Earth, Ocean and Atmospheric Sciences Undergraduate Honours Theses

Petrological Analysis of Mineralization of the Pb-Zn-Ag Treasure Mountain Deposit, British Columbia 2012

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    PETROLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF MINERALIZATION OF THE PB-ZN-AG TREASURE MOUNTAIN DEPOSIT, BRITISH COLUMBIA  by JACQUELINE ARMSTRONG   A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF  BACHELOR OF SCIENCE (HONOURS) in THE FACULTY OF SCIENCE (Combined Honours Degree in Geographical Biogeosciences and Geology)   This thesis conforms to the required standard ……………………………………… Supervisor THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA (Vancouver) APRIL, 2012  © Jacqueline Laura Maria Armstrong, 2012 ii  ABSTRACT  Treasure Mountain is an epithermal style lead-zinc-silver deposit situated within the northern extent of the Cascade Mountain range of southwestern British Columbia.  Hand sample and thin section analysis of 13 rock samples from the Treasure Mountain property displayed boiling textures, fluid chemistry, ore mineralization, and alteration mineral assemblages consistent with low sulphidation epithermal deposits.  Dominant ore minerals observed include sphalerite, galena, chalcopyrite, tetrahedrite, boulangerite and minor arsenopyrite.  Local alteration in veins, host rock, and nearby dyke appears dominantly phyllic.  Veins hosting the ore are typically zoned and vuggy, and dominantly consist of comb quartz edges, pink carbonate, and central white carbonate.  Carbonate vein gangue material that appears to have been emplaced prior to ore mineralization indicates that circulating hydrothermal fluids likely had a neutral pH. A neutral pH may have been achieved by ascending magmatic fluid that has equilibrated with the surrounding country rock mixing with meteoric fluid.  The Pasayten group arkose-argillite bedded sequence that hosts the Treasure Mountain deposit was contained detrital pyrite and may have been a significant source of sulfur to circulating hydrothermal fluids.  The clastic sedimentary host rock of the Treasure Mountain deposit is not consistent with the classic definition of epithermal deposits, which are hosted in volcanic rock.  The silver-lead-zinc vein deposit model best fits the style of mineralization studied.  Silver-lead-zinc vein deposits are produced by low sulphidation epithermal systems hosted by monotonous sequences of clastic rocks that have been intruded by gabbro to granitic plutons.       iii  iv   v  LIST OF TABLES Table 1: MINERALOGY OF LOW AND HIGH SULPHIDATION EPITHERMAL SYSTEMS 7 Table 3: Sample No. 1 - HANGING WALL ARGILLITE .......................................................... 31 Table 4: Sample No. 2 -MINERALIZED VEIN IN ARKOSE-ARGILLITE .............................. 32 Table 5: Sample No. 3  VUGGY MINERALIZED QZ-CARBONATE VEINS IN BRECCIATE ARKOSE-ARGILLITE ................................................................................................................ 33 Table 6: Sample No. 4 - VUGGY MINERALIZED CARBONATE VEINS IN BRECCIATE ARKOSE-ARGILLITE ................................................................................................................ 34 Table 7: Sample No. 5 - CARBONATE-QUARTZ VEIN WITH BOULANGERITE, SPHALERITE, GALENA, PYRITE MINERALIZATION ......................................................... 35 Table 8: Sample No. 6 – BRECCIATED ARKOSE-ARGILLITE WITH VUGGY CARBONATE VEINS ................................................................................................................. 36 Table 9: Sample No. 7 – BRECCIATED ARKOSE-ARGILLITE WITH CHALCOPYRITE ... 37 Table 10: Sample No. 8 – ARGILLITE WITH MASSIVE SPHALERITE VEIN ...................... 38 Table 11: Sample No. 9 – BRECCIATED ARGILLITE-ARKOSE WITH NET-TEXTURED MAGNETITE ............................................................................................................................... 39 Table 12: Sample No. 10 – FELDSPAR PORPHYRY DYKE .................................................... 39 Table 13: Sample No. 11 – INTERBEDDED ARGILLITE-ARKOSE ....................................... 40 Table 14: Sample No. 12 – FELDSPAR PORPHYRY DYKE .................................................... 41 Table 15: Sample No. 13 – BRECCIATED ARKOSE-ARGILLITE WITH SPHALERITE AND CHALCOPYRITE MINERALIZATION IN A QUARTZ-CARBONATE VEIN ...................... 42          vi  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS  I would like to thank my supervisors Ryan Sharp and Dr. Maya Kopylova for their help in writing this thesis.   I am indebted to both for their guidance and thoughtful insights.  Thank you to Huldra Silver for allowing me to work on the drill core from the Treasure Mountain property.  Thank you to Dr. James Scoates for use of lab equipment.  Many thanks to Erin Lane for organizing EOS 449 and to Dr. Elspeth Barnes for writing and formatting advice. I would also like to thank the great field team I had the opportunity to work with last summer, including Jim Cuttle, Sanjar Skrenes, Mark Birrell and Michael Frye.  1  1. INTRODUCTION Hydrothermal deposits are an important source of a variety of ore, including lead, zinc, and silver.  British Columbia hosts many lead-zinc ± silver deposits generated by a range of hydrothermal systems, including the sedimentary exhalative Sullivan deposit, the Robb Lake Mississippi Valley Type deposit, the epithermal Equity Silver deposit, and the Kokanee Range silver-lead-zinc vein deposit.  Apart from being generated by hydrothermal circulation and containing similar ore minerals, these systems are produced in different environments (including pressure, temperature, and host rock) by fluids of varying composition.  Thereby the resultant mineralization, alteration mineral assemblages, and mineral textures are indicative of the type of hydrothermal systems that yielded the deposit. The Treasure Mountain deposit is situated within the northern extent of the Cascade Mountain range of southeastern British Columbia (Ostensoe et al., 2011) (Fig. 1).  The property was originally discovered in 1892, however production on the property was very limited up until Huldra Silver Inc. acquired ownership of the property in the 1980s. The nature and origin of the lead-zinc-silver mineralization at Treasure Mountain is not well understood, and has not been assigned to a specific deposit model.  In literature the mineralization has been described as likely mesothermal, which is defined “as a mineral deposit formed at moderate depth hence at “moderate” temperature and pressures: said of a hydrothermal mineral deposit formed in the temperature range of 200 – 300 degrees C” (Ostensoe et al., 2011). The purpose of this thesis is to determine the most likely genetic model for mineralization observed at the Treasure Mountain property.  Potential deposition styles considered consisted of typical hydrothermal lead-zinc deposits, including sedimentary exhalative, Mississippi Valley type, low and high sulphidation epithermal, and a subset of epithermal deposits known as silver- lead-zinc vein deposits. Petrographical analysis was carried out on ten rock samples and 13 thin sections collected from five 2011 diamond drill holes on the Treasure Mountain property.  Analysis included observing mineralization and mineral association, alteration mineral assemblages, and mineral textures in order to provide detailed lithological and mineralogical descriptions of the 13 rock 2  samples and 13 thin sections.  These observations were then used to determine the likely genetic model of deposition that produced mineralization at Treasure Mountain.       Figure 1: Location of Treasure Mountain property in southern British Columbia. a) Satellite image shows location of Treasure Mountain in southwestern Canada. b)Location with respect to Vancouver. Square pin in points to the property location. Satellite image from Google Maps, inset map from MapMine Mapper on TREASURE MOUNTAIN 3  2. GEOLOGY 2.1. Regional Geology The Treasure Mountain deposit is situated within the northern extent of the Cascade Mountain range of southwestern British Columbia, 29 km east of the town of Hope and 140 km east of Vancouver (Ostensoe et al., 2011) (Fig. 1).  The deposit sits within the Mesozoic Tyaughton-Methow Terrane (McDougall, 1987).  The terrane contains thick successions of Jurassic and Cretaceous clastic strata deposited in marine and terrestrial environments that overlie allochthonous Triassic oceanic crust (DeGraaff-Surpless et al., 2003).  The detrital zircon age signature of the clastic material suggests the terrane formed in a basin in close proximity to the southern Canadian Cordillera (DeGraaff-Surpless et al., 2003). Formations within the terrane include the Jurassic Dewdney Creek formation and the Cretaceous Pasayten formation (Ostensoe et al., 2011) (Fig. 2).  The Pasayten fault runs along the eastern edge of the Tyaughton-Methow Terrane and separates the Pasayten formation from the Quesnellian terrane and Jurassic- Cretaceous plutonic rocks to the east (Mahoney et al., 2009).   2.2. Local Geology The Treasure Mountain region is underlain by northwest striking, southwest dipping volcanic and sedimentary rocks of the Jurassic Dewdney Creek formation and the argillite, arkose, and conglomerate bearing Cretaceous Pasayten formation (Ostensoe et al., 2011).  The two formations are separated by the northwest trending Chuwanten thrust fault (Schmitt and Stewart, 1991) (Fig. 2). The fault is believed to have provided the locus for intrusive and hydrothermal activity which gave rise to silver-lead-zinc vein deposits in the Treasure Mountain region (Schmitt and Stewart, 1991).  Epigenetic structure controlled lead-zinc mineralization is hosted within the Pasayten formation (McDougall, 1987; Ostensoe et al., 2011).  Both the Pasayten and Dewdney Creek formations are intersected by lamprophyre dykes and dioritic to gabbroic intrusions of Tertiary age (Ostensoe et al., 2011).  The east-west striking Treasure Mountain Fault transects the property and is intruded by a feldspar porphyry dyke, referred to as the Mine Dyke (Ostensoe et al., 2011).  Mineralization, known as the “C”-vein, occurs on one or both 4  sides of the Mine Dyke (Livgard, 1995).  In addition to the ‘C’-vein, four other mineralized veins (designated veins ‘A’, ‘B’, and ‘D’) have been observed on the property (Ostensoe et al., 2011). The dyke is believed to have been emplaced prior to the onset of mineralization (Ostensoe et al, 2011).      Legend ImJLaD: Jurassic – Dewdney Creek Formation – coarse clastics KPW: Cretaceous – Pasayten Group – Winthrop Facies coarse clastics KPV: Cretaceous – Pasayten Group – Virginia Ridge Facies coarse clastics EPra: Cenozoic – Princeton Group Coarse clastics OlMiCo: Cenozoic – Coquihalla Formation calc-alkaline volcanic rocks  The dashed line that dissects the Treasure Mountain property is the Chuwanten Fault.  KPW ImJLaD OlMiCo TREASURE MOUNTAIN PROPERTY Figure 2:  Regional Geology surrounding Treasure Mountain. Image and formation descriptions adapted from Ostensoe et al., 2011  N 5  2.3. Previous Work on the Treasure Mountain Property The Treasure Mountain Pb-Zn-Ag deposit is hosted within the arkose-argillite Pasayten formation of the Tyaughton-Methow Terrane (Ostensoe et al., 2011). The Eagle Plutonic Complex of Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous age lies three km to the east and the granodioritic Eocene Needle Peak Pluton lies 10 km to the northwest (Ostensoe et al., 2011).  The majority of mineralization on the property is described as epigenetic occurring within fracture controlled veins in a mesothermal-style deposit (Ostensoe et al., 2011).  A mesothermal deposit is defined by Ostensoe et al. as mineralization caused by a hydrothermal system that formed at moderate depth between temperatures of 200 – 300°C.   Mineralized veins are from centimeters to two metres in width and contain galena (PbS), sphalerite (ZnS), pyrite (FeS2) , chalcopyrite (CuFeS2), tetrahedrite ((Cu,Fe)12Sb4S13), boulangerite (Pb5Sb4S11), bournonite (PbCuSbS3), and minor stibnite (Sb2S3) and native silver in a gangue of quartz (including comb quartz), carbonates, (Livgard, 1995) and manganiferous siderite (Ostensoe et al., 2011).  The main ore bearing minerals are freibergite (silver, (Ag,Cu,Fe)12(Sb,As)4S13), galena (lead) and brown sphalerite (zinc) that darkens to black with depth (Livgard, 1995). Principle veins occur proximal to the Treasure Mountain Fault and a feldspar porphyry dyke (the Mine Dyke) that partially occupies the fault (Ostensoe et al., 2011). The dyke may be an off-shoot from granitic bodies that lie near the mine area, such as the Eagle Plutonic Complex of late Jurassic to early Cretaceous age that lies three kilometres east, or the Eocene Needle Peak Pluton of granodioritic composition that lies 10 kilometres northwest of Treasure Mountain (Ostensoe et al., 2011).  The concentration of silver in the Treasure Mountain fault has been noted to increase with distance from the Mine Dyke (Vulimiri, 1986, quoted in Ostensoe at al., 2011).    Alternation zones consisting of pyritization, carbonization, and chloritization occur in proximity to the dyke (Ostensoe et al., 2011). The Treasure Mountain property sits about 20 kilometres north of Imperial Metals Giant Copper property.  The Giant Copper property hosts a porphyry related Cu-Au-Ag-Mo hydrothermal system in the Ladner Dewdney Creek, Jackass Mountain and Pasayten Groups (Pearson and Giroux, 2011).  The property also hosts disseminated pyrite, galena, sphalerite and minor chalcopyrite mineralization in hornfelsed, altered, fractured and brecciated polylithic sedimentary rocks in contact with quartz diorite intrusive rocks (Pearson and Giroux, 2011). 6  3. REVIEW OF PB-ZN(-AG) DEPOSITS A wide variety of Pb-Zn (-Ag) deposits have been recognized and studied worldwide. Each deposit type has unique characteristics related to their formation, mineralization and tectonic setting. Potential analogues to the mineralization at the Treasure Mountain property are described below.  3.1. Epithermal Vein Deposits Hydrothermal deposits were initially divided into categories based on pressure and temperature of formation (hypo-, meso-, epithermal in order of decreasing depth) and are considered to have a magmatic affiliation (Lindgren, 1933; Beaudoin and Sangster, 1992). Epithermal Au-Ag deposits form from hydrothermal systems within 1.5km of the Earth`s surface (Taylor, 2007). They are commonly associated with areas with subduction generated magmatism, but may also occur in shallow marine settings (Taylor, 2007).  Epithermal veins are structure controlled, and brecciated texture results from periodic episodes of fluid fracture filling followed by brecciation due to an excess of internal fluid pressure (Taylor, 2007).  Fluid temperatures during ore deposition are typically less than 300°C and salinities are less than 3.5wt% NaCl equivalent (Taylor, 2007).  Typical epithermal veins are hosted in volcanic rocks and are surrounded by alteration zones (Panteleyev, 1986). There are two end-member genetic types of epithermal mineralization: low sulphidation and high sulphidation. These two types of epithermal deposits develop from fluids of contrasting chemistry in contrasting geological environments (White and Hedenquist, 1995).  In high sulphidation (also known as acid-sulfate class) systems, the hydrothermal fluid has a low pH due to HCl and SO2 volatiles from magmatic fluid mixing with groundwater to form highly acidic conditions (White and Hedenquist, 1995).  The geochemical signature of metal elements in high sulphidation systems is the abundance of gold, copper, and arsenic (Panteleyev, 1996a). Low sulphidation (also known as adularia-sericite class) epithermal deposits are generated by near-neutral circulating meteoric fluid with a magmatic volatile source for carbon and sulphide components (Cooke and Simmons, 2000).  .  In low sulphidation environments, the 7  hydrothermal fluid has a near neutral pH, is reduced, and is in equilibrium with the host rocks at great depth (White and Hedenquist, 1995).  Mineralization is the result of a combination of country rock reacting with and reducing ore fluid, and subsequent boiling generated precipitation of metals due to a decrease in pressure of ascending fluids (Hayashi et al., 2001).   The geochemical signature of metal elements in high sulphidation systems includes elevated values of  gold, silver, zinc, lead and copper (Panteleyev, 1996b).  Important low sulphidation epithermal ore minerals include pyrite, sphalerite, galena, arsenopyrite (FeAsS), and sulfosalts, while gangue generally consists of quartz, adularia, and calcite (Taylor, 2007). High and low sulphidation epithermal systems have some overlap in mineral assemblages, but both systems have unique minerals that occurring more frequently or abundantly in one system over another (table 1).  The presence of adularia and calcite suggests a low sulphidation deposit model, whereas the absence of the former and the presence of alunite is likely a high sulphidation deposit (White and Hedenquist, 1995).  Table 1: Mineralogy of Low and High Sulphidation Epithermal Systems Shown as: frequency of occurrence (abundance). After White and Hedenquist, 1995. MINERALS LOW SULPHIDATION HIGH SULPHIDATION ORE MINERALS Pyrite Ubiquitous (abundant) Ubiquitous (abundant) Sphalerite Common (variable) Common (very minor) Galena Common (variable)  Common (very minor) Chalcopyrite Common (very minor) Common (minor) Arsenopyrite Common (minor) Rare (very minor) GANGUE Quartz Ubiquitous (abundant) Ubiquitous (abundant) Calcite Common (variable)  Absent (except as overprint) Adularia Common (variable) Absent Alunite Absent (except as overprint) Common (minor)   8  In the BCGS exploration guide for epithermal deposits it is noted that high sulphidation epithermal Au-Ag deposits are much less common in the Canadian Cordillera than low sulphidation epithermal veins (Panteleyev, 1996).  3.1.1. Hydrothermal Sediment Hosted Ag-Pb-Zn Vein Deposits   Beaudoin and Sangster (1992) differentiate between classic volcanic-hosted epithermal veins (that are characterized by an Au-rich metal association, shallow depth of emplacement, and regional alteration) from silver-lead-zinc vein deposits.  Silver-lead-zinc veins are similar to low sulphidation epithermal systems, but are hosted in clastic sedimentary rocks. Silver-lead-zinc deposits are spatially associated with felsic intrusions of batholithic dimensions (Lindgren, 1933; Guilbert and Park, 1986), but not those related to porphyry Cu mineralization (Beaudoin and Sangster, 1992). Intrusions have been found in proximity to, or within, the Ag-Pb-Zn mineralized area, or buried plutons have been inferred (Beaudoin and Sangster, 1992).  Guilbert and Park (1986) classified a subset of epigenetic hydrothermal sediment hosted Ag-Pb-Zn deposits as ‘Cordilleran vein type’ which were formed by ascending hydrothermal fluids of magmatic or meteoric origin but which they considered to be related to adjacent igneous activity. The classic silver-lead-zinc vein districts as described by Beaudoin and Sangster (1992) are found in the Cordilleran orogen of North America and the Variscan orogen of Europe.  The authors describe the vein districts as being hosted in sedimentary basins dominated by clastic rocks that have been deformed, metamorphosed and intruded by igneous rocks, and in which the mineralization occurred late in the tectonic evolution of the orogens.  The mineralization is structurally controlled, and the faults containing the veins are commonly proximal, or mechanically related, to transcrustal shear zones at terrane boundaries (Beaudoin and Sangster, 1992). Veins comprise massive galena and sphalerite in a gangue of siderite, quartz, dolomite, and/or calcite (Beaudoin and Sangster 1992).  Mineralization is the product of sulphide precipitation as the result of mixing and local boiling of meteoric hydrothermal fluids with a deep seated metamorphic or magmatic fluid (Beaudoin and Sangster, 1992).  At the time of mineralization, ore fluids ranged in temperature from 250°-300°C and contained salinities of 0- 26wt % NaCl.  Galena and sphalerite are commonly associated with minor pyrite, chalcopyrite, and a suite of sulfosalts including tetrahedrite, and siderite and quartz are dominant gangue 9  minerals (Beaudoin and Sangster, 1992).  Appendix III contains a detailed classification scheme of silver-lead-zinc vein deposits. Known silver-lead-zinc vein districts include the Keno Hill deposit in the Yukon, Kokanee Range in British Columbia, and the Coeur d’Alene deposit in Idaho (Beaudoin and Sangster, 1992).  The Keno Hill deposit is hosted by Cretaceous metasedimentary rocks within the Selwyn Basin (Gilles and Farrow, 2011).  The Kokanee Range Ag-Pb-Zn vein deposit is hosted in a mid- Jurassic batholith (which is spatially, but not genetically associated with the mineralization) and surrounding Cambrian-Triassic metasedimentary rocks (Beaudoin, 1991) of the Quesnellia, Slide Mountain and Kootenay Terranes (Beaudoin et al., 1992a).  In Kokanee range and Keno hill districts, calcite and dolomite are typically, but not exclusively late stage minerals associated with flooding of hydrothermal system by meteoric water (Beaudoin et al, 1992b, Beaudoin and Sangster, 1992).  3.2. Sedimentary Exhalative Deposits Sedimentary exhalative (SEDEX) deposits are a major sources of lead and zinc ore (Goodfellow and Lydon, 2007).   Deposits typically occur concordant to fine grain bedding in extensional sedimentary basins (Cooke et al., 2000).  Lead-zinc deposition results from a decrease in metal solubility which produces either replacement of country rock or direct deposition from the water column  (Goodfellow and Lydon, 2007).  Sullivan type SEDEX deposits consists of a vent complex with alternation zones surrounding faults and permeable rock that permitted hydrothermal circulation (Hamilton et al., 1982)  3.3. Mississippi Valley Type Pb-Zn Deposits Mississippi Valley Type (MVT) deposits are epigenetic, stratabound, carbonate hosted bodies containing galena, sphalerite, iron sulphides, dolomite, calcite, and quartz (Paradis et al., 2007).  Deposits range from massive replacement zones to open-space filling of breccias, fractures, and vugs (Leach and Sangster, 1993; Paradis et al., 2007). Extensive hydrothermal dolomite-replacement alteration forms an envelope around most deposits, which can extend up to hundreds of metres beyond the sulphide bodies (Paradis et al., 2007). The deposits originate from 10  saline basinal metalliferous fluids at temperatures between 75 and 200°C (Leach and Sangster, 1993).  MVT deposits are hosted in carbonate successions that developed on the flanks of sedimentary basins that developed during contractional tectonic events, such as during the Cretaceous-Tertiary (Paradis et al., 2007).  In western Canada a coeval link exists between Phanerozoic MVT and SEDEX deposits (Nelson et al., 2002). SEDEX deposits often occur in continental rift basins adjacent MVT deposits (Nelson et al., 2002; Paradis et al., 2007).   4. METHODOLOGY Multiple diamond drill holes were conducted during the 2011 season at the Treasure Mountain property.  The core from five holes (fig. 3) was logged and from it thirteen rock samples were obtained (Table 2).  The samples are representative of the major lithologies encountered, including the Pasayten group interbedded arkose-argillite and the feldspar porphyry dyke, and various areas of mineralization. Studied mineralized areas occurred in veins both adjacent to the feldspar porphyry dyke and distal to the dyke.  Two additional rock samples were taken from just inside portal 3 (fig. 4). These rock samples were of interest due to their unique mineral content and properties. 11  The 13 rock samples were observed in hand sample and noted for their mineralogy, associations and textures.   The samples were then sent to the Sample Preparation and Thin Section Lab at the University of Utah to be cut into polished thin sections for reflective and transmitted petrographic microscope analysis.  Transmitted light was used to determine gangue, alteration, and dyke minerals and texture. Reflected light was used to analyze sulfide and sulfosalts minerals and textures. Analysis included detailed mineralogical descriptions of the thin sections (Appendix II), which involved identification and modal abundances of minerals, alternation and replacement mineralization, and textures.  Digital photographs of the samples in transmitted and reflected light were taken using a Nikon camera mounted on a petrographic microscope. The petrographic analysis of the samples was then compared to the mineralization and textures associated with various hydrothermal deposit types (SEDEX, MVT, low and high sulphidation epithermal, and sediment hosted Ag-Pb-Zn veins) to determine the most favorable model of hydrothermal activity that produced the Treasure Mountain deposit.            100m Figure 3: Aerial image of Treasure Mountain with approximate drill collar locations.  Image from Google Earth. 12                 Figure 4:  Aerial image of Treasure Mountain with approximate locations of drill collars and entrance to portal 3. Note scale shown is an estimate and is distorted with distance due to angle of image.  From Google Maps. Approximate Drilling Locations of TM11-14, 15, 16, 19, and 20 TREASURE MOUNTAIN Looking north-east Entrance to portal 3 100m 13  5. PETROGRAPHIC STUDY RESULTS 5.1. Overview of Drill Hole Core In the TM11 drill cores, the vast majority of rock recovered was interbedded argillite and arkose rock which is a part of the Cretaceous Pasayten group. The argillite is dark grey-black whereas the arkose was typically light grey.  Thicknesses of the arkose and argillite beds were highly variable, ranging from millimetres to meters.  The interbedded sequence may represent turbidite deposits. The Pasayten group sediments were in areas faulted, deformed and brecciated. Quartz-carbonate veins and veinlets frequently cut through the sediments and occasionally contain minor pyrite, galena, chalcopyrite, and sphalerite. The sedimentary rocks are dissected by a feldspar porphyry dyke.  The observed sections of the dyke contained up to 10% feldspar phenocrysts surrounded by a green-grey groundmass. The feldspar phenocrysts retained their tabular habit, but appeared to have undergone sericitic alteration.  Chloritization and pyritization of Pasayten group rocks occurred proximal to the feldspar porphyry dyke.  Pyrite mineralization within the argillite and arkose rocks was sporadic, fine grained, and disseminated.  The presence of gouge material along the interface between the Pasayten group sediments and the dyke supports the model that has the dyke occupying a fault. Metallic mineralization was generally constrained to a quartz and carbonate veins adjacent to the dyke, however the dyke itself did not appear to contain any metal mineralization. Mineralization was observed both on the hanging wall and footwall of the dyke. Thinner veins and veinlets of mineralization (dominated by pyrite, sphalerite, galena, and occasional chalcopyrite) also occurred distal to the dyke in the Pasayten group arkose and argillite rocks. Sphalerite, galena, and pyrite compromised the most abundant sulfide ore minerals observed in the mineralized veins.  Other minerals identified in core include chalcopyrite, magnetite (Fe3O4), arsenopyrite (FeAsS), and boulangerite (Pb5Sb4S11).  Native silver, monoclinic pyrrhotite (Fe7O8) and bornite (Cu5FeS4) were also observed on the Treasure Mountain property but not seen in the observed core. Gangue material surrounding the mineralization is dominantly carbonates (weakly effervescent and calcite) and quartz. 14  5.2. Hand Sample Analysis Detailed descriptions of each rock sample are listed in Appendix II. The country rock surrounding quartz carbonate veins consists of well sorted laminations of clay and sand.  Occasionally, sand beds graded into argillite (fig.5), but often beds where too disturbed and brecciated to see relict sedimentary structures.  No obvious alteration zoning in the Pasayten group arkose argillite rocks was observed. Fractures in the rock contained quartz-carbonate and carbonate veins.  Some thin (<0.5mm) carbonate veins interpreted to be calcite reacted readily to 10%HCl.  The majority of veins contained pink-tan colored carbonate with a Moh’s hardness of about 4, a trigonal crystal system, weak effervescence to 10%HCl after being scratched.  In the widest veins (>1cm) the pink carbonate zoned inwards to a white carbonate with similar properties to the pink carbonate apart from a slightly softer hardness (Moh’s ~ 3.5-4).  Mineralization of sulfides and sulfosalts was preferentially within veins greater than 0.5cm wide. Vugs where observed in some carbonate veins with widths greater than 0.5cm and were enveloped by drusy trigonal carbonate crystals. Vugs were up to 1.5cm long and were contained within the centremost portion of the vein. Mineralization appeared to be confined to veins, and was preferentially within veins greater than 0.2mm.  Some mineralization occurred both interstitial to gangue (such as the boulangerite in sample 5, fig. 18) and after other sulphides (chalcopyrite occurring after sphalerite, fig. 20c). However, the majority of sulphide mineralization consisted of discontinuous bands of black- sliver sphalerite, occasionally containing galena, pyrite, and chalcopyrite, running through the centre of carbonate veins.  The two samples from portal three contained very fine grain magnetite mineralization disseminated throughout argillite groundmass.  Very fined grained pyrite was observed sparsely disseminated throughout the arkose-argillite groundmass.  The dyke rock samples contained around 5% feldspar phenocrysts that had been sericitized.  The phenocrysts were euhedral-subhedral and up to 1cm in diameter. The remaining ground mass was dark grey or grey-green and fine grained.  15  5.3. Polished Thin Section Analysis Quartz-carbonate veins typically <4mm wide cross-cut the well sorted, often deformed, sand-clay laminations that make of the Pasayten group. As seen in hand sample, occasional grading from sand to clay grains was observed in the arkose-argillite beds (fig. 5).  Some degree of brecciation and/or deformation of bedding were observed in all samples (fig. 15 in appendix III). The feldspar content of the arkose rock has virtually all been replaced by sericite and clays, but around 50% of the arkose was likely feldspar. The arkose also contains around 20% quartz and 5% disseminated pyrite, with the remainder comprising fine grains.  Two forms of pyrite were observed in the arkose-argillite country rock.  Very fine grained (<<0.1mm) rounded pyrite was sparsely disseminated throughout the sediment.  Occasional larger (<0.1-0.1mm), euhedral, cubic pyrite crystals were observed preferentially situated in the coarser grained arkose beds. Vein gangue was dominantly composed of fine grained carbonates, trigonal carbonates, and comb quartz.  Most veins were zoned with carbonates in the centre and comb quartz lining the edges (fig. 6), but some were completely carbonate, and few were completely quartz.  Bladed carbonate crystallization was also observed in some veins (fig. 7).  The apart from the fine grained carbonate, the majority of carbonate and quartz vein minerals observed were euhedral-subhedral. Comb quartz was occasionally replaced by fine grained carbonate, particularly adjacent to the vein wall contact.  Fine grained carbonate also replaced coarser grained carbonated crystals that were present in Figure 7: Typical zoned carbonate mineralization  in a vuggy vein.  Sample 6 in transmitted PPL light. FOV: 1.5mm. Figure 6: Typical zonation of gangue observed in veins.  Fine comb quartz on edge of veins with carbonate in centre.    Sample 13 in transmitted PPL, FOV: 3mm.  Figure 5: Grading of sand to clay particles in the Pasayten Group beds. Assuming normal grading, image is correctly oriented. Sample 11 in transmitted PPL FOV: 7mm  Vug Vug 16  some veins (fig.7).  Some of the fine grained carbonate displayed a unique feather-like extinction pattern (fig. 15c and 15d in appendix III) The vast majority of sulfide and sulfosalt minerals resided within the quartz-carbonate veins.  As observed in hand sample analysis, mineralization favored wider veins apart from pyrite, which occurred both in wider veins and in stringers. Sphalerite was the most dominate ore mineral observed. Massive discontinuous bands or discontinuous chains of individual crystals of sphalerite were observed in most mineralized veins. In veins with comb quartz, quartz crystals appear to jut into the sphalerite mineralization (fig.14 in appendix III). Sporadic inclusions of quartz and pyrite were observed in some sphalerite crystals. Chalcopyrite mineralization dominantly occurred within sphalerite, and appeared to grow along sphalerite crystal boundaries.  Galena and tetrahedrite also appeared to be associated with sphalerite, as they were observed to preferentially grow along the interface between sphalerite and carbonate gangue (fig.17 in appendix III).  In transmitted plane polar light, sphalerite minerals were dominantly dark maroon, and were occasionally zoned from amber yellow to dark maroon. A central band of boulangerite mineralization was observed in a quartz-carbonate vein in sample 5 (fig. 8 and fig. 18 in appendix III).  The boulangerite is surrounded by euhedral quartz crystals with radial extinction. Fine boulangerite needles were observed overtop of the radial quartz crystals in plane polar transmitted light (fig. 18b in Figure 10: Disseminated very fine grained magnetite (light grey) in arkose replaced by fine carbonates.   Sample 9 in reflective PPL. FOV: 0.7mm. Figure 8: Boulangerite (black mineral), sphalerite (red-yellow), and quartz (dusty white).  Boulangerite may have filled in vuggy areas.  Sample 5 in transmitted PPL. FOV: 1.5mm. Figure 9: Pyrite laths grow against quartz grains with interstitial boulangerite. Sample 5 in transmitted PPL,  FOV: 0.7 mm.  Py = pyrite, Blt = boulangerite. Py Blt 17  appendix III).  In reflected light euhedral-subhedral pyrite laths up to 0.1cm long were observed to grow within the boulangerite along quartz grain boundaries.  On average, approximately 10% of the pyrite surface area contained inclusions of boulangerite. Samples 8 and 9 (from portal 3) contained magnetite mineralization.  The mineralization appeared to occur between veins in arkose rock that was replaced by fine grained carbonates and contained approximately 20% recrystallized fine grained quartz.  The magnetite is very fine grained, anhedral, rounded crystals in a net-textured and disseminated (fig. 10 and fig. 21 in appendix III). Disseminated fine grained euhedral-subhedral pyrite laths and cubic arsenopyrite crystals occur along the edges of areas containing magnetite mineralization (fig. 21c in appendix III), and in areas absent of magnetite mineralization. The feldspar porphyry dyke samples contained 3-5% plagioclase phenocrysts.  The plagioclase phenocrysts were subhedral laths that displayed polysynthetic twinning and are dominantly replaced by fine grained sericite-clay and, to a lesser extent, chlorite.  The groundmass contained about 20% plagioclase laths and about 5% quartz.  About 70% of the samples consisted of secondary clay-sericite and chlorite replacement. 1% of the groundmass consisted of sub-rounded fine grained partially dissolved pyrite grains.  Otherwise, no sulphide mineralization was observed in the dyke rocks.    Sample 12, which was taken closer to a mineralized vein than dyke sample 10, contained more sericite-clay and chlorite alteration.   6. DISSCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS Textural evidence studied both in hand sample and thin section suggests that the vast majority of mineralization observed resulted from episodic precipitation of minerals from hydrothermal fluids in vein structures.  Minerals that are typically found in hydrothermal deposits, including sphalerite, galena, and boulangerite (Pracejus, 2008) were observed. Both the Mississippi Valley Type and Sedimentary Exhalative deposit types were dismissed as potential genetic models due to the absence of a carbonate host rock and the lack of stratiform mineralization in the surrounding Pasayten group host rocks. 18  Evidence for low-sulphidation epithermal generated deposit was observed.  Vein textures observed in the rock samples suggest the veins where developed by multiple boiling events. These included comb quartz lining the vein walls, and drusy carbonates surrounding vuggy areas.  In Buchanan’s boiling model (1981) veins that transport hydrothermal fluids seal thereby causing an increase in fluid pressure.  The events that created the (vein filled) fractures within arkose-argillite country rock likely caused a drop in fluid pressure that would promote mineral precipitation.   The zonation of pink to white carbonate observed in some wider veins may represent two separate boiling events, the first perhaps rich in manganese (depositing such minerals as a rhodochrosite or a manganese rich ankerite), the second lacking in manganese. The observed oscillatory zoning of sphalerite suggests cyclical changes in pressure-temperature and compositional conditions in the sphalerite forming hydrothermal fluids (Benedetto et al., 2005). The presence of carbonate vein gangue (that was deposited before or during the hydrothermal activity that deposited the ore minerals) would reflects neutral pH fluid conditions. Neutral hydrothermal fluids would be indicative of magmatic fluid that has equilibrated with the surrounding country rock and mixed with meteoric fluid such as observed in a low-sulphidation type epithermal deposit (Taylor, 2007) and silver-lead-zinc vein deposits (Beaudoin and Sangster, 1992).  The bladed euhedral carbonates seen in other veins may be a primary mineral or may have also replaced quartz mineralization.  However, these carbonates do appear to have crystallized prior to ore mineralization supporting the neutral fluid theory. A later (post ore formation) fine grained carbonate is also present in some veins (fig. 6).  The fine grained carbonates appear to replace earlier crystalized gangue minerals and may have mineralized post-ore mineralization.  6.1. Paragenesis The paragenesis of the observed samples from the Treasure Mountain deposit appeared to form in three general stages (fig. 11). Initial mineralization of magnetite and pyrite occurs in the Pasayten arkose-argillite host rock.  A vein containing sphalerite and galena mineralization appears to cross-cut the magnetite mineralization (fig. 17) suggesting that the latter superseded 19  the hydrothermal fracturing and ore forming activity.  The mineralization may be associated with earlier feldspar porphyry dyke emplacement.  Disseminated and net-textured magnetite was observed in the two portal 3 samples.  Disseminated fine grained laths of pyrite and arsenopyrite appear to have formed prior to and concurrent to magnetite mineralization. The second stage of mineralization consisted of quartz-carbonate vein development. Vein material is dominantly composed of bladed and fine grain carbonates bound by thin comb quartz edges.  In hand sample the carbonates varied in colour from white, to yellow-pink, to light pink. Thin section analysis showed that many of the carbonates veins were very fine grained, but those that were more euhedral displayed the trigonal crystal system.  The carbonates weak reactivity with 10% HCl, 3-4 Moh’s hardness, and trigonal crystal system suggest that they could be dolomite, ankerite, rhodochrosite, or siderite.  The pink carbonate observed may be a result of high manganese content in the carbonate minerals.  Previous petrographical and geochemical analysis of gangue material in mineralized veins observed both ankerite and minor siderite mineralization (Ostensoe et al., 2011).  The gangue mineral paragenesis likely started to crystallize from quartz, followed by bladed carbonate growth.  Fine grained carbonates appear to have replaced the bladed carbonates in some of the veins during the latter stage of ore mineralization. The final stage of ore formation was dominated by crystallization of ore minerals.  Apart from magnetite and pyrite (the latter of which does not appear constrained to a single mineralization episode), all major ore mineralization occurred at this stage.  When associated with sphalerite, chalcopyrite and galena, the pyrite is generally cubic (fig. 20b, 20c), whereas it is more lath-like when associated with boulangerite and magnetite mineralization (fig. 9, 18c, 21c). Sphalerite appears be the next mineral to crystallize in bands and non-connected chains within the quartz carbonate veins.  Galena typically forms within sphalerite near or on the sphalerite-vein gangue contact (fig. 20b and 20c).  In sample 3, two individual grains which have the reflective light properties of tetrahedrite appear to have formed after galena (fig. 17b). Chalcopyrite also appears to preferentially grow within sphalerite crystals (fig. 20d), but was also observed to grow interstitially between comb quartz grains (fig. 20c) suggesting that the chalcopyrite may have also infilled former vugs. 20               Figure 11: Generalized paragenetic sequence that generated the Treasure Mountain deposit TIME Pyrite Vein Gangue Mineralization Vein Ore Mineralization Non-vein ore mineralization Boulangerite Galena Sphalerite White Carbonate Quartz Pink Carbonate Chalcopyrite Magnetite Tetrahedrite Fine Grained Carbonate Arsenopyrite 21  Fine hairs of boulangerite grow into and interstitially between galena and sphalerite crystals and therefore likely crystallized after galena (fig. 8 and 18).  Boulangerite also grows into and within the pyrite laths that occur along the edge of hexagonal quartz crystals (fig. 18c). The texture of the boulangerite seen in sample 5 suggests that it infilled a vug that was surrounded by comb quartz crystals.  The pyrite laths may have initially grown against the comb quartz into the vug prior to simultaneous crystallization of pyrite and boulangerite, followed by boulangerite-only crystallization.  6.2. Alteration Minerals Epithermal systems generally contain some degree of hydrothermal alteration surrounding fractures which acted as conduits for hydrothermal fluids (Panteleyev, 1986).  In hand sample, no obvious zoning in the Pasayten group arkose argillite rocks due to hydrothermal alteration was observed.  However, thin section analysis revealed significant clay and sericite overprinting in the country rock, particularly in the arkose regions (fig. 5).  Sericitization of feldspar phenocrysts was also observed in the feldspar porphyry dyke (fig. 12a).  The dyke’s groundmass contained significant chlorite alteration.  Interestingly, of the two dyke samples analyzed, the sample nearest to mineralization (sample 12) contained the greatest amount of sericite and chlorite alteration.  This may be further evidence that the dyke was emplaced prior to mineralization.   Further alteration included fine carbonate replacement of quartz-carbonate veins (fig. 12b), and minor pyritization of the country rock (fig. 5) and, to lesser extent, the feldspar porphyry dyke (fig. 18). The observed sericitization, chloritization, and pyritization suggest that local country rock experienced phyllic alteration.  However, discerning fine-grained clay from sericite was often difficult, so the alteration observed may consist of argillic overprinting as well.  Advanced argillic alteration (dominantly consisting of andalusite, pyrophyllite, alunite, and kaolinite alteration) is characteristic of high sulphidation epithermal systems (Panteleyev, 1996a). Chloritization suggests that the observed alteration could be intermediate between phyllic and argillic, or was initially phyllic then overprinted by argillic alteration.  22            6.3. Implications for Deposit Model Classic epithermal deposits are typically hosted in volcanic rocks (Beaudoin and Sangster, 1992; Panteleyev, 1996a, 1996b).  The Pasayten group is dominantly bedded clay-sand formations and therefore the Treasure Mountain Deposit does not fit the classic definition of epithermal deposits. The sub-category of epithermal systems known as silver-lead-zinc vein deposits appears to best describe the nature of Treasure Mountain deposit based on the samples observed. Evidence of this includes the basin-deposited sedimentary package that hosts the mineralization, the observed dominantly phyllic alteration mineral assemblage, and the inferred epithermal nature of the deposit observed (Beaudoin and Sangster, 1992).  6.3.1. Silver-Lead-Zinc Vein Model Beaudoin and Sangster (1992) described seven major characteristics of silver-lead-zinc veins. This section discusses the similarities and differences between the Treasure Mountain deposit Figure 12: Examples of alteration mineral assemblages observed.  a) Feldspar porphyry dyke, transmitted PPL. Chlorite (light green), clay-sericite (fine grained pink-orange), and pyrite (opaque) mineralization observed. Sample 10, FOV: 7mm. b) Fine carbonate replacement of a quartz-carbonate vein.  Sample 6. FOV: 3mm  a  b 23  and the silver-lead-zinc vein model based on these seven characteristics Detailed description of the characteristics of silver-lead-zinc vein deposits is given in Appendix I. 1. Silver-lead-zinc veins have a distinct mineralogy, metal ratio, and local phyllic alteration Sulphide minerals in silver-lead-zinc vein deposits are dominantly galena and sphalerite, whereas gangue minerals include siderite, quartz, dolomite, and calcite.  All of the above minerals were observed, however the proportions of siderite and dolomite were not determined. Beaudoin and Sangster’s deposit model states that lead content is typically equal to or greater than the deposits zinc content. Quantitative analyses of metal ratios were not performed, but in the analyzed samples, typically more sphalerite was observed than galena. This implies that the zinc content is greater than the lead content in the observed samples. As discussed above, phyllic alteration is believed to exist in surrounding host rock and dyke rock as observed by sericite, pyrite, and chlorite alteration.  2. Veins are in faults that are commonly associated with deep crustal breaks at terrane boundaries. On the Treasure Mountain property, the Jurassic Dewdney Creek formation and the Cretaceous Pasayten formation are separated by the northwest trending Chuwanten thrust fault (Schmitt and Stewart, 1991) (Fig. 2). The fault is believed to have provided the locus for intrusive and hydrothermal activity which gave rise to silver-lead-zinc vein deposits in the region surrounding Treasure Mountain (Schmitt and Stewart, 1991). The Tyaughton-Methow terrane is separated from the Quesnellian terrane by the Pasayten fault.  This terrane boundary lies approximately 5 km east of the Chuwanten fault and runs directly parallel to it.  3. Veins are hosted by monotonous sequences of clastic rocks, deposited in basins that have been intruded by gabbro to granitic plutons. The Pasayten formation was formed within the Tyaughton-Methow Basin and consists of interbedded graded arkose and argillite.  The feldspar porphyry dyke may be an off-shoot from a nearby granitic body, such as the Eagle Plutonic Complex of late Jurassic to early Cretaceous age 24  that lies three kilometres east, or the Eocene Needle Peak Pluton of granodioritic composition that lies 10 kilometres northwest of Treasure Mountain (Ostensoe et al, 2011).  4. The veins occur late in the tectonic evolution of the orogen and, in some cases, are associated with the extensional collapse of the orogen. The time of mineralization with respect to the tectonic evolution of the Tyaughton-Methow Basin was not analyzed in this study.  5. Vein materials were precipitated by mixing and local boiling of different hydrothermal fluids. Fluids are typically a mixture of deep-seated or metamorphic or magmatic origin and hydrothermal meteoric fluids that may be chemically and isotopically equilibrated with the upper crust. Vein textures (including comb quartz, banded sulphides, and vuggy veins) observed in the rock samples suggest the veins were developed by multiple boiling events.  Neutral fluid conditions likely created this deposit assuming the carbonate vein gangue were deposited directly from the hydrothermal fluids.   Neutral hydrothermal fluids would be indicative of magmatic fluid that has equilibrated with the surrounding country rock and mixed with meteoric fluid (Taylor, 2007).  The euhedral bladed carbonate observed in some veins appears to have formed prior to ore mineralization.  However, the fine-grained carbonates seen in many veins containing ore minerals appear to replace earlier crystalized gangue minerals.  6. Mineralization from dilute to saline fluids between 250° to 300°C. The temperature of hydrothermal fluids that precipitated the ore minerals at Treasure Mountain is believed to be between 200-300°C (Ostensoe et al., 2011).  The minerals identified in this study, including sphalerite, galena, boulangerite, and tetrahedrite, can all crystallize in low to moderate temperature hydrothermal veins (Pracejus, 2008; Pieczka et al., 2009), and therefore could be derived from 250-300°C fluids. The observed magnetite, which appears to have formed prior to vein ore mineralization, has a crystallization temperature around 400°C (Kolb et al., 2002).  Therefore, magnetite may be associated with the earlier emplacement of the feldspar porphyry dyke.  25   7. Sulfur is derived from the local country rocks. Lead is mainly derived from local upper crustal rocks but significant lower crustal or mantle contributions are identified in some groups of deposits. The fine anhedral sub-rounded pyrite observed with the sand-sized particles in the country rock appear to have weathered and transported with the surrounding sediment. Therefore the pyrite may have been deposited with the sediments during the development of the Pasayten group.  If this pyrite was present prior the development of hydrothermal circulation, pyrite may be a significant local source of sulfur for the ore minerals.  The source of lead was not analyzed in this study.    6.4. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE WORK The Treasure Mountain deposit is an epithermal lead-zinc-silver deposit.  Hand sample and thin section analysis of 13 rock samples from the Treasure Mountain property displayed boiling textures, evidence of metal precipitation from neutral pH fluids, ore mineralization, and phyllic alteration consistent with low sulphidation epithermal deposits. Due to the clastic sedimentary lithology of the host rock, Beaudoin and Sangster’s model for silver-lead-zinc vein deposits best fits the mineralization observed at the Treasure Mountain property rather than a classic epithermal model. The above observations are based purely on hand sample and thin section analysis.   Future research, including fluid inclusion studies, would help better establish and constrain hydrothermal fluid properties, including temperature and chemistry.  This research would lead to a better understanding of the style mineralization observed at Treasure Mountain. 26  REFERENCES Arseneau, G. and Farrow, D. 2011. Technical Report on the Lucky Queen Deposit, Lucky Queen Property, Keno Hill District, Yukon.  SRK Consulting, NI43-101 prepared for Alexco Resource Corp. 62p. Beaudoin, G.  1991.  The silver-lead-zinc veins of the Kokanee Range, British Columbia.  MSc Thesis. University of Ottawa. 186p. Beaudoin, G., and Sangster, D.F. 1992.  A descriptive model for silver-lead-zinc veins in clastic metasedimentary terranes.  Economic Geology. 87(4): 1005-1021. Beaudoin, G., Sangster, D.F., and Godwin, C.I.  1992a. 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Robinson Memorial Volume, Geological Association of Canada, Special Paper 25: 597– 666. Hayashi, K-I., Maruyama, T., and Satoh, H.  2001. Precipitation of gold in a low-sulphidation epithermal gold deposit: insights from a submillimeter-scale oxygen isotope analysis of vein quartz. Economic Geology. 96(1): 211-216. Hedenquist, J.W., Arribas, A., and Gonzalez-Urien, E. 2000. Exploration for epithermal gold deposits. Reviews in Economic Geology. 13: 221–244. Kolb, E.D., Caporaso, A.J., Laudise, R.A.  2002.  Hydrothermal growth of hematite and magnetite. Journal of Crystal Growth, 19(4): 242-246. Leach, D.L., and Sangster, D.F. 1993. Mississippi Valley-type lead-zinc deposits, in Kirkham, R. V., Sinclair, W.D., Thorpe, R.I., and Duke, J.M., eds., Mineral Deposit Modeling: Geological Association of Canada, Special Paper 40: 289-314. Lindgren, W. 1933, Mineral deposits.  New York, McGraw-Hill, 930 p. Livgard, E.  1995. Report on Percussion Drilling on the Vale Mineral Claim 570 and Reclamation on the Why Not Fraction Lot #1209.  Geological Branch Assessment Report 23,997. Mahoney, J.B., Haggart, J.W., MacLaurin, C.I., Forgette, M.M., Goodin, J.R., Balgord, E.A. and Mustard, P.S. 2009. Regional facies patterns in the northern Jack ass Mountain Group, northern Methow Basin, south western British Columbia (NTS 092O); in Geoscience BC Summary of Activities 2008, Geoscience BC, Report 2009(1): 183–192. Nelson, J., Paradis, S., Christensen, J., and Gabites, J. 2002. Canadian Cordilleran Mississippi Valley- type deposits: A case for Devonian-Mississippian back-arc hydrothermal origin: Economic Geology, 97(5): 1013-1036. 28  Ostensoe, E.A., Giroux, G.H., Cuttle, J. 2011.  Technical Report, Project Update, Treasure Mountain Property, Tulameen River Area, B.C., Canada. Vancouver: Huldra Silver. NI43-101. 117p. Panteleyev, A. 1996a. Hot-spring Au-Ag, In Selected British Columbia Mineral Deposit Profiles, Volume 2 –Metallic Deposits (eds D.V. Lefebure & T. Hoy), pp.33–6. British Columbia Ministry of Employment and Investment, Open File 1996–13. Panteleyev, A. 1996b. Epithermal Au-Ag: Low sulphidation, In Selected British Columbia Mineral Deposit Profiles, Volume 2 – Metallic Deposits (eds D.V. Lefebure & T. Hoy), pp. 41–4. British Columbia Ministry of Employment and Investment, Open File 1996–13. Panteleyev, A. 1986.  A Canadian model for epithermal gold-silver deposits.  in Roberts, R.G. and Sheahan, P.A. 2011. Ore Deposit Models. Geoscience Canada, p. 31-44. Paradis, S., Hannigan, P., and Dewing, K.  2007.  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British Columbia Geological Survey Branch.  Paper 1991(1): 47-55 Taylor, B.E. 2007, Epithermal gold deposits, in Goodfellow, W.D., ed., Mineral Deposits of Canada: A Synthesis of Major Deposit-Types, District Metallogeny, the Evolution of Geological Provinces, and Exploration Methods: Geological Association of Canada, Mineral Deposits Division, Special Publication No. 5: 113-139. 29  Thorne, W.S., Hagemann, S.G., Barley, M.  2004.  Petrographic and geochemical evidence for hydrothermal evolution of the North Deposit, Mt Tom Price, Western Australia.  Mineralium Deposita, 39: 766-783 Vulimiri, M. R. 1986. Summary Report on the Silver-Lead-Zinc Deposits at Treasure Mountain, a private report for Huldra Silver Inc., December 18, 1986. White, N.C., and Hedenquist, J.W. 1995. Epithermal gold deposits: styles, characteristics and exploration.  SEG Newsletter. No. 23: 9-13.   30  APPENDICES  APPENDIX I: Descriptive Model for Silver Lead Zinc Veins.  After Beaudoin and Sangster, 1992 Feature Summary Metal Ratios     0.51 to 0.72     0.22 to 0.63 Mineralogy                   Sulfides Galena and Sphalerite                   Gangue Siderite, quartz, dolomite, and calcite Alteration Local sericitization, silicification, pyritization Host Rocks                Sedimentary Precambrian to Mesozoic fine- to medium grained clastic basins with minor volcanic rocks                Plutonic  Granite, granodiorite (most common), monzodiorite, syenites, I and S type, collision to post collision              Metamorphism Mainly greenschist, up to granite Age of mineralization Precambrian to Eocene, but later than the collision tectonic events in the area Maximum size of vein structure Length, 15 km; depth, 2,300 m; thickness1, 5 m  Depth of mineralization 0 to 10 km; probable average: 6 km Tectonic setting In faults conjugate or secondary to crustal shear zones which often are terrane boundaries;  late tectonic in orogeny history, after compression, during or after crustal extension Fluid inclusion Temperature; 250°-300°C; salinity: 0-26 wt. % NaCl equiv; CO2 abundant but not universal, minor CH4, N2 S Highly variable δ34S, correlated with local country rocks C Variable δ13C between -14 and 0°C probably leached from local country rocks; Homogeneous δ13C between -8 and - 5°C probably deep seated from mantle CO2 degassing Pb Linear or scattered arrays, one to four groups of deposits upper crustal to orogeny Pb, lower crustal and upper mantle components present locally  31    APPENDIX  II: Hand Sample and Thin section descriptions Abbreviations: Qz=quartz, Py=pyrite, Cp=Chalcopyrite, Ga=galena, Sp=sphalerite Table 3: Sample No. 1 - HANGING WALL ARGILLITE  Drill Hole TM11-15 Hand Sample  Very fine grained (silt-clay) Dark gray-blue Finely laminated (some micro-fractures exist along bedding planes) – deformation visible <0.1-0.3cm wide Qz-carbonate veins both concordant and discordant to laminations Fine grained (<0.1cm), disseminated (<0.1% rock) Py within and adjacent to carbonate veins, most concentrated near edge of veins.  A few Cp crystals (<0.1cm) also observed along edges of Qz-carbonate veins Thin Section Figures 13b and 13c Qz-carbonate veins crosscut fine grained sediments QZ-CARBONATE VEINS: <0.1-0.3cm wide Qz-carbonate Qz crystals are anhedral, most have undulatory extinction. Carbonate occurs as <0.5mm grains, sub-anhedral., polysynthetic twinning visible Fine grained carbonate occur on and interstitial to Qz Very fine grained carbonate appears to be after Qz and larger carbonate grains Sparsely disseminated fractured Py in veins, some cubic, but most anhedral SEDIMENT: Very well sorted fine grained (clay sized) sediment dominantly oriented in fine laminations Deformation of laminations visible, deformation verging towards foliation occurs around veins and contain very fine grained and deformed biotite Very fine grained Py sparsely disseminated throughout fine sediment   32  Table 4: Sample No. 2 -MINERALIZED VEIN IN ARKOSE-ARGILLITE Drill Hole TM11-15 Hand Sample  Interbedded clay and fine grained sand with three mineralized carbonate veins and very thin (<0.1cm thick) unmineralized Qz veinlets throughout In some beds, fine sand grades upwards into clay.  Other sand-clay contacts are more abrupt. Beds vary from 0.1cm - >4cm thick. Three mineralized veins: 2-4mm thick. Two thinner veins contain Qz gangue, brecciated fragments of surrounding argillite, Cp, and brown Sp. Thickest vein crosscuts smaller veins.  Gangue is Qz along the edges of the vein and carbonate in the centre. Carbonate is very light pink, Moh’s hardness~4 and weakly effervescent (dolomite, siderite or ankerite) Sulphide mineralization occurs within thick vein includes brown Sp (up to 2cm long), Cp, and minor Ga blebs. Thin Section Figures 14 and 15b Well sorted graded sand to clay grains containing Qz-carbonate veins with sphalerite mineralization VEIN: Zoned 2-4mm thick Qz-carbonate veins with bands of sphalerite mineralization Sub-anhedral Qz crystals occur along edges of vein. Very fine grained carbonate in interior of vein. Sulphide mineralization (Sp) occurs in massive bands in the centre of the vein with Qz along the edges. Sporadic inclusions of Qz, Py and occur in Sp. SEDIMENT: Fine sand grains (20% Qz, 50% sericite alteration (likely replacing feldspars), 5% Py, 1% clinopyroxene, 24% fine grains) grade to clay sized grains. Very fine grained (<<0.1mm) rounded Py disseminated throughout the sediment. Very occasional larger (<0.1mm) grain of euhedral Py in groundmass.    33    Table 5: Sample No. 3  VUGGY MINERALIZED QZ- CARBONATE VEINS IN BRECCIATED ARKOSE- ARGILLITE Drill Hole TM11-15 Hand Sample  Brecciated arkose-argillite hosts stockwork zone of up to 3cm thick Sp-Ga mineralized carbonate veins. Vein is zoned with pink carbonate along edges and white carbonate in centre of thicker veins (thin veins (<1cm) are completely pink carbonate). Vugs (up to 1.5cm long and 0.2cm wide) occur in the centre of wider veins, especially at vein intersections. Pink and white gangue is slightly effervescent with 10%HCl, hardness~4mohs (pink area slightly harder). White carbonate may be dolomite, siderite or ankerite. Pink carbonate may be ankerite (with high manganese content), or rhodochrosite and contains the majority of Sp and Ga mineralization. Sp (and minor Ga) occur in chains (~2mm wide), and as massive bands.  The sulphides dominantly occur within the pink carbonate area Thin Section Figures: 16, 17b Brecciated arkose-argillite hosts stockwork zone of up to 3cm thick Sp-Ga mineralized carbonate veins. VEINS: <3cm thick quartz-carbonate vein with Sp-Ga mineralization Bands and chains of Sp occur along edges (but still within) carbonate veins. Sp is zoned: dominantly dark red in the centre and yellow on the edges. Ga generally occurs within Sp. One single 1mm grain of light-green non-pleochroic, Moh’s ~4, isotropic mineral occurs at Ga-Sp boundary – likely tetrahedrite (Cu,Fe)12Sb4S13 (fig. 17b) Gangue is euhedral-subhedral rhombohedral carbonate with ~0.1mm thick comb Qz (sub-euhedral crystals growing inward) occurring along the vein walls. SEDIMENT: Same deformed arkose-argillite as seen in sample 2 Fine euhedral Py (<0.1mm) and very fine grained rounded Py (<<0.1mm) disseminated throughout groundmass (5%). 34   Table 6: Sample No. 4 - VUGGY MINERALIZED CARBONATE VEINS IN BRECCIATED ARKOSE- ARGILLITE Drill Hole TM11-15 Hand Sample  Brecciated arkose-argillite hosts stockwork of up to 3cm thick mineralized vuggy carbonate veins. 3cm wide vein is zoned with pink carbonate along edges and white carbonate in centre of thicker veins (thin veins (<1cm) are completely pink carbonate).  A 1cm x 0.5cm vug occurs in the centre of the white carbonate. Pink and white gangue material are slightly effervescent with 10%HCl, hardness ~4mohs (pink area slightly harder) Pink carbonate contains majority of Sp  mineralization. Sp occurs as individual crystals (~2mm ) within the pink carbonate. Thin Section VEIN: Clusters of Sp occur along edges (but still within) carbonate veins.  Sp is zoned: dominantly dark red in the centre and yellow on the edges. An unknown white-cream,  non-pleochroic, slightly harder than Sp, isotropic mineral is occurs in one Sp cluster Gangue is euhedral-subhedral rhombohedral carbonate with ~0.1mm thick comb Qz (sub-euhedral crystals growing inward) occurring along the vein walls. SEDIMENT: Same deformed arkose-argillite as seen in sample 2 Fine euhedral Py (<0.1mm) and very fine grained rounded Py (<<0.1mm) disseminated throughout argillite groundmass (5%).         35  Table 7: Sample No. 5 - CARBONATE-QUARTZ VEIN WITH BOULANGERITE, SPHALERITE, GALENA, PYRITE MINERALIZATION Drill Hole TM11-16 Hand Sample  Fine grained sediment (argillite) hosts a 2.5cm vein with light creamy-pink carbonate edges (~0.5cm wide) with a Qz centre (~0.8cm). Carbonate is weakly effervescent, hardness ~4 Moh’s Bands and clusters of Sp occurs within the carbonate veins. Ga occurs as bands (~0.2cm thick) overprinting Sp within and along edge of carbonate vein. Silver metallic mineral occurs interstitial to fine grained Qz (<1mm) within the carbonate vein edges. Thin Section FIGURE 9 and 18 Mineralized quartz-carbonate vein hosted in fine argillite. VEIN: Zoned vein (from edge towards centre): <0.1mm comb and granular Qz crystals, subhedral carbonate, banded sphalerite containing galena, euhedral 1mm diameter comb quartz, pyrite laths against, former vug containing boulangerite Sp is zoned dark red-yellow. Ga occurs within Sp along its interface with carbonate grains. Comb quartz has distinct radial extinction Boulangerite (Pb5Sb4S11)  mineralization occurs interstitial to the Qz crystals and fine needles of boulangerite are found in some of the surrounding Qz, carbonate, and sphalerite grains Py laths (up to 0.1cm long) occur within boulangerite along boulangerite-Qz boundaries and contain inclusions of needle boulangerite.       36  Table 8: Sample No. 6 – BRECCIATED ARKOSE- ARGILLITE WITH VUGGY CARBONATE VEINS Drill Hole TM11-19 Hand Sample  Brecciated arkose-argillite hosts stockwork of up to 2.5cm thick mineralized carbonate veins. Veins greater than 0.5cm are generally zoned with pink carbonate (manganese rich ankerite?) along edges and white carbonate (siderite, ankerite, or dolomite) in centre. Centre of veins contain vugs surrounded by druse carbonate. Thin veins (<0.5cm) are completely pink carbonate. Minor disseminated clusters of Ga occur within pink sections of carbonate Clusters (up to 3mm) of Cp occur within brecciated arkose-argillite with disseminated Py. Thin Section FIGURES: 15a, c, and d Fragmental arkose-argillite laminations containing Qz and Qz-carbonate veins VEINS: Zoned Qz-carbonate veins: infrequent euhedral comb Qz crystals along edges of vein that have been replaced by fine grain carbonate, carbonate mineralization in centre (coarsens slightly towards centre) containing  infrequent vugs (up to 1cm long, 0.1cm wide) Fragments of arkose-argillite breccia occur in some veins  (fig. 15c) 1cm wide vein contains very fine grained carbonate (with feather-like extinction pattern) and disseminated anhedral Py grains (fig. 15d) Qz veinlets are unmineralized apart from sparsely disseminated euhedral-subhedral Py.          37   Table 9: Sample No. 7 – BRECCIATED ARKOSE- ARGILLITE WITH CHALCOPYRITE Drill Hole TM11-19 Hand Sample  Brecciated arkose-argillite hosts stockwork of up to 2.5cm thick mineralized carbonate veins. Veins greater than 0.5cm are generally zoned with pink carbonate (manganese rich ankerite) along edges and white carbonate (siderite, ankerite, or dolomite) in centre. Centre of veins contain vugs surrounded by druse carbonate. Thin veins (<0.5cm) are completely pink carbonate. Minor disseminated clusters of Ga occur within pink sections of carbonate Clusters (up to 3mm) of Cp occur within brecciated arkose-argillite with disseminated Py Thin Section FIGURES: 19, 20c Brecciated arkose-argillite groundmass containing  carbonate and quartz veins VEINs: Qz vein: euhedral comb quartz with Cp and Py mineralization.  Cp is anhedral and interstitial to surrounding Qz crystals and occurs in association with previously mentioned unknown grey mineral Carbonate Vein: 2.5cm wide.  Edge (0.8cm) of vein is very fine grain carbonate with feather like extinction pattern. Centre of vein is coarser grained (~0.1mm) carbonate that contains 0.1cm vugs. GROUNDMASS: Groundmass contains subhedral disseminated Py crystals and sparse grey anhedral sulphide mineral.         38   Table 10: Sample No. 8 – ARGILLITE WITH MASSIVE SPHALERITE VEIN Rock Location Portal 3 Hand Sample  Dark brown altered argillite rock hosts 5cm thick Qz vein dominantly overprinted by massive brown-black Sp, with 0.2cm clusters of Ga and Cp occur along the out edge of the vein. Argillite groundmass is magnetic, mineral causing magnetism is to fine grained to identify Carbonate veinlets occur throughout argillite. Thin Section FIGURES: 17a, 20a, 20c, and 21a Heavily altered argillite rock replaced by sericite-clay and carbonates  with an Sp, Ga, Cp mineralized Qz vein Argillite contains very fine grained disseminated medium grey, non-pleochroic, isotropic – likely magnetite (fig. 21a) VEIN: Quartz gangue dominantly overprinted by massive brown-black Sp, with 0.2cm clusters of Ga and Cp occur along the out edge of the vein. Qz is deformed, subhedral, and some have radial extinction. Outer edge of vein (1cm wide) contains Cp, Ga, and Py mineralization in a fine grained Qz that has been 80% replaced by very fine grained carbonate. Zoning of Sp observed: Dark brown (iron-rich) and yellow- brown (iron-poor) A 1cm silver mineral (Mohs~3, light grey, non-pleochroic, isotropic) mineral within Sp contains Cp        39  Table 11: Sample No. 9 – BRECCIATED ARGILLITE- ARKOSE WITH NET-TEXTURED MAGNETITE Rock Location Portal 3 Hand Sample  Brecciated argillite-arkose hosts magnetite, Py, Sp and Ga mineralization in a Qz- carbonate vein Argillite-Arkose rock contains fine grained disseminated dark-grey-black metallic magnetic mineral – likely magnetite and fine grained disseminated Py Thin Section FIGURES: Argillite host with Qz and carbonate veins that have been all be dominantly replaced by fine grained carbonates. Disseminated and net textured very fine grained magnetite surrounds vein that has been replaced by fine grained carbonates. Disseminated euhedral-subhedral Py and arsenopyrite (FeAsS) occur along edges of magnetite ‘veins’ and in surrounding areas not containing magnetite mineralization.  Table 12: Sample No. 10 – FELDSPAR PORPHYRY DYKE Drill Hole TM11-14 Hand Sample  Feldspar porphyry dyke with a dark grey groundmass ~3-5% feldspar, up to 1cm long, subhedral laths, sericitized Thin Section FIGURES: 22a and 22b Porphyritic Phenocrysts (3%): 3% Subhedral plagioclase laths up to 0.7mm with polysynthetic twinning dominantly replaced by sericite and clays Groundmass (97%): 26% Sub-anhedral plagioclase laths with polysynthetic twinning overprinted by sericite 3% Anhedral Qz 1% Sub-rounded anhedral fine-grained disseminated pyrite            Secondary            65% Sericite and clay after feldspar and quartz in groundmass              2% Chlorite after fine grained minerals in groundmass  40  Table 13: Sample No. 11 – INTERBEDDED ARGILLITE- ARKOSE Drill Hole TM11-14 Hand Sample  Brecciated and deformed interbedded argillite and arkose. Arkose beds range from 0.1-0.8cm thick.  Some beds show slight gradation from fine sand to clay, whereas others have a more abrupt transition. 0.5cm thick carbonate vein and thinner carbonate veinlets cross-cut bedding. 0.5cm thick vein contains soft white mineral that is very reactive with 10% HCL – likely calcite. Fine grained sparsely disseminated Py occurs in arkose beds. Thin Section FIGURE 13a Brecciated and deformed interbedded argillite and arkose with occasional calcite veinlets Fine sand to clay gradational beds observed Very fine grained anhedral, rounded Py grains throughout argillite and arkose beds. ARKOSE COMPOSITION: 70% Feldspars in arkose groundmass have been altered by sericite and clays 15% Qz 12% Fine grains un-identifiable grains 3% Fine grained (up to 0.1mm) euhedral cubic Py and very fine grained anhedral Py           41  Table 14: Sample No. 12 – FELDSPAR PORPHYRY DYKE Drill Hole TM11-20 Hand Sample  Feldspar porphyry dyke 5% - Feldspar phenocrysts, euhedral-subhedral, up to 0.5cm, sericitized Groundmass is  dark grey-green, contains micro-phenocrysts of Qz (<1mm) Thin Section FIGURES: 22c and 22d Porphyritic Phenocrysts (3%): 3% Sub-anhedral plagioclase with polysynthetic twinning replaced by sericite, clays, and carbonates Groundmass (97%): 15% sub-anhedral plagioclase  laths overprinted by clays and sericite 2% anhedral quartz overprinted by clays and sericite 2% Subhedral very fine grained disseminated opaque’s (in reflected light) 1% Subhedral very fine grained disseminated Py        Secondary       73% Sericite-clay after plagioclase phenocrysts, and plagioclase, Qz and other               fine grained minerals in groundmass        4% Chlorite after plagioclase phenocrysts and minerals in groundmass         42  Table 15: Sample No. 13 – BRECCIATED ARKOSE- ARGILLITE WITH SPHALERITE AND CHALCOPYRITE MINERALIZATION IN A QUARTZ- CARBONATE VEIN Drill Hole TM11-15 Hand Sample  Brecciated arkose-argillite with Qz-carbonate veins (0.1-2.5cm thick). 2.5cm thick vein contains Qz gangue and Sp and Cp mineralization. Thinner veins light pink and are composed of weakly effervescent carbonate – either ankerite, rhodochrosite, dolomite, or siderite. Thin Section Brecciated arkose-argillite with sub-anhedral fine grained disseminated Py throughout arkose. VEINS: 2.5cm thick vein contains Qz gangue that is being replaced by fine grained carbonate.  Comb Qz crystals occur along edge of Sp mineralization.  Sp, Py, and Cp mineralization occurs within the Qz vein. Sp zoning seen, Sp is more yellow (less iron rich) than previously observed Sp crystals. Minor anhedral, and deformed Ga occurs within Sp. Minor amounts of anhedral Cp are found within Sp. A cluster of euhedral-subhedral Py grains occur adjacent and within the Sp mineralization and appear to have formed after the Sp Most thinner veins are carbonate, or very fine grained carbonate with fine comb Qz along edges.   Qz veinlets are cross cut by the carbonate and Qz-carbonate veinlets.  43  APPENDIX II: THIN SECTION IMAGES Figure 13: Arkose-argillite Textures in transmitted light PPL. FOV: 7mm.  a) Sand to clay graded bedding. Sample 11. b) Carbonate veins in arkose. Sample 1. c) Brecciated and deformed carbonate veins in arkose, Sample 1. a b c a c b 44                           Figure 14: Sphalerite mineralization in quartz carbonate vein.  a) Transmitted light in PPL. Comb quartz along edges of vein with fine carbonate in centre. b) Reflected light in PPL. Sp=sphalerite, Py=pyrite. Sample 2, FOV: 7mm Sp Py b a 45  Figure 15: Vein gangue textures in transmitted PPL light. a) Carbonate vein with vugs.  Sample 6. FOV: 1.5mm.  b) Quartz carbonate vein in argillite host.  Comb quartz along edges of vein with fine carbonate crystals in centre of vein.  Sphalerite at bottom of image, opaque in top right of vein is pyrite. Sample 2. FOV: 7mm.  c) Carbonate vein with feather-like extinction.  Sample 6. FOV: 7mm. d) Feather-like extinction in carbonate. Sample 6. FOV: 3mm. Vug Vug a b d c 46              Figure 16: Sphalerite and galena in a quartz-carbonate vein in argillite. Sample 3, FOV: 7mm. a) Transmitted light PPL. Gangue material from edge of vein inward: one grain thick layer of fine grained comb quartz, very fine grained carbonate, coarse grained carbonate.  b) Reflected light PPL.  Highly reflective mineral in groundmass is pyrite. Sp=sphalerite, Ga=galena. Sp Ga a b 47                        Figure 17:  Relationship between sphalerite, galena, and tetrahedrite (?)  in carbonate vein with one grain wide comb quartz edge. a) Galena occurs within sphalerite in a carbonate vein that cross cuts magnetite mineralization (not seen), sample 8, FOV: 7mm b) Galena occurs within sphalerite, and tetrahedrite (?) forms in galena along galena-sphalerite boundaries. Sample 3, reflected PPL. FOV: 7mm. Ga=galena, Sp=sphalerite, Tt=tetrahedrite Sp Tt Ga Ga Sp a b 48   Figure 18:  Boulangerite mineralization. Sample 5. a) Boulangerite appears to infill former vug surrounded by euhedral comb quartz. Transmitted light PPL. FOV: 7mm. b) Fibrous boulangerite crystals over quartz and sphalerite (red).  Transmitted light PPL. FOV: 1.5mm. c)Pyrite associated with boulangerite.   Reflected PPL FOV: 0.7mm. d) Reflected PPL image of 18b.  1.5mm Sp=sphalerite, Blt=boulangerite, Ga = galena, Qz=quartz. Reflected light PPL. d b a Blt Qz Sp c Blt Py Ga Blt Blt 49     a Figure 19:  Pyrite mineralization in carbonate vein. Sample 7. FOV: 7mm. Py=pyrite. a) Transmitted light in PPL. b) FOV: Reflected light in PPL. b Py 50        Figure 20:  Chalcopyrite mineralization in reflected PPL. a) Chalcopyrite in unknown grey mineral. Sample 8, FOV: 7mm. b) Chalcopyrite and pyrite in an unknown grey mineral.  Sample 8, FOV: 1.5mm.  c) Chalcopyrite growth interstitial to gangue, and after sphalerite. Sample 7, FOV: 3mm. d)Sphalerite with chalcopyrite and arsenopyrite Sample 8, FOV: 3mm.  Sp=sphalerite, Cp=chalcopyrite, Py=pyrite, As = arsenopyrite a d c b Py Cp Cp Cp Cp Sp Py Sp As 51    As Figure 21:  Magnetite mineralization. Disseminated light grey mineral is magnetite.  Mg=magnetite, As = arsenopyrite, Py=pyrite, Reflected PPL. a) Disseminated magnetite.  Sample 8, FOV: 0.7mm. b) Coarser disseminated magnetite.  Sample 9, FOV: 0.7mm. c) Magnetite over lathy pyrite and arsenopyrite.  Sample 9, FOV: 0.7mm.  a b c Py Mg 52   Figure 22: Feldspar porphyry dyke displaying sericite-clay alteration and chloritization.  White laths are plagioclase phenocrysts, black mineral is pyrite.  transmitted PPL. a) Sericite-clay altered plagioclase lath.  Sample 10, FOV: 7mm. b) Sample 10, FOV: 7mm. c) Green chlorite replacement.  Sample 12, FOV: 7mm, d) Feldspar lath with phyllic alteration.  Sample 12, FOV: 7mm  b a c d


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