaJ.accountingsystes!s will take over manuaLaccounting, arid, Ipresume, eThall-arshwis can he pliedto ct-her ob functianThis is, presinsauly,or henef±t,not only te theenployer, b2talso to the emclvee,who can use hIs bet-tsreducation in a moreinterestIng andproducti:ve way.Nine, I believe -that we shallsee the develoyr4entof uorespecialenoiavesrof which Robson Street andChinatn aretie examples. These givecolour end variety to a city.These nine factors ofchange that I have mectioned arenot, of course, theorilQ- ones but they are the ones wtich areiost clearly apparent to me, Icannot say in sny preciseeor:of way what irnt the changess-nil take. There are, however,two general and rilated conclusionsthat I can Cra&r1rst, I belIeve that the Centralfroelneas District willnot decline, as SOIIIC peopleseem to think, hut ill,in fact,beccite increasinglyimportant -Seconds I believe that weshail, ineitabiy, have to makebasic changes to the old residentialsubdivision pattern so that.our City centre can fnnction properlyto meet the new corditiousIn a conuient and attractive way.What changcs eanhe foreseen in soea detail?First, I tIrirJ se shsfl see afreewey systemrobabifllflfliflcz quite &us tothe heart of the dcmntoer area andpossibly ieith closely r8latedperldng garages withinwalking dictaace of the placesof siployment. I believe thatthis frcarsway systei will have, within ftcright-of-way or relatedto it, seine .Lrinccned facilitiesfor rapid transit, almostec4rtainy in the §ormof fast buses - tuitlally at any rate.Second, we are at present workingon a downtawzredevelopaent project with the ideaof filling in one of theseholes between the main streets that I talkedabout, and eitth theidea of creating s new physical pattirn, a oiedginthe rhargsdceeditione of the C.BJL ahich nakeerob a new pattern soessstiyThere c.rill, ta kieps, he vertical separationbet en pa&str:tavisand vehicles; we hope that there will be plsaent andconvenientspaces within ecioh to shop andto walk; we hops that there willbe coiw&onient oar anti truck access, and thatpasting will bewell—related to t.ba brilciinge aridpedestrian 3paces; we ha?ethrough a c.preiieteiive desiwi approach,that we wiil he ah.c tocreate a visually stinnlating envirozrwint.Perhaps most iies;crt.antof all, we hope that this red€velOp!?uentproeo; nil help tcivardoa more corqnct an well integratedG.E.!).The second of ucy three areas far closeexamination isKerris&ELe. This area developed origina:tly asa result of itslocat:ton at a stopping point cn the old inter--urbanline whichwent to R±chtond, and settlenent really ot under way aboutl9lOThe general pattern of the City at that tinewas the CentralBusitesa Distriot fdtzly compactly developed, with ribbons ofdcrlopzsnt st’etehing cr4 from the streetcar andinter-urbanronter and fattening out around the stopping points.The old municipality of int Gray controlled subdivisionof land so that e srybody bad to conformto a systematic rectangulargrid system. This ny not be too approrilate forpresent orfuture use tnt it did, atany rate, provide for a complete sya tenof streets and lobs, an& nearit that servicingsee ccmparatiweiyeconomical. I will dcscrihea differeift apjrs-oa di when I coceto discuss 1haJ.iey.The shopping centre developed atthe Intersection of theinter—vrban line andUlst Avenue which was a cross—ton streetcarIine and the haiaing &reioaeat.anread out ftcm the shoppingeam)re. I believe that even up to aboutl9J4,any people stilldir] their weakly grocery shoping downtczn, aclu3oisledging theconvenience of the inter--urban line.The : p4ug centre grew, and otherfacilities developedthe arena, for exasple, churches, MagElaHigh School with a verystrong local tradition, and, after theWar, a xnunity centrewas developed. This grouping of coimirnity facilities givespeopic something they can identify themselves withMany peoplelike to regard thesclves as coming first fran Kerrlsdale andsecondly front VancouverMany people ].iked Kerrisdale so muchthat when theirchildren left hais to start new ho of theircmi and theox.ginal family home be caraetoo ar, they wished to staytharo, s4nd thns created a demand for apartaentbuildings. Theayxirtrout buildings were originally framebuildings two or threestoreys high, hot latterly higb-riea reinforced concrete buildingshave beau constructed AU this ieans a greater densityofpopulation arour..d the shopping centre end a greater demand forlausi facilitiesButt now, just as in the case of the downtown area, theautomobile starts to be come a woblem The shopping centr 3originally located alonç the streetcar itre on bJsit Avenrohadsmall stores with no oarking. Larger firms, such asthe chaSegrocery stores established themeelces with their own parkinglots, tending to ;ltt the shoppIng centre. Insteadof just afew can and streetcars runrdng along the street between thestores, we nw have a solid stream of oars and a few buses.it °e no longer ptssible to jay-walk from one side tothe otherto compare the prLcas or the quality of goods in adjacent stores,and it s itiieh lees pleasant and lees convenient generallyIn the saste ray, the increased population density due toapartetets, coupled with increased autcohIls ownership,has made the originally relatively quiet atreot. noisy and sowtstincs&arigsrous Tho gridiron euhdivtsion pattern, uith its four-wayintersections, has a daner-patnt at every intnrseotion.-21-What Is Jikely to happen to Kerrisdale?it is, undcóteiLy3a very attractive place in which tolive, very conv9satent, either by car or by bus, to the downtcwaarea (a major place of eiploynent for the peoplo living inKerrisdele), and, provicbd that it can accommodate the necessarychanges, it will maintain Itself as a pleasant place in whichto 1IVO.Increased leisure and increased spending capacity meannecessary addItions to places of entertainment, The KerrisdaleCorerunity Centre is a good one, though smail by comparisonwithsome of the ones which have recent y been erected. Longer yearsof education will mean additions to schools cr, perhaps,changesIn school boundaries to relieve the pressures on theexiatngschools Parks need to ha adepiute fcr the outdoorrecreationneeds of the sopIe lieing in the area, Scae of the olderhousEswill, undonbtec!ly be deolished to n&<n way for new aerttE.nts,and this injacti a of neidaveiowient in the area is one veryimportant way of maintaining its qualityBut what about the large majority of otherhouses which willnot be ton! dotn to iaks way foraparbients? Vaya must befound of a uraç,ing their cordnued naintenanoc, and this,frcrzthe point rf view t:f the CIty, nust. be bythe maintenance of ahigh standard of tentoo, and also by hipr’cnring thebasic patternto acccmnooat,e tea ever’present problem trioautomobile.-22—What. can be done atont the automobile and the shopping area?Well, the Uakridge Shopping Centre is one appropriate pattern fora suburban chopping centre in the autonobile age. A shoppingcentre sti’&c3dlis1ga major end htsnvny’ trwveiled streetis not anatpropniate pattorn. Soneimvrovezeiit can be Elude by theprovisici of collective parking anus ‘but this, initself, isonly a sort ofasrSrin.Sons tt.ch more drastic change involvingsurgery to the basic pattern tirill be necessary beforeany shoppingcentre of the Kanisdslc type can be as convenientand attractiveas it shoaLd be, and I av afraid I cannot beany more precise thenthis ecause I don’t Imow what the answeris at this time.it is unlIkely that any of the very specialtechniques ofweath’r protection, such as air-conditioned malls or whollyenclosed oreas sill ever be applied to areas such asKerrisdale,is conceivehir that simple devices like con muonscanopIes conid give wsat.her prot&.ctionand c€m,ve’aience in theshopping centres. Plea, just asin the case of the C.B.D.,.1 believe that the. appearance of the area tdilbecoee moreimportant to opla, and, in fact, if you lookat KerrisdaJsyou ‘will see tiS this is alreadyhappenizg. In eons of thenewer buildings uhich have beenconstructed, a great deal ofattention has bean given to theirappearance, with lIttlenaved areas in frcnt,snd eons planting.-23—In the residsntial areasthe street pattern can bechanged,and there crc nny d tics inNflrth America which have, te fact,closed off certain sectiunaof redundant streets and mada eniaUplay areas; they have divertedthe grldiran pattern in such away that through traffic is discouragedfrom the reaidert;ialareas, making tha onceagain relatively qricat andconvenient.My last area Isof a completely different characterand isoutside the City- t hsn chosenitsalley as a contrast toKerrisdaJe. fl s not intendedto be an im’idious comparisonend there are w.any rarts of the Citythat exhibit acne of thecharacteristIcs thatWhalley does though nct, perhaps, to the samedegree.Before the &tcezd War, Whalleywac a small local centre,There were ses mills along the FraserRiver and sews marginalfarising in the area.During the Depression, settlement took-place around Whalleyon lots of five to ten acres, where a mancould carry out ante very minimumsubsistence farming nith onecow, veetabies and ether small crops.The basic subdivIsion ofthe Fraser Valley is in thetraditIonal North .t”i;rIe!n quartsr-sectio- that is, a grIdof ons haiZ-iuile square - The subajvieicnhich took placeto make this euba.stwcmcs farmaing possiblewas on a very irregularbasis, the fine- and tam-acre blocksbeing mainly carved off thefrontage roads of the basic quarter-scotictns.Tue construction of the Patullo 3r14;c from New Westminsterto the south hank of ttr Frascr must haveVCfl some impetus tothit; erea hut the yre.atest impetus came when the toils wercrencwsd and the Tran Cs:d.Bichvey was rerouted througnWhafley ite&:L Thie coincided with a period of increasingland prIces in the City, and these two changes in th balanceresulted in a verr much ±uores$ed rate of ettIenent. Whatthe inter-nrban route had dons fur Kerrisdale, the automobileand the highwey link, did for Whelloy at the later date. Itwas possible for people to lIve in Whalieyand work In NewWeswlnster or Vanco&ver.A shopping centre developed, zsomshat bIgger thanlarraldsie , ami there was considerably more traffic, so thatnow there is i conflict hetweni the shopping end the trafficfaneeton along the frans-Canaoa HIghway in Whafley. ThetraffIc which made the deveic isut possible its now destroyingit as more and more resi-tctions are applied, making both theshopping end the through-traffic movement uuch less convenient.‘dhafley is tradItionally an area of lowland coat; peoplewho ccculd not afford to pay the hig}a prices forCity laud settledthere as one of tIe few alternatives open to thc.iu. There wereno sewers end ecnetimco no water snpjüy, iaater being 6btainsd onan indivIdual haste from &ielle. There was nothing like thePoim. Grey control, of s;thdisieions, and suhdls:bions wan madeinto lots of all ehapes and siens on a sporadic basis, leaving,in naxty cause, large and ebcost in cceesihis areas in the middleof the original quarter-sections.As more deivelopnivnt took place,weilis tanded to dry up, andas ni.ore people caae in, :eptic tanks becameInadequate as a nieansof sewage disposal. The coat of providing fan ilities suchaswater end sewage after de-elopment has takon :caace isextreiyhigh, partIcularly when developLnsnt is not ccmr:act. Th’s lengthof these facilities in relation to the nuber of houses servedis very great.ciUCt as in the case oi the higbay and its later effecton the chopping centre, th’a low land cost which originallyattrected psopie to live in the area has now rebounded,have to rise vc’ greatly to pay for eli the schools, sewers, watersialus and other facilitIes ehlch are necessary, vhe in fact,these could have been provided mach more cheap3y had they beencons tnzctad or planned in first Instance before thedeeiopsant took place.What is likely to happen to Whalicy?Next :renr the it*us-Canada Highway will ak;ain. be re-routedas a freeway to the north and will by’pasa Whallej ThIs willhave the effect of inking through traffic awsy. which will be ofstiW advantage to siost of tat stores, but tdfl be a how for suchtrafficoniented facilities as notele and hotels, The SurreyLsnners have pruriceed to the Nunici 1. Council a very boldand Iwaginatin plan for dealing with the situation. Theypropose that the fttain :rcad - thewessntTransCaxiada Highwaythronp;h the shepp-ing centre - should be depreeeed withmidestrian bridges across. They propose that there &ioujd bea ring road eround tue cache of theatora to give serviceand accase to parking lots.-26-They propose that there should be extensivere-plettir:and resubdivisico of the residential areas, which ,iil irNolvedemolition of existing houses in some cases, to make sitesaccessible that C; :ar,not now be subdivided and to make possiblea proper rosubdivIsion of soe of the inappropriately largelots. They prop:xie the zoning of some areas for apartmentsto pride for asreatorconcentration of people, and this, intairn, will pcovi&t ore stability to the area.TLray prcpo;ie the provision of more andconvenient parksand impro’nrsnents to the existing schools,end a betterenar4gement of streets, uning such deviceas loop streets endcuideeacs to se ure a quiet and please.ntresidential anviroraut.In addition, they propose an attractivesystem of uelaye linkingthe schools, parks, and the shoppingcentreAll of this, of ctwrse, will cost a considerableamount ofmoney and the nro:arty owners thtaselves‘will hove to bear a largepart of the cost if this is to be achieved.But, tt is the altsrnntive? A decline in quelityand adecitne in values, because loss nra developmentwill ocourPeople will tend to noire ftflher andfurther out following a.new and faster h1hwsy to new centres whereland is cheaper andwhere some of the mistakes of Whalisy willnot he made. ThIscould lead to the witla cycle tsking placeagain in anothertwenty or thirty years as new tec;hniqesend new econo’dspfl3S$5’OrCS deveboo27-I Id like to thiiik of conte of the lessons e can learnfr tho throe !. Its quite true that orne of theroblen of all of these areas woald not have arloen if therehad b nrore thght for the futuro whcn the original pattu’nwaa set and the oIgin.aI deveiop-ient took place Once land issuhdlivided an distributed eon a niibr of different esand the street and lot pattn is etablihed, it’s verydifficult and expe to chsngc the pattern. At the eestbe, it ‘e elo very true that the early develops rs cculd notpossibly have foreseen all the changes which riht take place,Dartieularly in the .atter of trañsportatio which plays suchn important art In the pattern of develojent I have saidthat we cannot foese with any degree of certainty what neor of trauspo:ctatton will develop and what effect they willhave, so I think it ov].d be etre;oiy unfair If o were tohle hc early ielope’e of our cityThis iS not w iy that we should sit back weakly endjust let things happen Wo st co the boot we cen toanticipate and plaa ftr future ehangs, and the techniquesand controls now vailble to. us are extrsaely osphiticatedcoiparsd to tIoso a:ilebl-e to r:u..er plan re. Even so,ho.wsver the te&.nol€gioai, e nani and social changes hi&htak, picc still mt,trip our capacity to cope with ther andhas this :ill lrs e eo It is certainly true in otherof hum acIity, as sU &s city deelopient.Perhaps the most 1rportant thing we have to do is torecognize the &npar signals arIsing fre change in the earlystagos ““d’o be bold and aks the necessacy changes while wec&n and before the situation becomes too had. Even inacourtr as :t and as wealthyas Canada, ire cannot afford tostrike on’ tents end rove on to a new campsite when we have fouledthe one we row occrtpy. in teriss of dollarse eannot affordto hrite off an investment of $2.1 billion in privateassetsand $700 million in publIc assets, which Is the investuentrepresented in the City of Vancouver alone,and move on toanother neit site up the Valley. The bearsand the chiroiunkswouldut thank us ithor because n havespoiled their naturalhabitat.Apart frc4a the eccro:ic reasons for adapting what we have,I believe there is scme sort of iystic attadment forTned betweenthe land and the race of people who occupyit Oar Vancouverhistut’y, as a city, is rcry short so farhut alroa4 there -kingrained in the citizen a love end attachment for theCitywhich eholtera, feeds, and entertains thcxi,h the end, Ibelieve that this nysSteattaohaant Is even stronger than thedollar investment md that people will wish to preserve ehatis host frcts the past, rectify the mistkes of tne past,andleave a he;tar City in all senses for the futuca citizens.This 15, 1 think, the gnsat lesson flcm hIstory and gives5c45 sense of vuroose o the 5OTklCtitGS tanrible struggleforachievet&it.-29-’Our pressnt age is ooiy a very email arid insIgnificantpart of a long prorsso of history and destiny. I haveekatchd in vonbrloflithe sarly history covering dl1icinsof years...eoealt, in non. cietail, zdtn the lastfifty to one huncrsd years, and I have been quite sketchyagain about a future poriod of twentflive to fifty years -Beyond this, I can only see very dimly, butI have faiththat thEI City ill continue -with rnsny raietake&, possiblywith tragedies, ‘but with many groat pertods as veil.ILW. Pickatone,City Planning, r1,artnt.

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