Vancouver Institute Lectures

Vancouver - History and destiny [typescript] Pickstone, Harry W. 1963

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R  vk VANC0UVER  -.  HISTORY AN]) DST;LNY  A Paper Given to the Vancouver Institute On 30th November, 1963. t) Harry A*tont L/an.C$tl Fia,nir fkpt. I have called this talk, “Vancouver-’ History and flestiny because I with to stress the fact that any city is contlrwously in a state of change,  Parts dotty and are rebuilt  IT there  is no rebuilding, there is nothing but decay, and in tine  —  no more city. This scat on the globe trhich we now call Vancouver is thus In a constani state of change Like any other crj, and its condition or state at any tizzie is the result of a balance of nany forces.  Changes in the relative strength of these  forces result In changes to the Cit7e I suggest that we can consider two types of envrozmtent  -  the physical environment, aui what we might call the cotta). .and economic anvirtmmant.  I believe It was Winston Churchill who  -said, Wo shape ow cities, and they, In turn, shaze us.”. I proase tonight to sx&ard.ne more the change that we have nade to our cities, and, to a lesser extent, the change whIch cur cities have urought on us. I believe that for all of us, and partico3nr3r for me as a planner, it is uçortasit that sue should humble ourselves by naliztng that uht, e norially regard as the hiotory of our city is, in fact, a very, very small part of th histry of ‘this particular spot en the globe.  —2Millions s.n.d millions of years ago, the earth was formed, and at the time of its fcrmation there was a particular spot on its surface tthch was subseeuently to become Vancouver as we now know it’ Tremendous physIcal ohan.ges took place ages, the formatIon of rivers appeared.  -  -  upheavals, ice  and then, at some stage, life  A wide variaty of aniSe]. types rmst have roem.ed  here, many of which are now extinct.  During all thin time,  changes In the balance of forces resulted in chenges to either the physitsl shape of the land or the lives of the inhabitants. For SXai5, when a wstrness appeared in the earth a crust, the esnlt waa a drastic change in its physical structure  Chengee  in the balance of sniwl life were, perhaps, clever but 1 Az1nls Ntiich fa3ied to adapt  ncc’ertheleas I.eviteble tcselves beceiss ictinct  -  and there Is, nerhaps, a drastIc  lesson for us hero! Until the appearance of men, with their relatively higher intellects arc! relatIvely more advanced techniques, I suppcis;s the beaver hsr3 the greatest effect on the appearance of the  landsapc by the ccthnuction of his dam.s. The native 2adianc developed certain t.eohac cc to make  their liros safer and. mere ceetforteble  tschniuee  wrath  ewnicited the resourcon that they had at heM and enabled hem to iktve a relatively foil life.  The big cangc;s due t  ma&s  activIties only date fran the arrival of Zoropean settlers  Thc olc3er  1’iiiations of Europe had developed very liluch  more advanced techniquos than the Indians ,and these new tecuiques, transplanted into a relativelr virgin envirornient, rneant ouorou opportunities for exploitation  Why wae this area. attractive to European settlernent’ In the first place, the site itself provided a ondrful natural harbour  The rivers and sea provided fish  the hirteriand provided tirnber and gold; wars dicovared,  and other minerals  To the people of the older, more crowded  and, in soie cazes, over-exploIted countries of the old torId, thIs opportniity was a wozderful challenge, and the adntros and bold, as iL as the greedy, ee here to ta-a advantage of these oiportunities. I xould like to study the City (using the wrd HCity  in a m&ropolItau sense  in eoiie detail.  by examining three particular a.ress  These three areas are  Kerrisdale, and Whaller,  the dontwn area,  Before I do that, let a just sea hat  in fact, Vancouver in 1963, as a total entity, consists of The City itself  ntaina about kOO,000 people, with th  iietropolitan populati.o about 803,000. live ii 172,000 iIagl  live in 7 ,000  !st of the people  fenily delling houses and the ider  eriente and duplexes.  Some indication of the  chege :.n the physical nent ian has eda over the past hundred years can b dud fro th fact that the total private invetrint in .ha Olty itself (riot the metropolitan ara) at the present time is no worth soeth±ng of the order of $2.1 billion  and a matching total public investment now worth somethIng of the order of $700 million.  In the last sernty years or o, a very cnplex industrial economy ha been buIlt up in the City with a total of 1,600 industrial oncern, ranging in scope fronsawmifling to precision Itrumint anifacuring, employing, in 1963, about 50,000 people with an annual payroll o approxiiiate1y $200 üil ion.  I have no  comparable figures for the reiainder of tbe metropolitan area beyond the City boundary. Tho centra1 part of the City, with rnany high-rise conier©iai buildings, has about 68 of its area devoted ex©luively to moving or stori.g ara  There is a complex rail sytsm ocouying  a very large percentage of the land area in the centre of the CLtç and a  Lrgs modern dock system  The original svaips, r&vine and iud flate have 1srgy diapeared sites  having been filled in and put to use as building  In place of the Douglas fir, hemlock,and cedar in the  West End, now there are lerge apartment buildings with many people living 20 feet up in the air.  The picture of the rest  of the City is mainly of 3ing1e-fad1y houses, sitting, for the main part, in attrective gardens, with thIr related schools, parks, and stores. Induetries are lo.ated mairly aloig the rail lines or along the river, large s-eamships cc- ind go in the hrbour, tugs move with their log bocis and scowe in I?alse Creek and in the Fraser Rier, and a  ltiliity of siall bGat:  and owr boats  use the birbour.  -  tugs, yachts,  LnLa5,  Towards the edges of the  metropolItan area, the density of development f8113 off, and there are stil farms and iixideveloped areas uaiting hcefu1ly for the urban tide  The whole area is tied together with a vast complex  -5of streets, lanes, bridges, tunne.s, and Just one freewsy,  and the ivportanc; of this systmn can be judged from the fact that in the City itself uore than a third of the land area  ±3  devoted to streets and lanes. What a tremendous change this is in about a. hundred years A hundred years ago most of the land occupied by this city was etill primeval forest, with its balance of wild life.  Tcday  there is still some wild life left in the City, with the activities going on dountaim hein perhaps the aost significant! What are these techniques which have made this tremendous change possible? Well, I suppose the foremost is new sources of motive porer  from the horse to the steam angLes, to the gasolIne  engine, to electrIcity and diesels.  These enable men to move,  to change and to ship goods so that one nan can now do, with these new machines, what thousands of men wacQ.d haie been rsqcired to do a hundred years ago.  Our present ny of life  is only made possible by the use of exterzsin pcwsr applied to such things as ships, trains, trucks, automobiles, and, of  course, the electric elnator which makes possible high’”rise buildIngs. Second, perhaps, comes stronger, rore durable, and harder materials such as steel, and concrete, end blacktc  -  This  again, means that higher buildings can be buflt, that more durable roads can be construetad on which trucks and cars cen acne at a greator speod  Sewers and watenains can ha laid  which make possible the relatively high concsnt,rations of people who occupy these high buildings.  Then, erhp the teLegraph was  the comnunications are important  .  .  OriSia11y,  rapid means of coziuncation, now aJot No’aday, it ia no I  lephone. t e entire:.y superaedi by the 1  necesiary t trw1 on horseback perhaps one day to have a it can be done in  discussion with omone In New Wetinter  a matter of eon by dlling the approprirt nuher on the telephone  Fadi and t  ..  —  another forit of  riinicat1on  --  has changed the pattrn of our li. Fourth. the  changing our lie, furr  yte of automatic comtroLs are raptly We no longer  early to et,oke tho  o-t tho .hoatat the n4.t before.  A icre  rtmt rc.u1t i the application of thcee sy.te!s o ind’y !eading e’:t.iaily to the  plant.  few of the chanLn tschnique but  I can only mention  this list will il1utrte my point. onondo changes have there ber in he  What ociJ. and  last hundred years whith have changed our i:Lvee and te pattern of cur ctiae?  Firt a nne total sum of knowledge ha increased, there is a temy Ccr  ach :individal to epecialize mcr  This iaa that mon. ar no iore Interdp  ont than thei  ever have been lx! th pEAt. eond and for  the technique which have bccn  v1sd for building  faotirin.g things are, by their very riature or  expensive than tb:o eaiir hand iethods.  aiifauring fie  for  This meani that  mple, uet be larger than they  have been in the past to be able to afford the cpitai iwestient  ce$!a7.  e no etay a choo1 longer than. we have in th  Third past  This i,  8rhaps, partly indicative f th ncesity  for a ror thorough Education to cope ifti the change in teehe1or but alco  hopefuiJ.y  an ii  ion that men  rerd education as a ans to enjoy a fuller life of course  Thi3,  eans cre sohol, bigger schools, and better  equipped ehoola, which, in themselves, re rnore expensive Fourth, we have iore leisure than uafve ever had in the past Fifth, we have more spending capacity  n we have ovr  had in the paste Sixth, we dand iors pbli services than we ever have in he past.  Seventh, we have icra variety of choice, both for work and pla3r. we have greater mobility than we have ever had in the past  both persoiel iRohility in the wey of autoobi].e  travel and also greater opportunity for moving rori one job to another, as kiils beeore not only  ializod hut also  categoried NInth, we tend to subject ourselves to reater control over individual  tions, ither by govarents r, directly  or indire t3;y, by private oriations.  Theee are juit a few of the social and economic cbae that have taken place in the last hundred years, and the together with the changing t  acting in bal&nc  hniques which I  ussed earlier,  prodce the city which I La just describcd..  Now, I &id like to ex.amine three çart of the metropolitan area in se dtai1 to see vhat. thay are, how they have become like this  w1iat frc-os have acted on thca, and hat we may  ezpect them to be in the near future.  I would like to take,  firet of i.i. the donto-n area, This wa the eite of the original  hbur  It -ias s  -  sre lergely chain.  ttlement related to the  vided in a grid pattern, whose dsions  tdnec by the 66-foot iezgth of the surveyor  The original nse for thi3 pert of the Caty as  Granviile.  It was originally related mainly t the harbour,  with hips stores, warehcises, Ioons, xid with sawxille further elon the ost1ie. I can iginc that stumps from the felled trees would be very iuch in cvid-nce and I would igine also that there w1d be almoet contiiuualy a pall of smoke, both ron burning tup and lah, end fi ths a ta-burners of the eaumills  Saili  ships used the harbour and personal transportation was by horse. Wooden sd€eIk  cept people out of the mud of he streets durin;  winter, and th hauling of fieight wae by horac and cnrt, and possibly even by omen in eome eases.  Aboet all the buildings  were made of wood a they were elu.st€ired fairr close together. The rest of the Ciy;aa very thinly developed, with just a scatteriii of houses bee and theL’e, an a few clearings a few coa.  and  -it--  Then canx the fire which gutted Vancouver in a very fer hours.  Very quickly, however, the sne patterp, or almost  the same patterr+ was repeated I imagine that there was a very lively social life in old Granv:Ule totmaite  -  the legends that have survived about  ‘Gsy Jaccs” give some indication of the goings-on! increasing developeent of natural rezources and such external factors as the Yukon Gold Rush meant g2owth for  the  settlement and led to the land boom thich took place before the first War The advent of the d.ectric streetcar exploded the pattern of develoimient fran the earlier tight Imo, making possible development in !ihnt we now call suburban locations  I will  diácuas thin nore whey, I talk about ICerrisdals, Steanehipa replaced sailing ships and: carried more goo& which meant bigger handling facilities and, of tourse, the construction of the railway  -  the trans-continental ra±lway  -  transforated Vancouver from what would be considered now an obscure West Coast village to the largest western outlet of &  rapidly grouing natlat  buIldings  -  All this meant more office  Liti—ston2y office buildinga with the then-new  electric elevators;  more stores and more warehouses related  to the railways and the harbour.  The warebousco of that time  were multi-s toroy haildtngs, a development made possible by mechatd,cal hoisting devIces.  -10The fingers of the streetcar lines reached out to the neuly developing residential areas beyond the downtoeri peninsula. Vancouver was no longer a viflage hut became the beginnings of a city. This period real). y set the pattern for all that fo1lovcd. 5 vacant sites ware used up, the old wooden buildings were A deol1shed ad replaced by new ones  iii  mazw cases constractod  of brick which had come to Vancouver as ballast in ships  As  the City became larger, epeci&Lisation started to make itself apparent.  Certain streets developed a speoiised character  with either stone or offices fur exsnple.  Buildings became  higher eM, with the adrent of the automobile, the horse d1sapresred very rapidly, though the streetcar lingered on cntil about ten years ego  Tuo wars and a major depression have  affected the rate at whtch change has taken place but on the whole the basic pattern has renained, though with a gradual shift of the centre to the west fron its onigImil location at Main and Hastings The period icnediotely after the athent of the stnetcar saw a very irap’wtant change in the character of the City and I think that pertwp.* the next nost significant changE has come since 39A5.  There are perhaps three factors which have  contributed to tins post Second World War change.  First, bet nct necessarily the meet significant, is the aitsoat universal. ownershi  and usage of the motor-Scar.  Second is the matter of increased speciali.mtion in business actIvity and in retelling.  -  both  Third i the ests1’,lislnTt of larger nd larger corooratone  ,  the tmdency for sIler firns to dippear  and  I would lUce to exat1m in snore detail the pattrri of tha Thcr  Czatr2i Buin’s Dirtrict ae it is at this pnbit in t.iie.  are to in ret’dling areas, neither of which is ierkablc for The main retailing areae are r$latcd to  it stabilIty.  in adit1on, we hava the boglimings ot  stcres.  very hibJ.y  special enclrz hich consist of stores of s,ciel1zed type or bving a veiy p  ticuier flavour, and thae  special enclaves tend to ha characteristic of iirgr ciU We have a r1l-tiihd fi  nelal/office th.&rict, with a  developing new office ciiztrict to the west of  rrard treet  rehoe areae relat.d to th rail end  We have two iiajor  harbour fzciUtie of the Burrard Inlet anc to ‘,he railway yarde of the Fale Crek area.  Both these  rohoue areas  are in de1ine due to the I creased use f tracks to the detrit of rallwayc  rd to the changes in warehousing  tethiqus due &U’.ly to the fork-lift truck 1ch ake tb&’ baid1i of ‘oode ich sip1er on one level rathr thex on a 1ti1c’’el syst.i.  ieit areas  ie have three enter  -  that is, the Or vrLUo Sraet area round bou’ S’id the, the  Haiig Street area roind about Main Street, aid the  (ii  iabetS4jttie Theat ccplx to tich u hope to ath the Coliieum,  fl of thee aii groiApi1ge of une  -  eccept the  eased en the iain streetr, tha; is, nvilla .Strt, Hastirs Street, Garia Street, nd Surard tei,  The win dev&.op;antB hee occurred on these streets and the renaming stracts arc underdeveloped and tend to be run down by cozarinon with the main atraste.  The. d  &n’alopad ariginally as a quick end ezpedient way of  which  cenit ago  lopnent is still barsd on a subdvisicn pattern  U)  a  !tC?  We ban:  of virgin land for houtes about eighty years  mari oar tecfiniques, we hive changed our  of iranapctatiou frci the hoec to the automobile, we ban theticaliy civrcged our economIc and socLC etnoture, and yet the pattern, on whIch ‘ue build our city is stifl :crecisely the sanr a it wan in thozo: curly days  L’L!hat  nhodd: be  t,ct forzction of a downtown  second half of th tteatisth century?  area In the  TraditiraLly, the  centre of the City is a place where peo.e ve€t  fo0  reletin1j  spatIal izod actii4tlee ‘ntilch cannot be supported by smellcr centres.  The fact that cIties, in the mttro’pcitan sense, are  beocting larger a?td lor:er indicates tho greater daee of speclansarion o ail of nan’s activities and i&in e desire zerslly ‘t,o aniil. thwsel’ies of the opportirities offered these ‘ezy highl a:  cislized ecttvIties  in addition to the high de€ree of the elatewb of  waricty.  -  spociaJLi2;ation,  there is  It Is not cue specialisation but a. very  large nutbsr of sreeiallcations, and as a ci  ouec la’ger,  both th detree and the range ci spactclis&’.ions beuae geater.  These activIties fall roughly into three categories (a)  Business auc ervices  (b)  Shopping  (c)  &r? ertaivtncnt  -13— All of tb&o ztiiritic provide 31r30  high proportion of the  total plOTr1ert of a lar city The cntri of a 1arg tity or ntropolitn area, thrfor’, differs ft’ a ll town centre ox fr a sib etropolitan. centre in this dere of pciI:tzetion and in the r.a of In thc fiald of entertainment, for av.Lc, sll  variety town o uh  ban  itr oir, peihp, a cineia which gill  gerieri’J1y bm h’-rtm ftlre nd rnay, in sorie caee, offe a 1iitO anount of live entertaizment cm a soradic basis dontom centre i11 offer crntinuou lie ent  A  dnttent of  varioii ty and th€ cinae will tend to show iong-rm, pec:.a3. interest type, 11rne.  In the field of shping, a emall totn or nrbi cr:r 1fl cffr a lhited iange of good generoily of type  ,  thx  there ay be ae degreo of speializat1on ith  relaton to a p ricnIar local need.  A typoal 3O-ars  shopping centre il1 havo a sil dp rtent tox’e cryth, occ’  of children s clothi and, probably, a  good rene of ev-’d hotasehold quipt end ectr.oe1 app1.iance  Ths other tore will be those thih norily  relate t a depri.t a;ore, tich a ten e and women alothing ete11ers, et  hut here again the etock carried  wiiJ. be less tn that carried by the krmtown qniva1ent. The euburhai ethe UJ. not have the iiore highly spcia1ied etoree which can only be on tb: centre,  pported by a iare onuIation  1 -]j parI8on, th€ omtown retuiling pattern idJ.1 be  iy c  prtt res, each with it$ attendant  svera1 rjr  groupi oi Ied pc&1ty stores, but, in additions ii; encThv of very hghiy $pcoiLied tore ‘dhich tend o rop tow. th by their epeoiaity or by 1ocI cht.racter; ther, hook anc  eiaJ.  sctie  for xnip1e, ntiqu tore trid to group iw1  tore tend to  grotlp  tegether.  anourer i nct yet large enough to have iany of the highly epec  lid guin and it 13 ‘posibie to Idtify  Iap3, foir or five, and ease of these re vei,y weak  otly,  and unoortin Offie 2eo, tend to group together for peia1 t:Ione  t:at i, i  rera tend to bo ir the ae biildizig  r in building3 cios o each other, and the banks  head  offie lccaed near t ornr of Gilc ann Ha3ting 3tret3 ee typic.l cd this grouIr of office hnildkge. FeIrly reontly w h’re a trend for large corpation offices to be loted in the wrn or outheatern pxt. of th dorntcn area and the B C. Hydro building t the iost aij recogni!ahle ex of course  of this trend.  ThGre er many oths,  auch ae the new oil company buildngr  positicc evidence f t growth in the si of 1i of the ccsey  Her€ Is otion  elated rouping, both the store and  :he iral ofie, chow th beefita that .re doriv.d £re elcee re  tiiye &ich give the opportunity for face•tafae o fer topar son chopping in the ease of the retail areas  The teletbone ba t haned tI3ia that televiion phone, ill either.  and I, for ore , dor. t helIn’e  With the pattarn that we have, therefore, which consists basicelly of a residwtial4ype, grdiro subdivision, developed fairly intensivti ntong the main streets but relatively  undeveloped on the int;nier etnests ,with a tendency towards a weetera drift, bearing in iilnd hat seers to be the desirable pattern, end %etth the tdmksl, social, and ec’caaic changes that we can anticipate, what sort of changes are we likely to see in the pattern of the downtown area? Perhaps the aost inportant change that we can expect is  one related to Noelal change  Goventtents sleeted by the  neople have found that th must take a rnore positive role ifi  the dsnlqaisnt of cities.  Instead of just at.owing things  to happen, cbsnga are anticIpated, planned and controlled thitegh such civiess as zoning, to the benefit of everybody. The worst fhature of our legacy frov the past era corrected through what we ccii redeveiepnent.  Only through Governucnt  action in the font of rtsdeveioxent can the basic pattern he changed.  No matter how large a corporatIon, and no netter  hoc powerful, it eaniwt exercise the necessary azthcsflty aser he nwlttplieity ef in&hridual owners to imako the rather drastIc changes to this. existing obsolete pat tern  Second, I behave tcit we have at lest recotrnissd that the autowebiic is haaw to stay  -  and in creentity  and I believe  that we are dust begInning to unriare tend that ee shall bavt to adapt our d t.vs] puen:t pat t ern to accomcdate the automobile and 1  in fact, to take exth’antagrs of the mobility and it offers us.  cnvtniencc which  ThIrd, i believe that ir€ shall fox of taporttion.  t1a develnent of other  This will undoubtedly include sce new  ty of aixrft f the helicopter or ‘vertical take-off and ]fldj?  type, mi sorne iiproved type of sur face transportation. te  sw.js, ioorails  bu5s or e,arate right  and electronically controlled I n not 3ugge4ting that we  •ofway.  wiU eea ny of these new devicei in the relatIvl near futnre. {any of thei are 1n th sxperiuental stage and are reistIvCly untried as yet, and it is not possible to predict clearly what  effect thee new ethods of transportation will have, except, I believe, that it can h said in general that they will increase rtiobiity tovard  centre of the City, zkin it, with all ite  .arsty and richneze, aceesible to people cver a iuch wider  geographical area. Fourth, I beieve that we will fiee iiore of climate contro.  sopbiticated  for  Canopies are the oet eleuentary form cf  climate control and it surprises e that the  izens of Vancouver  haven t demanded rore in the way of cenopiea.  It i conceivable  that  ie  rnight see air  cndticned malls in the dowrton area, and  it is not bey.d the bounds of poseihiily that very rnich wider areas iight be copletely encioed,  There  prposals for arctic cities tetilly  Lcd in plstie  hiv  J.end:r bn  hiepheres. Five, I beiive tha civic iety.  us  ye  will hv az ireec a renes-s of  TIare iz ce evidence that this is already with  I bliew that cc  as a xelt of conscious  ildix  will becos more beautiful  for ancy that we will consciczely  constnct attractive 6oc.ws beteon them wil:L xosiacs  -  I believe also that  more ivic works of art sculptures, fountein in the not-toodistxit future.  Six, I belhws that we wiil see largAr Individual buildings or relatad groups of buildirge acknodedgi% the larger size  of corporations. Seven, I think that increased leisure will be reflected in a larger namba -and a larger varIety of places  ftartainment  and recreation in the centre of the City. aght, I believe that ua will see more srecializad job  opportuiitiss in the Central Business met-riot, d.th feier routine clerical Jdhs  Electronic devices such as mechanicaJ.  accounting systes!s will take over manuaL accounting, arid, I presume, eThall-ar  shwis can he plied to ct-her ob functian  This is, presinsauly, or henef±t,not only te the enployer, b2t also to the emclvee, who can use hIs bet-tsr education in a more interestIng and producti:ve way.  Nine, I believe -that we shall see the develoyr4ent of uore special enoiavesr of which Robson Street and Chinatn are tie examples.  These give colour end variety to a city.  These nine factors of change that I have mectioned are not, of course, the orilQ- ones but they are the ones wtich are I cannot say in sny precise eor:  iost clearly apparent to me,  of way what irnt the changes s-nil take.  There are, however,  two general and rilated conclusions that I can Cra&r 1rst, I belIeve that the Central froelneas District will not decline, as  SOIIIC  people seem to think, hut ill, in fact,  beccite increasingly important  -  Seconds I believe that we shail, ineitabiy, have to make basic changes to the old residential subdivision pattern so that. our City centre can fnnction properly to meet the new corditious In a conuient and attractive way.  What changcs ean he foreseen in soea detail? robabi  First, I tIrirJ se shsfl see a freewey system fllflfliflcz  quite &us  to the heart of the dcmntoer area and  possibly ieith closely r8lated perldng garages within I believe that  walking dicta ace of the places of siployment.  this frcarsway systei will have, within ftc right-of-way or related to it, seine .Lrinccned facilities for rapid transit, almost ec4rtainy in the §orm of fast buses  -  tuitlally at any rate.  Second, we are at present working  on a  downtawz  redevelopaent project with the idea of filling in one of these holes between the main streets that I talked about, and eitth the idea of creating s new physical pattirn, a  oiedgin the rhargsd  ceeditione of the C.BJL ahich nake erob a new pattern soessstiy There c.rill,  ta kieps,  and vehicles;  he vertical separation bet  en pa&str:tavis  we hope that there will be plsaent and convenient  spaces within ecioh to shop and to walk;  we hops that there will  be coiw&onient oar anti truck access, and that pasting will be well—related to t.ba brilciinge arid pedestrian 3paces;  we ha?e  through a c.preiieteiive desiwi approach, that we wiil he ah.c to  create a visually stinnlating envirozrwint.  Perhaps most iies;crt.ant  of all, we hope that this red€velOp!?uent proeo; nil help tcivardo a more corqnct an well integrated G.E.!).  The second of ucy three areas far close examination is Kerris&ELe.  This  area developed origina:tly as a result of its  locat:ton at a stopping point cn the old inter--urban line which went to R±chtond, and settlenent really ot under way about l9lO The general pattern of the City at that tine was the Central Busitesa Distriot  fdtzly compactly developed, with ribbons of  dcrlopzsnt st’etehing cr4 from the streetcar and inter-urban  ronter and fattening out around the stopping points. The old municipality of int Gray controlled subdivision of land so that e srybody bad to conform to a systematic rectangular grid system.  This ny not be too approrilate for present or  future use tnt it did, at any rate, provide for a complete sya ten  of streets and lobs, an& nearit that servicing see ccmparatiweiy economical.  I will dcscrihe a differeift apjrs-oa di when I coce  to discuss 1haJ.iey. The shopping centre developed at the Intersection of the  inter—vrban line and Ulst Avenue which was a cross—ton streetcar Iine and the haiaing &reioaeat. anread out ftc m the shopping eam)re.  I believe that even up to about l9J , any people still 4  dir] their weakly grocery sho ping downtczn, aclu3oisledging the convenience of the inter--urban line. The  :  p u 4 g centre grew, and other facilities developed  the arena, for exasple, churches, MagEla High School with a very strong local tradition, and, after the War, a xnunity centre  was developed.  This grouping of coimirnity facilities gives  peopic something they can identify themselves with  Many people  like to regard thesclves as coming first fran Kerrlsdale and secondly front Vancouver  Many people ].iked Kerrisdale so much that when their children left hais to start new ho of their cmi and the ox.ginal family home be carae too  ar, they wished to stay  nd thns created a demand for apartaent buildings. 4 tharo, s  The  ayxirtrout buildings were originally frame buildings two or three  storeys high, hot latterly higb-riea reinforced concrete buildings have beau constructed  AU this ieans a greater density of  population arour..d the shopping centre end a greater demand for lausi facilities  Butt now, just as in the case of the downtown area, the automobile starts to be come a woblem  The shopping centr 3  originally located alonç the streetcar itre on bJsit Avenro had small stores with no oarking. grocery stores  Larger firms, such as the chaSe  established themeelces with their own parking  lots, tending to ;ltt the shoppIng centre.  Instead of just a  few can and streetcars runrdng along the street between the stores, we nw have a solid stream of oars and a few buses. it °e no longer ptssible to jay-walk from one side to the other to compare the prLcas or the quality of goods in adjacent stores, and it s itiieh lees pleasant and lees convenient generally In the saste ray, the increased population density due to apartetets, coupled with increased autcohIls ownership, has made the originally relatively quiet atreot. noisy and sowtstincs  &arigsrous  Tho gridiron euhdivtsion pattern, uith its four-way  intersections, has a daner-patnt at every intnrseotion.  -21-  What Is Jikely to happen to Kerrisdale? it is, undcóteiLy 3 a very attractive place in which to live, very conv9satent, either by car or by bus, to the downtcwa area (a major place of eiploynent for the peoplo living in Kerrisdele), and, provicbd that it can accommodate the necessary changes, it will maintain Itself as a pleasant place in which to 1IVO. Increased leisure and increased spending capacity mean necessary addItions to places of entertainment,  The Kerrisdale  Corerunity Centre is a good one, though smail by comparison with some of the ones which have recent y been erected.  Longer years  of education will mean additions to schools cr, perhaps, changes In school boundaries to relieve the pressures on the exiatng schools  Parks need to ha adepiute fcr the outdoor recreation  needs of the sopIe lieing in the area,  Scae of the older housEs  will, undonbtec!ly be deolished to n&<n way for new aerttE.nts, and this injacti a of nei daveiowient in the area is one very important way of maintaining its quality But what about the large majority of other houses which will not be ton! dotn found of a  to  iaks way for aparbients?  Vaya must be  uraç,ing their cordnued naintenanoc, and this, frcrz  the point rf view high standard of  t:f  the CIty, nust. be by the maintenance of a  ten too,  and also by hipr’cnring the basic pattern  to acccmnooat,e tea ever’present problem  trio automobile.  -22— What. can be done atont the automobile and the shopping area? Well, the Uakridge Shopping Centre is one appropriate pattern for a suburban chopping centre in the autonobile age.  A shopping  centre sti’&c3dlis g a major end htsnvny’ trwveiled street is not an 1 atpropniate pattorn.  Sone imvrovezeiit can be Elude by the  provisici of collective parking anus ‘but this, in itself, is only a sort of asrSrin.  Sons tt.ch more drastic change involving  surgery to the basic pattern tirill be necessary before any shopping centre of the Kanisdslc type can be as convenient and attractive as it shoaLd be, and I av afraid I cannot be any more precise then this ecause I don’t Imow what the answer is at this time. it is unlIkely that any of the very special techniques of weath’r protection, such as air-conditioned malls or wholly enclosed oreas sill ever be applied to areas such as Kerrisdale, is conceivehir that simple devices like con muons canopIes conid give wsat.her prot&.ction and c€m,ve’aience in the shopping centres.  Plea, just as in the case of the C.B.D.,  .1 believe that the. appearance of the area tdil becoee more important to opla, and, in fact, if you look at KerrisdaJs you ‘will see tiS this is already happenizg.  In eons of the  newer buildings uhich have been constructed, a great deal of attention has bean given to their appearance, with lIttle naved areas in frcnt,snd eons planting.  -23—  In the residsntial areas the street pattern can be changed, and there crc nny d tics in Nflrth America which have, te fact, closed off certain sectiuna of redundant streets and mada eniaU play areas;  they have diverted the grldiran pattern in such a  way that through traffic is discouraged from the reaidert;ial areas, making tha once again relatively qricat and convenient. My last area Is of a completely different character and is outside the CityKerrisdaJe.  t hsn chosen itsalley as a contrast to  fl s not intended to be an im’idious comparison  end there are w.any rarts of the City that exhibit acne of the characteristIcs that Whalley does though nct, perhaps, to the same degree. Before the &tcezd War, Whalley wac a small local centre, There were ses mills along the Fraser River and sews marginal farising in the area.  During the Depression, settlement took-  place around Whalley on lots of five to ten acres, where a man could carry out ante very minimum subsistence farming nith one cow, veetabies and ether small crops. The basic subdivIsion of the Fraser Valley is in the traditIonal North .t”i;rIe!n quartsr-sectio of ons haiZ-iuile square  -  -  that is, a grId  The subajvieicn hich took place  to make this euba.stwcmcs farmaing possible was on a very irregular basis, the fine- and tam-acre blocks being mainly carved off the frontage roads of the basic quarter-sc otictns.  Tue  construction of the Patullo 3r14;c from New Westminster  to the south hank of ttr Frascr must have  VCfl  some impetus to  thit; erea hut the yre.atest impetus came when the toils werc rencwsd and the Tran Whafley ite&:L  Cs:d.Bichvey was rerouted througn  Thie coincided with a period of increasing  land prIces in the City, and these two changes in th balance resulted in a verr much ±uores$ed rate of ettIenent.  What  the inter-nrban route had dons fur Kerrisdale, the automobile and the highwey link, did for Whelloy at the later date.  It  was possible for people to lIve in Whaliey and work In New Weswlnster or Vanco&ver. A shopping centre developed, zsomshat bIgger than larraldsie  ,  now there is  ami there was considerably more traffic, so that i  conflict hetweni the shopping end the traffic  faneeton along the frans-Canaoa HIghway in Whafley.  The  traffIc which made the deveic isut possible its now destroying it as more and more resi-tctions are applied, making both the shopping end the through-traffic movement uuch less convenient. ‘dhafley is tradItionally an area of low land coat;  people  who ccculd not afford to pay the hig}a prices for City laud settled there as one of tIe few alternatives open to thc.iu.  There were  no sewers end ecnetimco no water snpjüy, iaater being 6btainsd on an indivIdual haste from &ielle.  There was nothing like the  Poim. Grey control, of s;thdisie ions, and suhdls:b ions wan made into lots of all ehapes and siens on a sporadic basis, leaving, in naxty cause, large and ebcost in cceesihis areas in the middle of the original quarter-sections.  As more deivelopnivnt took place, weilis tanded to dry up, and as ni.ore people caae in, :eptic tanks became Inadequate as a nieans  of sewage disposal.  The coat of providing fan ilities such as  water end sewage after de-elopment has takon :caace is extrei y high, partIcularly when developLnsnt is not ccmr:act.  Th’s length  of these facilities in relation to the nuber of houses served is very great. ciUCt as in the case oi the higbay and its later effect  on the chopping centre, th’a low land cost which originally attrected psopie to live in the area has now rebounded, have to rise vc’ greatly to pay for eli the schools, sewers, water and other facilitIes ehlch are necessary, vhe in fact,  sialus  these could have been provided mach more cheap3y had they been  first Instance before the  cons tnzctad or planned in deeiopsant took place.  What is likely to happen to Whalicy? Next :renr the it*us-Canada Highway will ak;ain. be re-routed as a freeway to the north and will by’pasa Whallej  ThIs will  have the effect of inking through traffic awsy. which will be of stiW advantage to siost of tat stores, but tdfl be a how for such  trafficoniented facilities as notele and hotels, Lsnners  have pruriceed to the Nunici  The Surrey  1. Council a very bold  and Iwagina tin plan for dealing with the situation. propose that the fttain :rcad thronp;h the shepp-ing centre midestrian bridges across. a  ring  They  the wessnt TransCaxiada Highway  -  -  should be depreeeed with They propose that there &ioujd be  road eround tue cache of the atora to give service  and accase to parking lots.  -26They propose that there should be extensive re-plettir: and resubdivisico of the residential areas, which ,iil irNolve demolition of existing houses in some cases, to make sites accessible that  C;  :ar,not now be subdivided and to make possible  a proper rosubdivIsion of soe of the inappropriately large  They prop:xie the zoning of some areas for apartments  lots.  to pride for a sreator concentration of people, and this, in  tairn, will pcovi&t ore stability to the area. TLray prcpo;ie the provision of more and convenient parks and impro’nrsnents to the existing schools, end a better  gement of streets, uning such device as loop streets end 4 enar cuide eacs to se ure a quiet and please.nt residential anviroraut. In addition, they propose an attractive system of uelaye linking the schools, parks, and the shopping centre All  of this, of ctwrse, will cost a considerable amount of  money and the nro:arty owners thtaselves ‘will hove to bear a large part of the cost if this is to be achieved.  But, tt is the altsrnntive?  A decline in quelity and a  decitne in values, because loss nra development will ocour People will tend to noire ftflher and further out following a. new and faster h1hwsy to new centres where land is cheaper and where some of the mistakes of Whalisy will not he made.  ThIs  could lead to the witla cycle tsking place again in another twenty or thirty years as new tec;hniqes end new econo’ds pfl3S$5’OrCS  deveboo  2 7I  Id like to thiiik of conte of the lessons e can learn  fr tho throe  !.  It s quite true that orne of the  roblen of all of these areas woald not have arloen if there had b  nrore thght for the futuro whcn the original pattu’n  waa set and the oIgin.aI deveiop-ient took place  Once land is  suhdlivided an distributed eon a niibr of different  es  and the street and lot pattn is etablihed, it’s very difficult and expe  to chsngc the pattern.  At the ees  tbe, it ‘e elo very true that the early develops rs cculd not possibly have foreseen all the changes which riht take place, Dartieularly in the .atter of trañsportatio  which plays such  n important art In the pattern of develojent  I have said  that we cannot foese with any degree of certainty what ne or of trauspo:ctatton will develop and what effect they will have, so I think it ov].d be etre;oiy unfair If o were to  hle hc early  ielope’e of our city  This iS not w  iy  just let things happen  that we should sit back weakly end  Wo st co the boot we cen to  anticipate and plaa ftr future ehangs, and the techniques and controls now vailble to. us are extrsaely osphiticated coiparsd to tIoso a:ilebl-e to ho.wsver the te&.nol€gioai, e  r:u..er plan  re.  Even so,  nani and social changes hi&h  tak, picc still mt,trip our capacity to cope with ther and has this :ill  lrs e eo  It is certainly true in other  of hum acIity, as sU &s city deelopient.  Perhaps the most 1rportant thing we have to do is to recognize the &npar signals arIsing fre change in the early stagos ““d’o be bold and aks the necessacy changes while we  c&n and before the situation becomes too had.  Even in a  courtr as :t and as wealthy as Canada, ire cannot afford to strike on’ tents end rove on to a new campsite when we have fouled the one we row occrtpy.  in teriss of dollars e eannot afford  to hrite off an investment of $2.1 billion in private assets and $700 million in publIc assets, which Is the investuent represented in the City of Vancouver alone, and move on to another neit site up the Valley.  The bears and the chiroiunks  wouldut thank us ithor because n have spoiled their natural habitat.  Apart frc4a the eccro:ic reasons for adapting what we have, I believe there is scme sort of iystic attadment forTned between the land and the race of people who occupy it  Oar Vancouver  histut’y, as a city, is rcry short so far hut alroa4 there -k ingrained in the citizen a love end attachment for the City which eholtera, feeds, and entertains thcxi,  h the end, I  believe that this nys Ste attaohaant Is even stronger than the dollar investment md that people will wish to preserve ehat is host frcts the past, rectify the mistkes of tne past, and leave a he;tar City in all senses for the futuca citizens. This 15, 1 think, the gnsat lesson flcm hIstory and gives  5c45 sense of vuroose o the achievet&it.  5OTklCtitGS  tanrible struggle for  -29-’  Our  pressnt  age is ooiy a very email arid insIgnificant  part of a long prorsso of history and destiny.  I have  ekatchd in von brlofli the sarly history covering dl1icins of years.  ..  eoealt, in non.  cie tail,  zdtn the last  fifty to one huncrsd years, and I have been quite sketchy again about a future poriod of twentflive to fifty years  -  Beyond this, I can only see very dimly, but I have faith that thEI City ill continue -with rnsny raietake&, possibly with tragedies, ‘but with many groat pertods as veil.  ILW. Pickatone, City Planning, r1,artnt.  

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